epicanthal fold

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A man from a mixed race background with an epicanthal fold.
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Eye with epicanthal fold
An epicanthal fold, epicanthic fold, or epicanthus is a skin fold of the upper eyelid (from the nose to the inner side of the eyebrow) covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the human eye. The presence of an epicanthal fold is present in people of East Asian and Southeast Asian descent, as well as other ethnic groups including some Native Americans and Africans. Epicanthal folds may also be seen in young children of any race before the bridge of the nose begins to elevate.

The term "epicanthal fold" refers to a visually categorized feature; however the underlying physiological reason and purpose for its presence in any given individual may be entirely different.

In children

All humans initially develop epicanthal folds in the womb. Some children lose them by birth, but epicanthal folds may also be seen in young children of any ethnicity before the bridge of the nose begins to elevate. They may persist where birth is pre-term, and sometimes also where the mother is alcoholic.

Pathological

In caucasoids the presence of the epicanthal fold can be a symptom of fetal alcohol syndrome, chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome (Trisomy 21),[1], Cri du Chat syndrome, or pre-term birth.

Inherited

There are numerous populations, across the world, that lack an epicanthic fold . However, the epicanthic fold is common in people of many, though not all groups of East Asian and Southeast Asian descent. It is found in significant numbers amongst Native Americans, the Khoisan of Southern Africa, many Central Asians and some people of Sami origin. It also present on people of Tibetan descent, especially Tibetans and North-East Burmese people. Due to classic genetics children of a parent with a pronounced epicanthal fold and one without an epicanthal fold will have varying degrees of epicanthal folds as a result.

In Asian ethnicities, the presence of an epicanthic fold is associated with a less prominent upper eyelid crease, commonly termed "single eyelids" as opposed to "double eyelids". The two features are distinct; a person may have both epicanthal fold and upper eyelid crease, one and not the other, or neither.

Surgical alteration

The procedure of reducing or removing epicanthal folds is epicanthoplasty. It is now an extremely rare procedure. Asian blepharoplasty, however, is a popular form of cosmetic surgery in East Asia.

See also

References

External links

Skin folds are areas of skin where it folds. Many skin folds are distinct, heritable anatomical features, and may be used for indentification of animal species, while others are non-specific and may be produced either by individual development of an organism or by arbitrary
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An eyelid is a thin fold of skin and muscle that covers and protects an eye. With the exception of the prepuce and the labia minora, it has the thinnest skin of the whole body. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid to "open" the eye.
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nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the mouth.

In most humans, it also houses the nosehairs, which catch airborne particles and prevent them from reaching the lungs.
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Canthus (pl. canthi, palpebral commissures) is either corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet.

The bicanthal plane is the transversal plane linking both canthi and defines the upper boundary of the midface.
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Eyes are organs of vision that detect light. Different kinds of light-sensitive organs are found in a variety of organisms. The simplest eyes do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are light or dark, while more complex eyes can distinguish shapes and colors.
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East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. Geographically, it covers about 12,000,000 km², or about 28% of the Asian continent and about 15% bigger than the area of Europe. More than 1.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, and north of Australia.
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indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas, their descendants, and many ethnic groups who identify with those peoples. They are often also referred to as Native Americans, First Nations
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Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30,221,532 km² (11,668,545 sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area.
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ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry.[1] Ethnicity is also defined from the recognition by others as a distinct group[2]
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nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the mouth.

In most humans, it also houses the nosehairs, which catch airborne particles and prevent them from reaching the lungs.
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Fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS is a disorder of permanent birth defects that occurs in the offspring of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. It is unknown whether amount, frequency or timing of alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes a difference in amount of damage
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Cri du chat
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 Q 93.4
ICD-9 758.31

OMIM 123450
DiseasesDB 29133
MedlinePlus 001593
eMedicine ped/504  

Cri Du Chat Syndrome

Cri du chat syndrome (French for Cry or
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East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. Geographically, it covers about 12,000,000 km², or about 28% of the Asian continent and about 15% bigger than the area of Europe. More than 1.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, and north of Australia.
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indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas, their descendants, and many ethnic groups who identify with those peoples. They are often also referred to as Native Americans, First Nations
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Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. From the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period, hunting and gathering cultures known as the Sangoan occupied southern Africa in areas where
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Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall characteristics.
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Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.
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Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a Plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. With an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft), it is the highest region on Earth and is commonly referred to as the "Roof of the World.
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Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ba. ma lu. myui:; IPA: [bəmàː], also called Burman
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Genetics is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.[1][2] Knowledge of the inheritance of characteristics has been implicitly used since prehistoric times for improving crop plants and animals through selective breeding.
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Epicanthoplasty sometimes referred to as "Westernization" is a type of eye surgery to remove the presence of epicanthal folds. It is considered to be a challenging procedure by some surgeons because the epicanthal folds overlay the lacrimal canaliculi (tear drainage canals).
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Asian blepharoplasty, also known as "double eyelid surgery" and less frequently known as an Oriental blepharoplasty, is a type of cosmetic surgery where the skin around the eyes is reshaped. The purpose of the procedure is to create an upper eyelid with a crease (i.e.
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Cosmetic Surgery As defined by the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery is a subspecialty of medicine and surgery that uniquely restricts itself to the enhancement of appearance through surgical and medical techniques.
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physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness.
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