Ely S. Parker

Eli Samuel Parker
1828August 31, 1895 (aged 67)

Ely Parker
Place of birthIndian Falls, New York
Place of deathFairfield, Connecticut
AllegianceUnited States of America
Years of service1861 - 1865
RankBrigadier General
UnitWestern Theater
Adjutant to General Grant
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War
Other workHead of the Bureau of Indian Affairs


Ely Samuel Parker (1828August 31, 1895), (born Hasanoanda, later known as Donehogawa) was an Iroquois of the Seneca tribe born at Indian Falls, New York (then part of the Tonawanda Reservation). During the American Civil War, he wrote the final draft of the Confederate surrender terms at Appomattox. Later in his career Parker rose to the rank of Brigadier General, a promotion which was backdated to the surrender.[1]

Career

Parker began his career in public service by working as a translator to the Seneca chiefs in their dealings with government agencies. In 1852 he was made sachem of the Seneca, Donehogawa, Keeper of the Western Door.

Parker worked in a law firm ('read law') for the customary three years in Ellicotville, NY and then applied to take the bar examination. He was not permitted to take the examination because he was not a white man,[2] though other sources say the reason given was that he was not a U.S. citizen (American Indians did not receive citizenship until 1924). He then studied engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York and worked as a civil engineer until the Civil War.

Near the start of the Civil War, Parker tried to raise a regiment of Iroquois volunteers to fight for the Union, but was turned down by New York Governor Edwin D. Morgan. He then sought to join the Union Army as an engineer, but was told by the Secretary of War that he could not since he was Indian.[3] Parker's lifelong friend Ulysses S. Grant, whose forces suffered from a shortage of engineers, intervened; Parker joined Grant at Vicksburg. He was commissioned a captain in 1863 and rose to the rank of Brigadier General. Parker became the adjutant to Ulysses S. Grant and was present when Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865. The surrender documents are in his handwriting. During this surrender, Lee mistook Parker for a black man, but apologized saying "I am glad to see one real American here." Parker purportedly responded, "We are all Americans, sir."

After the Civil War, Parker was head of the Federal Commission on Indian Affairs from 1869 to 1871. Leaving government service, he involved himself in the stock market, but eventually lost the fortune he had accumulated. He lived his last years in poverty, dying in Fairfield, Connecticut on August 31, 1895. His body was exhumed and moved to Forest Lawn Cemetery in Buffalo, New York, to lie with other notables of Western New York, on January 20, 1897.

Parker's career and impact on contemporary Native Americans form Chapter 8 of Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.

He is also said to have helped start the town of Parker, Arizona. However it should be noted there is another individual with the last name of Parker who is credited with this distinction as well.

References

1. ^ Ely Samuel Parker
2. ^ Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. 1970. ISBN 0-330-23219-3
3. ^ The Life of General Ely S. Parker, by Arthur Parker, Buffalo Historical Society, 1919, pp. 102-3 (reprinted 2005, ISBN 1-889246-50-6)
Armstrong, William H. (1978) Warrior in Two Camps. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-0143-3.

External links

18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1790s  1800s  1810s  - 1820s -  1830s  1840s  1850s
1825 1826 1827 - 1828 - 1829 1830 1831

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
August 31 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


..... Click the link for more information.
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s  1870s  1880s  - 1890s -  1900s  1910s  1920s
1892 1893 1894 - 1895 - 1896 1897 1898

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
Pembroke, New York

Seal
Motto:
Coordinates:
Country United States
State New York
County Genesee
Area
 - Town  41.7 sq mi (108.
..... Click the link for more information.
Fairfield, Connecticut
Location in Connecticut
Coordinates:
NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford
Region Greater Bridgeport
Settled 1639
Government
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
..... Click the link for more information.
Brigadier General is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually just above colonel and just below major general.

Brigadier general can trace its origins to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade
..... Click the link for more information.
Western Theater of the American Civil War.

Theater of operations

The Western Theater was an area defined by both geography and the sequence of campaigning. It originally represented the area east of the Mississippi River and west of the Appalachian Mountains.
..... Click the link for more information.
American Civil War (1861–1865) was a major war between the United States (the "Union") and eleven Southern slave states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55.7 million acres (87,000 sq.
..... Click the link for more information.
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1790s  1800s  1810s  - 1820s -  1830s  1840s  1850s
1825 1826 1827 - 1828 - 1829 1830 1831

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
August 31 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


..... Click the link for more information.
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s  1870s  1880s  - 1890s -  1900s  1910s  1920s
1892 1893 1894 - 1895 - 1896 1897 1898

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
125,000
(80,000 in the U.S.
45,000 in Canada)

Regions with significant populations
 Canada
..... Click the link for more information.
Seneca is a group of indigenous people native to North America. They are the westernmost Nation within the Six Nations or Iroquois League. While unknown for sure, approximately 15,000 to 25,000 Seneca live in the United States and Canada, on and off reservations around Buffalo, in
..... Click the link for more information.
Pembroke, New York

Seal
Motto:
Coordinates:
Country United States
State New York
County Genesee
Area
 - Town  41.7 sq mi (108.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Tonawanda Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation located in western New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the Indian reservation had a total population of 543. It lies in parts of Genesee, Erie, and Niagara Counties. The total land area is 30.643 km² (11.
..... Click the link for more information.
American Civil War (1861–1865) was a major war between the United States (the "Union") and eleven Southern slave states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) was the government formed by eleven southern states of the United States of America between 1861 and 1865.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Appomattox Courthouse was the final engagement of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia before surrendering to Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.

Background

On April 1, 1865, Maj. Gen.
..... Click the link for more information.
Brigadier General is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually just above colonel and just below major general.

Brigadier general can trace its origins to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade
..... Click the link for more information.

..... Click the link for more information.
Ellicottville, New York is the name of two places in Cattaraugus County, New York:
  • Ellicottville (village), New York
  • Ellicottville (town), New York
Both locations are named after Joseph Ellicott, an agent for the Holland Land Company.
..... Click the link for more information.
A bar examination is an examination to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given jurisdiction.

United States

Passing the bar exam is typically only one of several steps for being licensed to practice law.
..... Click the link for more information.
Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development, also known as ECPD,[1] (later ABET [2]
..... Click the link for more information.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany.
..... Click the link for more information.
City of Troy, New York
Looking west down Broadway at downtown Troy
Nickname: "The Collar City"
Location in Rensselaer County and the State of New York
Coordinates:
Country
..... Click the link for more information.
A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering, one of the many engineering professions. Originally a civil engineer worked on public works projects and was contrasted with the military engineer, who worked on armaments and defenses.
..... Click the link for more information.
In office
March 4, 1863 – March 3, 1869
Preceded by
Succeeded by



Born January 8 1811(1811--)
Washington, Massachusetts, U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. The Secretary of War led the War Department. At first, he was responsible for all military affairs.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.