English horn

The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family.

It is a transposing instrument pitched in F, a fifth lower than the oboe (a C instrument), and is consequently approximately one-third longer. The fingering and playing technique used for the cor anglais are essentially the same as those of the oboe. Its sounding range stretches from the E (or, rarely, E flat) below middle C to the C two octaves above middle C.

Its pear-shaped bell gives it a more nasal, covered timbre than that of the oboe, being closer in tone quality to the oboe d'amore. Whereas the oboe is the soprano instrument of the oboe family, the cor anglais is generally regarded as the alto member of the family, and the oboe d'amore, pitched between the two in the key of A, is the mezzo-soprano member. It is perceived to have a more mellow and more plaintive tone than the oboe. Its appearance differs from the oboe in that the reed is attached to a slightly bent metal tube called the bocal, or crook, and the bell has a bulbous shape.

Reeds used to play the cor anglais are similar to those used for an oboe, comprising a piece of cane folded in two. Although the instrument itself is longer, a cor anglais reed is shorter than that of an oboe, and also slightly wider. Where the cane on an oboe reed is connected to a small metal tube (the staple) partially covered in cork, there is no such cork on a cor anglais reed, which fits metal against metal onto the bocal, in a manner not dissimilar to the bassoon.

Perhaps the best known makers of modern instruments are the French firms of F. Lorée, Marigaux and Rigoutat, the British firm of T W Howarth, and the American firm Fox. Instruments from smaller volume makers, such as A. Laubin, are also sought after. Instruments are usually made from African Blackwood or Grenadilla, although some makers offer instruments in a choice of alternative woods as well, such as cocobolo wood (Howarth) or violet wood (Lorée), which are said to alter the voice of the cor anglais slightly, reputedly making it even more mellow and warmer. Fox has recently made some instruments in plastic resin.

Etymology

The term "cor anglais" literally means "English horn", but the cor anglais is neither English nor a horn. The instrument's name is sometimes supposed to derive from the circumstance that at some point a standard cor anglais resembled an oboe da caccia, a baroque alto instrument of the oboe family, which tended to be either bent or curved in shape, and was thus called a cor anglé, meaning "bent horn" (it has a bent metal pipe from the piece of cork the reed sits in to the top of the body of the instrument), this epithet later to be corrupted to cor anglais. This is probably a myth, as "anglé" does not mean "angled" in any language. The cor anglais and the oboe da caccia, also, are otherwise quite unlike, however, and there is no clear connection between them. It has alternatively been suggested that the name of "anglehorn" developed as a reference to the English horn, a part which is not present in most of the smaller members of the oboe family. However, the name seems to have appeared first in German and Austrian scores of the 1760s/70s, always in Italian form as "corno inglese." Prior to this, in the late Baroque period Johann Sebastian Bach referred to a similar double reed instrument pitched in F as taille. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians suggests that the oboe da caccia resembled the curved horns played by putti and angels in some Central-European renaissance paintings, which gave rise to the German name "engellisches Horn", meaning "angelic horn", engellisch also being a common alternative spelling at the time for the adjective englisch, "English".

Repertoire

Many oboists double on the cor anglais, just as flautists double on the piccolo. (Although piccolo oboes, called oboe musette, do exist, they are very rarely played.)

There are few solo pieces for the instrument, although its timbre makes it well suited to the performance of expressive, melancholic solos in orchestral works (particularly slow movements) as well as operas. Famous examples include: as well as: In film scores, the cor anglais is heard as a solo instrument as frequently (if not more) than the oboe, most likely because of its rounder tone quality. A good example of this is John Williams' use of the English Horn 9 minutes into the Revenge of the Sith cue "A New Hope and End Credits" when it is used to state the "force" theme. In addition to classical music, the cor anglais has also been used by a few musicians as a jazz instrument; most prominent among these are Paul McCandless, Sonny Simmons, Vinny Golia, and Tom Christensen, and Nancy Rumbel of the Grammy-winning duo Tingstad and Rumbel. The cor anglais also figures in the instrumental arrangements of several Carpenters songs, most notably "For All We Know" (1971). It has also made some appearances in pop music, such as in Lindisfarne's "Run For Home" and Randy Crawford's "One Day I'll Fly Away."

Appearances in popular culture

See also

List of English horn players

References

A double reed is a type of reed used to produce sound in various wind instruments. The term double reed comes from the fact that there are two pieces of cane vibrating against each other.
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A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. Most of these instruments were originally made of wood, but some such as the saxophone and some flutes are now made of other
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A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. In principle anything that, produces sound, and can somehow be controlled by a person playing it, can serve as a musical instrument.
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A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. Concert pitch is the pitch as notated for piano (or any other non-transposing instrument) - e.g., the note "C" on piano is a concert C.
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For different meanings of oboe see Oboe (disambiguation).


The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. The English word "oboe" was adopted ca.
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Do or C is the first note of the fixed-Do solfege.

In Western music, the expression "middle C" refers to the note "C" (or "Do" in fixed-Do solfege) located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in scientific pitch
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In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. timbre; IPA /'tæmbəɹ/ as in the first two syllables of tambourine, or /'tɪmbəɹ/, like timber)[1]
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oboe d'amore (oboe of love in Italian) is a woodwind instrument. It is a member of the double reed family, very similar to the oboe. Slightly larger than the oboe, it has a less assertive and more tranquil and serene tone, and is considered the mezzo-soprano or alto of the
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oboe d'amore (oboe of love in Italian) is a woodwind instrument. It is a member of the double reed family, very similar to the oboe. Slightly larger than the oboe, it has a less assertive and more tranquil and serene tone, and is considered the mezzo-soprano or alto of the
..... Click the link for more information.
A mezzo-soprano (meaning "medium" or "middle" "soprano" in Italian) is a female singer whose range lies between the soprano and the contralto, usually extending from the A below middle C to the A two octaves above (i.e.
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bocal is a curved, tapered metal tube, which is an integral part of certain woodwind instruments, including the bassoon and the English horn, and which connects the reed to the rest of the instrument.
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The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. It is called das Fagott in German, il fagotto in Italian, and le basson in French.
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F. Lorée

Private
Founded 1881
Headquarters Paris, France

Industry Musical instruments
Website www.loree-paris.com

F. Lorée is a manufacturer of double reed musical instruments based in Paris, France.
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A. Laubin, Inc.(www.laubinoboes.com) is an American maker of oboes and English horns, located in Peekskill, New York. The first Laubin oboe was made in 1931 by Alfred Laubin, a performing musician who was dissatisfied with the quality of instruments available at the time.
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D. melanoxylon

Binomial name
Dalbergia melanoxylon
Guill. & Perr.

African Blackwood or Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon
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Grenadilla (or other, similar spellings) is a name given to a number of different woods, all of them strong and dense. A famous wood so named is that of Dalbergia melanoxylon, in English African blackwood and in East Africa known as mpingo).
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Cocobolo is a hardwood from Central America yielded by two to four closely related species of the genus Dalbergia. The best known and probably the species contributing most of the wood in the trade is Dalbergia retusa
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Motto
Dieu et mon droit   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen".
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The horn (also known as the French horn) is a brass instrument descended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. Modern horns have three, four, or five finger-operated keys to help control the pitch.
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The oboe da caccia (literally "hunting oboe" in Italian) is a double reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family, pitched a fifth below the oboe and used primarily in the Baroque period of European classical music.

Development

The instrument was likely invented by J. H.
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Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced [ˈjoːhan zəˈbastjan bax]) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.
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The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language.
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A flautist, flutist, or flute-player is a musician who plays the flute.

Naming controversy: 'flautist' vs. 'flutist'



The choice of "flautist" (from the Italian flautista, from flauto
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For , see .


The piccolo (sometimes picollo)[1] is a small flute. Its name in Italian is "flauto piccolo" which means "small flute.
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The piccolo oboe is the smallest and highest pitched member of the oboe family. Pitched in E-flat or F above the regular oboe (which is a C instrument), the piccolo oboe is a sopranino version of the oboe, comparable to the E-flat clarinet.
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orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string, brass, woodwind sections, and possibly a percussion section as well. The term orchestra derives from the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus.
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Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre (22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. Despite being blind from an early age, he achieved great success.
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Johan Julius Christian "Jean" / "Janne" Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most
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The Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelan joutsen) is an 1895 tone poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. The story behind it is an excerpted legend from the Kalevala epic of Finnish mythology.
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