Edirne

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Edirne
Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575

Justice Tower
Location in Turkey
Overview
RegionMarmara Region, Turkey
ProvinceEdirne Province
Population128,400 (2002)NA
Licence plate code22
Edirne (see also its ) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

Name

The city was known in English until after the First World War as Adrianople (see below). Edirne is the capital of Edirne Province (Turkish Thrace) and its estimated population in 2002 was 128,400, up from 119,298 in 2000.

The city initially took its name Hadrianopolis after its Roman (re)founder, Emperor Hadrian, and the usage remains current in Greek, though it has fallen into disuse in English and other languages. The Turks commonly use Edirne (now the official and customary name) or Edreneh, and the Slavs Odrin (for Bulgarian) or Edrene (for Macedonian) or Jedrene (for Serbian); all of these are probably adapted forms of the name Hadrian.

History

The area around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 15 major battles or sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks.

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Kasrı Adalet-Justice Place
According to Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama or Uskodama. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, and made it the capital of the Roman province of Haemimont, or Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine in 323, and Valens killed by the Goths in 378.

During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, Theodore, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, and two years later was killed there by Asen, King of the Bulgarians. It was captured by Sultan Murat I in 1360/2, the city served as capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1365 until 1453.

Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, was born in Adrianople.

Baha'u'llah, the founder of the Baha'i Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868. He was exiled there by the Ottoman Empire before being banished further to the Ottoman penal colony in Akka.

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Ottoman Hospital
In particular, the catastrophic defeat of the Roman Emperor Valens by the Visigoths took place nearby, and the city was a vital fortress defending Ottoman Constantinople and Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. The city was, however, occupied by imperial Russian troops in 1829, during the Greek War of Independence, and in 1878, in the war for Bulgarian independence, by the Bulgarians in the 1912 and by the Greeks in the early 1920s.

Under Ottoman rule Adrianople was the principal city of a vilayet (province) of the same name (both now renamed Edirne), which has about 960,000 inhabitants. It has a thriving commerce in woven stuffs, silks, carpets and agricultural products. The city suffered greatly in 1905 from a conflagration. In 1905 it had about 80,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000 were Muslims (Turks and some Albanians, Roma and Circassians); 22,000 Greeks; 10,000 Bulgarians; 4,000 Armenians; 12,000 Jews; 2,000 not classifiable.

Ecclesiastical history

Adrianople was made the see of a Greek metropolitan and of a Gregorian Armenian bishop, Adrianople is also the centre of a Bulgarian diocese, but not recognized and deprived of a bishop. The city also had some Protestants. The Latin Catholics, foreigners for the most part, and not numerous, were dependent of the vicariate-apostolic of Constantinople. At Adrianople itself were the parish of St. Anthony of Padua (Minors Conventual) and a school for girls conducted by the Sisters of Charity of Agram. In the suburb of Kara-Aghatch were a church (Minor Conventuals), a school for boys (Assumptionists) and a school for girls (Oblates of the Assumption). Each of its mission stations, at Tekirdağ and Alexandroupoli, had a school (Minor Conventuals), and there was one at Gallipoli (the Assumptionists).

From the standpoint of the Oriental Catholics, Adrianople was the residence of a Bulgarian vicar-apostolic for the 4,600 Uniats of the Ottoman vilayet (province) of Thrace and of the principality of Bulgaria. They had 18 parishes or missions, 6 of which were in the principality, with 20 churches or chapels, 31 priests, of whom 6 were Assumptionists and 6 were Resurrectionists; 11 schools with 670 pupils. In Adrianople itself were only a very few United Bulgarians, with an Episcopal church of St. Elias, and the churches of St. Demetrius and Sts. Cyril and Methodius. The last is served by the Resurrectionists, who have also a college of 90 pupils. In the suburb of Kara-Aghatch, the Assumptionists have a parish and a seminary with 50 pupils. Besides the Uniate Bulgarians, the above statistics included the Greek Catholic missions of Malgara and Daoudili, with 4 priests and 200 faithful, because from the civil point of view belonged to the Bulgarian Vicariate.

Later however, the Roman Catholic diocese was discontinued, and exists only in name as a titular metropolitan archbishopric, under the full name Hadrianopolis in Haemimonto to distinguish it from several other titular sees named Hadrianopolis.

Culture, sites and partnership with Europe

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Houses in Edirne
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Municipality
Edirne is a gateway of Turkey opening to western world, the first stopover for newcomers from Europe. Situated on the Greek (7 km) and Bulgarian (20 km) borders, this beautiful city is famed for its many mosques, the elegant domes and minarets, which dominate the panoramic appearance of the province. Adrianople contains the ruins of the ancient palace of the Sultans, and has many beautiful mosques. One of the most important monuments in this ancient province is the Selimiye Mosque, built in 1575 and designed by Turkey's greatest master architect, Mimar Sinan, which has the highest minarets in Turkey, at 70.9 meters, of an altogether grandiose appearance and with a cupola three or four feet higher than that of St. Sophia in Istanbul. Carrying the name of the then reigning the Ottoman Sultan Selim II, this mosque magnificently represents Turkish marble handicrafts and it is covered with valuable tiles and fine paintings.

Also needing mention are the Trakya University Bayezid II Külliye Health Museum, a great monument with its complex construction comprising many facilities used in those times.

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Symbolic inscription consisting of two "waw" letters on the walls of the 'Ulu Mosque'
Besides the fascinating mosques, there are different sites to be visited in Edirne, all reflecting its rich past. There are attractive palaces, the most prominent one being the Edirne Palace, which was the "Palace of the Empire" built during the reign of Murat II. There are the amazing caravansaries, like the Rustem Pasha and Ekmekcioglu Ahmet Pasha caravansaries, which were designed to host travelers, in the 16th century.

A cultural partnership with Loerrach in Germany have been started in 2006. The goal is to exchange pupils and students to improve their cultural skills and understanding.

Economy

Edirne is known for its liver in oil, white cheese and fruit shaped soaps.

Part of Edirne lies along the Aegean Sea coast. Enez and Erikli are ideal places for swimmers, divers and amateur fishers.

Every year in June there is an oil-wrestling festival called Kırkpınar, said to be the oldest active sport organization after the Olympic Games (which were refounded after centuries of inactivity).

Education

High Schools

  • 80th Year of Republic Anatolian High School (80. Yıl Cumhuriyet Anadolu Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne High School (Anatolian High School) (Edirne Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Yildirim Anatolian High School (Edirne Anadolu Lisesi - Yıldırım Anadolu Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Anatolian Teacher Training High School (Edirne Anadolu Öğretmen Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Suleyman Demirel Science & Maths High School (Edirne Fen Lisesi in Turkish)

Gallery



See also

References

External links



Coordinates:
20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1908 1909 1910 - 1911 - 1912 1913 1914

Year 1911 (MCMXI
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Battle of Adrianople (August 9 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern.
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Selimiye Mosque (Turkish: Selimiye Camii) is a mosque in the city of Edirne, Turkey. The mosque was commissioned by Sultan Selim II and was built by architect Mimar Sinan between 1568 and 1574.
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oca Mi‘mār Sinān Āġā (Ottoman Turkish: خوجه معمار سنان آغا)
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15th century - 16th century - 17th century
1540s  1550s  1560s  - 1570s -  1580s  1590s  1600s
1572 1573 1574 - 1575 - 1576 1577 1578

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Turkey

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Turkey

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Politics of Turkey


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Edirne is the westernmost province of Turkey, located in Eastern Thrace along the Greek border.

It is named for its capital, Edirne (known in antiquity after the Roman Emperor Hadrian as (H)Adrianòpolis).
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This is a list of cities in Turkey by population.

Included are cities that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 20,000.

Cities over 100 thousand


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Turkish car number plates are license plates found on Turkish vehicles.

Appearance

The license plate is rectangular in shape and made of aluminum. On the left, there is the country code "TR" in a 4x10cm blue bar like in EU countries.
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Thrace, (Turkish: Trakya, Romanian: Tracia, Bulgarian: Тракия or Trakiya, Greek:
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Motto
Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem
İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
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Motto
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
Eleftheria i thanatos  
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Motto
Съединението прави силата   (Bulgarian)
"Suedinenieto pravi silata"
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Edirne is the westernmost province of Turkey, located in Eastern Thrace along the Greek border.

It is named for its capital, Edirne (known in antiquity after the Roman Emperor Hadrian as (H)Adrianòpolis).
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Hadrian
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of Hadrian
Reign August 10 117-
July 10 138
Full name Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus
Born 24 January 76(76--)
Rome
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Hadrian
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of Hadrian
Reign August 10 117-
July 10 138
Full name Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus
Born 24 January 76(76--)
Rome
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There were at least nine Battles of Adrianople at Adrianople or Adrianopolis (now Edirne, Turkey):
  • Civil Wars of the Roman Empire
  • Battle of Adrianople (313), 30 April 313, Licinius defeats Maximinus Daia

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The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. 750 BC[1] (the archaic period) to 146 BC (the Roman conquest). It is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western Civilization.
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Orestes may refer to:
  • Orestes (mythology), the son of Agamemnon in Greek mythology
  • Orestes (play), by Euripides
  • Orestes (name), originating in Ancient Greece
  • Orestes of Macedon, a king in the 4th century BC

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Agamemnon (Greek: Ἀγαμέμνων "very resolute") is one of the most distinguished of the Greek heroes. He is the son of King Atreus of Mycenae and Queen Aerope, and brother of Menelaus.
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Origin at east of Botev Peak, Stara Planina, Bulgaria
Mouth Maritsa,Edirne, Turkey at
Basin countries Bulgaria, Turkey
Length 350 km in Bulgaria

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Origin near Smolyan, Rhodopes, Bulgaria
Mouth Maritsa, in Greece west of Edirne
Basin countries Bulgaria, Greece
Length 290 km (241 km in Bulgaria)
Source elevation 1,455 m (Ardin vrah)

Basin area 5,795 km²

The Arda
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Origin Rila Mountains, Bulgaria
Mouth Aegean Sea, 14.5 km east of Alexandroupoli
Basin countries Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey
Length 480 km
Source elevation 2,378 m

Basin area 53,000 km²

The Maritsa or Evros
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Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (from about 27 BC onwards). The Romans had no single term for the office: Latin titles such as imperator (from which English Emperor derives), augustus, caesar and
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Hadrian
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of Hadrian
Reign August 10 117-
July 10 138
Full name Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus
Born 24 January 76(76--)
Rome
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This is a list of ancient Thracian cities, towns, villages, and fortresses. A number of these cities were Greek cities, some were Celtic or Roman. An asterisk [*] indicates that the toponym is reconstructed.
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province (Latin, provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic, and until the Tetrarchy (circa 296), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of the Italian peninsula (long without full citizenship).
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The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name: Imperium Romaniae, "Empire of Romania") is the name given by historians to the Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire
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