Education in Nicaragua

Education in Nicaragua is free for all Nicaraguans. Elementary education is free and compulsory although this is not strictly enforced and many children are not able to attend due to their families need to have them work. Communities located on the Atlantic Coast have access to education in their native languages. Higher education has financial, organic and administrative autonomy, according to the law. Also, freedom of subjects is recognized.[1]

Education during the Sandinista-era

When the Sandinistas came to power in 1979, they inherited an educational system that was one of the poorest in Latin America. Under the Somozas, limited spending on education and generalized poverty, which forced many adolescents into the labor market, constricted educational opportunities for Nicaraguans. In the late 1970s, only 65 percent of primary school-age children were enrolled in school, and of those who entered first grade only 22 percent completed the full six years of the primary school curriculum. Most rural schools offered only one or two years of schooling, and three-quarters of the rural population was illiterate. Few students enrolled in secondary school, in part because most secondary institutions were private and too expensive for the average family. By these standards, the 8 percent of the college-age population enrolled in Nicaraguan universities seemed relatively high. Less surprising was that upper-class families typically sent their children abroad for higher education.

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Boys at the American Nicaraguan School in Managua, Nicaragua.


By 1984 the Sandinista government had approximately doubled the proportion of GNP spent on preuniversity education, the number of primary and secondary school teachers, the number of schools, and the total number of students enrolled at all levels of the education system.

At the college level, enrollment jumped from 11,142 students in 1978 to 38,570 in 1985. The Sandinistas also reshaped the system of higher education: reordering curricular priorities, closing down redundant institutions and programs and establishing new ones, and increasing lower-class access to higher education. Influenced by Cuban models, the new curricula were oriented toward development needs. Agriculture, medicine, education, and technology grew at the expense of law, the humanities, and the social sciences.

Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign

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Literacy Campaign propaganda poster
A 1980 literacy campaign, using secondary school students as volunteer teachers, reduced the illiteracy rate from 50 percent to 23 percent of the total population. (The latter figure exceeds the rate of 13 percent claimed by the literacy campaign, which did not count adults whom the government classified as learning impaired or otherwise unteachable.) In part to consolidate the gains of the literacy campaign, the Ministry of Education set up a system of informal self-education groups known as Popular Education Cooperatives. Using materials and pedagogical advice provided by the ministry, residents of poor communities met in the evenings to develop basic reading and mathematical skills. The key large scale programs of the Sandinistas included a massive National Literacy Crusade (March-August, 1980), social program, which received international recognition for their gains in literacy, health care, education, childcare, unions, and land reform.[2] [3]

One of the hallmarks of Sandinista education (and favored target of anti-Sandinista criticism) was the ideological orientation of the curriculum. The stated goal of instruction was the development of a "new man" whose virtues were to include patriotism, "internationalism," an orientation toward productive work, and a willingness to sacrifice individual interests to social and national interests. School textbooks were nationalist and prorevolutionary in tone, giving ample coverage to Sandinista heroes. After the 1990 election, the Chamorro government placed education in the hands of critics of Sandinista policy, who imposed more conservative values on the curriculum. A new set of textbooks was produced with support from the United States Agency for International Development (AID), which had provided similar help during the Somoza era.

Despite the Sandinistas' determined efforts to expand the education system in the early 1980s, Nicaragua remained an undereducated society in 1993. Even before the Contra War and the economic crisis that forced spending on education back to the 1970 level, the educational system was straining to keep up with the rapidly growing school-age population. Between 1980 and 1990, the number of children between five and fourteen years of age had expanded by 35 percent. At the end of the Sandinista era, the literacy rate had declined from the level attained at the conclusion of the 1980 literacy campaign. Overall school enrollments were larger than they had been in the 1970s, however, and, especially in the countryside, access to education had broadened dramatically. But a substantial minority of primary school-age children and three-quarters of secondary school-age students were still not in school, and the proportion of students who completed their primary education had not advanced beyond the 1979 level. Even by Central American standards, the Nicaraguan education system was performing poorly.

See also

Nicaraguan related topics

References

1. ^ Nicaragua's President, Daniel Ortega to enforce free education
2. ^ Background History of Nicaragua
3. ^ globalexchange.org Report on Nicaragua

External links


Anthem
Salve a ti, Nicaragua


Capital
(and largest city) Managua

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Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish: Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a Nicaraguan political party founded on the broad leftist principles of the popular front.
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Latin America (Portuguese and Spanish: América Latina; French: Amérique Latine) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages, those derived from Latin (particularly Spanish and Portuguese), are primarily spoken.
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Anthem
Salve a ti, Nicaragua


Capital
(and largest city) Managua

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This article requires authentication or verification by an expert.
Please assist in recruiting an expert or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details. This article has been tagged since July 2007.
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Motto
Patria y Libertad   (Spanish)
"Patriotism and Liberty" a

Anthem
La Bayamesa  
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literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. In modern contexts, the word refers to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that lets one understand and communicate
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The Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign was later than many other countries in the region; therefore, they had good models and mentors to guide them to success. The coordinator of the campaign Father Fernando Cardenal and his team studied the experiences, and frequently
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literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. In modern contexts, the word refers to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that lets one understand and communicate
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Health care, or healthcare, is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions.
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Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom.
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Childcare (also written child care[1] and babycare) is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. (In Australia, daycare is referred to as "childcare"—cf.
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A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members ("rank and file" members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers.
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Land reforms (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) is an often-controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government administers possession and use of land.
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Somoza was the name of an influential political dynasty in Nicaragua. Their influence exceeded their combined 33 years in the presidency, as they were the power behind the other presidents of the time.
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The Contras is a generic term for various armed groups opposing of Nicaragua's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional) Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle, and continuing through the eighties.
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Universities in Nicaragua include two principle universities, the Central American University (Universidad Centroaméricana - UCA) and the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua--UNAN), are viewed as strongholds of Sandinista thought
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This is an incomplete list of schools in Nicaragua
  • Colegio LatinoAmericano
  • Lincoln International Academy
  • French American School
  • American Nicaraguan School
  • Nicaragua Christian Academy
  • German Nicaraguan School
  • Notre Dame School

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Nicaraguan culture has several distinct strands. The west of the country was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.
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Anthem
Salve a ti, Nicaragua


Capital
(and largest city) Managua

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This list of Nicaragua-related topics is a list of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from Nicaragua. Red links are to articles that will probably be added in the future.
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This is a list of Nicaraguans and people of Nicaraguan ethnicity:

Entertainment

  • Pedro Miguel Arce (1976), actor, notable roles include Land of the Dead and Get Rich or Die Tryin'.

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José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) is the current President of Nicaragua. For much of his life, he has been an important leader in the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional or FSLN).
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Carlos Fonseca Amador (June 23 1936–November 7 1976), was a Nicaraguan teacher and founder of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). Fonseca was later killed in the mountains of Nicaragua, three years before the FSLN took power.
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Arlen Siu Bermúdez (better known as Arlen Siu) was a Chinese Nicaraguan who became one of the first female martyrs of the Sandinista revolution. She was born in Jinotepe, Nicaragua. Her father was Chinese and her mother was Nicaraguan.
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Gioconda Belli (born December 9,1948 in Managua) is an author, novelist and renowned Nicaraguan poet. She was designated among the 100 most important poets during the 20th century[1][2]

Early life


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Participants: NATO Warsaw Pact Non-Aligned Movement People's Republic of China
1940s Yalta Conference • Potsdam Conference • Gouzenko Affair • Iran crisis • Chinese Civil War • Greek Civil War • Restatement of
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Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. Gil González Dávila, who first explored the area, came up with this Central American country's name by combining Nicarao
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¹ Moved to San Salvador in 1834.

The Federal Republic of Central America, also known as the United Provinces of Central America, was a short-lived Latin American state in Central America.
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The United States occupied Nicaragua from 1909-1933 and intervened in the country several times before that. The American interventions in Nicaragua were designed to prevent the construction of a trans-isthmian canal by any nation but the USA.
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