Elections in Germany

Germany

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The following information deals with elections in Germany, including elections to the Federal Diet (the lower house of the federal parliament), the Landtags of the various states, and local elections.

German elections since 1949

Federal Republic of Germany

Election system

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Political System
Germany elects on federal level a legislature. The parliament has two chambers. The Federal Diet (Bundestag) nominally has 598 members, elected for a four year term, 299 members elected in single-seat constituencies according to first-past-the-post, while a further 299 members are allocated from statewide party lists to achieve a proportional distribution in the legislature, conducted according to a system of proportional representation called the additional member system. Voters vote once for a constituency representative, and a second time for a party, and the lists are used to make the party balances match the distribution of second votes. In the current parliament there are 16 overhang seats, giving a total of 614. This is caused by larger parties winning additional single-member districts above the totals determined by their proportional party vote.

Germany has a multi-party system, with two strong parties and some other third parties that are electorally successful.

Elections are conducted every 4 years, with the exact date of the election chosen by the outgoing government. The Bundestag can be dismissed and a new election called before the four year period has ended, but this usually only occurs in the case of a government losing its majority.

German nationals over the age of 18 are eligible to vote, including most Germans resident outside Germany, and eligibility for candidacy is essentially the same as eligibility to vote.

The Federal Council (Bundesrat) has 69 members representing the governments of the states.

Latest election results

discussedit
'Summary of the 18 September 2005 German Federal Diet (Bundestag)'' German federal election, 2005>election results
Parties Constituency Party list Total seats
Votes % +/- Seats +/- Votes % +/- Seats +/- Total +/− %
Christian Democratic Union *) (Christlich-Demokratische Union)15,390,95032.6+0.6106+2413,136,74027.8-1.774-34180-1029.3
Christian Social Union of Bavaria *) (Christlich Soziale Union in Bayern)3,889,9908.2-0.844+13,494,3097.4-1.62-1346-127.5
CDU/CSU19,280,94040.8-0.2150+2516,631,04935.2-3.376-47226-2236.8
Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands)18,129,10038.4-3.5145-2616,194,66534.2-4.377-3222-2936.2
Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei)2,208,5314.7+1.1004,648,1449.8+2.561+1461+149.9
The Left Party.PDS (Die Linkspartei.PDS), since 2007: The Left (Die Linke)3,764,1688.0+3.63+14,118,1948.7+4.751+5154+528.8
Alliance '90/The Greens (Bndnis '90/Die Grnen)2,538,9135.4-0.2103,838,3268.1-0.550-451-48.3
Other1,272,4102.7001,857,6104.00000
Totals47,194,06210029947,287,988100315+11614+11100

List of Federal election results

State elections in the Federal Republic of Germany

State elections are conducted under various rules set by the Länder. In general they are conducted according to some form of party list proportional repesentation, either the same as the federal system or some simplified version. The election period is generally four to five years, and the dates of elections vary from state to state.

Baden-Württemberg state election results

Bavaria state election results

Berlin state election results

Brandenburg state election results

Bremen state election results

Hamburg state election results

Hesse state election results

Lower Saxony state election results

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election results

North Rhine-Westphalia state election results

Rhineland-Palatinate state election results

Saarland state election results

Saxony state election results

Saxony-Anhalt state election results

Schleswig-Holstein state election results

Thuringia state election results

German Democratic Republic

See: Politics of East Germany

In the German Democratic Republic, elections between multiple parties to the Volkskammer took place, but were effectively controlled by the SED/state hierarchy, even if multiple parties existed pro forma. On 18 March 1990 the first and only free elections in the history of the GDR were held, producing a government whose major mandate was to negotiate an end to itself and its state.

German elections 1871 to 1945

From the unification of Germany under Emperor Wilhelm I in 1871 to the Nazi accession to power and the abolishment of elections following the Enabling Act of 1933, elections were held to the German Reichstag or "Imperial Assembly", which supplanted its namesake, the Reichstag of the Norddeutscher Bund. The Reichstag could be dissolved by the Kaiser, and after the abdication of Wilhelm II in 1918 by the Reichspräsident. With the Weimar constitution of 1919, the voting system changed from single-member constituencies to proportional representation. Election age was reduced to 20 years. Women's suffrage had already been established by a new electoral law in 1918, following the November revolution of that year.

Elections in Nazi Germany

See: Nazi Germany

The 9th German election in 1933 was the last free election. In the Third Reich, several elections were conducted, leading to unanimous support of the NSDAP and their politicians, because other parties were dissolved or banned.

Weimar Republic elections

See: Weimar Republic

Imperial elections

See: German Empire

See also

External links

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Germany

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Politics of Germany


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Deutscher Bundesrat
Federal Council of Germany


Type Upper House

President Harald Ringstorff, SPD
since 2006

Members 69
Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union
Social Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party
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Deutscher Bundestag
Federal Diet of Germany


Type Lower house

President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU
since October 18, 2005

Members 614
Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226)
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Germany

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Politics of Germany


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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
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  • Constitutional Court

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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
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  • Constitutional Court

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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
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  • Federal Assembly
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  • Constitutional Court

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Länder (singular Land). Since Land is the literal German word for "country", the term Bundesländer (federal states; singular Bundesland
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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
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  • Constitutional Court

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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
  • Federal Diet (Bundestag)
  • Federal Assembly
    (Bundesversammlung)
  • Constitutional Court

..... Click the link for more information.
Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
  • Federal Diet (Bundestag)
  • Federal Assembly
    (Bundesversammlung)
  • Constitutional Court

..... Click the link for more information.
Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
  • Federal Diet (Bundestag)
  • Federal Assembly
    (Bundesversammlung)
  • Constitutional Court

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Treaties
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Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty.
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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
  • Federal Diet (Bundestag)
  • Federal Assembly
    (Bundesversammlung)
  • Constitutional Court

..... Click the link for more information.
Deutscher Bundestag
Federal Diet of Germany


Type Lower house

President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU
since October 18, 2005

Members 614
Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226)
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A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority.

The German word "Landtag" is composed of the words Land
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A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws.

Legislatures are known by many names, the most common being parliament and congress, although these terms also have more specific meanings.
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bicameralism (bi + Latin camera, chamber) is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of two chambers or houses.
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A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. It can be used to describe a business's customer base and shareholders, or a charity's donors or those it serves.
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The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member constituencies.
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Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats
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The Additional Member System (AMS) is a branch of voting systems in which some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists.
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Overhang seats can arise in elections under the traditional (i.e. as it originated in Germany) mixed member proportional (MMP) system, when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies.
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multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition.

Unlike a single-party system (or a non-partisan democracy), it encourages the general constituency to form multiple distinct,
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political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. Parties often espouse a certain ideology and vision, but may also represent a coalition among disparate interests.
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