Ethnic groups of the Philippines

The various ethnic groups in the Philippines identify themselves based on one or several factors like ancestry, language, religion or a shared history. The large majority of the population is composed of lowland groups whose languages are Austronesian, and who had converted to Christianity from animism, Hinduism, or Islam in the three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. From north to south, the most numerous of these groups are the Ilocanos, the Pangasinanese, the Kapampangans, the Tagalogs, the Bicolanos and the Visayan. These groups are sometimes said to part of the Austronesian race and/or Malay race, however the delineation based on "race" is considered by many to have no scientific basis, especially since Negritos in the Philippines are also considered as Filipinos.

In Mindanao, there are several ethnic groups of similar ancestry, but whose religion is Islam, and whose culture is not as “Westernized” on the surface as that of the Christian Filipinos. They are collectively called Moros. There are also various tribal groups throughout the Philippine archipelago who are generally neither Muslim nor Christian, and are least influenced by Islamic or western cultures. There also exist groups whose members are not concentrated in one specific region but who are spread throughout the country, particularly in major cities as well as in areas having considerable agricultural importance during the colonial period; these groups include the Chinese and the Spanish, the majority of whom are mestizos.

The Philippines is one of the most diverse countries in terms of ethnicity.[1]

Ethnic identity

Ethnic identity in the Philippines, like many other places, is fluid, informal and depends greatly on context. The most common identifier is language. For instance, a Kapampangan may identify himself as such by the fact that his mother tongue is the Kapampangan language. Many also identify themselves based on ancestry. For example, a woman who has Bicolano ancestry but has spent most of her life in Manila may identify herself as Bicolano, even if she doesn’t speak any of the Bikol languages. Others are lumped together to a certain grouping based on some shared characteristics. Tribal groups are commonly grouped together in spite of having very different customs and languages, and having had very little interaction with each other. Moros are similarly diverse and independent from each other, and they are many times grouped together due to a shared history, culture and religion. Similarly, lowland Christian Filipinos are many times lumped together due to their similar culture, despite having different languages or different ancestries.

Given that ethnolinguistic boundaries are gradually blurring due to migration and intermarriage, regional identity (i.e. the place where one was brought up and whose language one speaks) serves as another very common identifier. One may identify oneself, for example, as a Davaoeño, Negrense, Ilongo, Zamboangueño, Metromanileño, etc. Unlike China or the United States, there are no official ethnicities or “nations” in the Philippines, and migration and intermarriages between people of different ethnicities have been common throughout the past centuries. This has made ethnic identities of Filipinos greatly dependent on context, aside from being fluid. For instance, a person who has Ilocano ancestry but who has spent his whole life in Davao may be identified as an Ilocano when he is in Davao and a Davaoeño when he is in Manila. And a Cebuano of Chinese ancestry may identify himself either as Chinese Filipino due to his ancestry; or as a Visayan because his primary language is Cebuano, a Visayan language; or Cebuano, based on his mother tongue (Cebuano) and the land of his birth (Cebu). People who identify themselves with multiple ethnicities and/or regional affiliations is not uncommon, particularly in major cities and in areas where a lot of migration has taken place, like Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, and many parts of Mindanao. The term mestizo (of mixed-ancestry) is used most commonly to those with part-Caucasian ancestry, and occasionally to those with part-Chinese ancestry.

There are also a number of Filipinos who consider themselves of an ethnocultural origin distinct from that of the Philippines, and who tend to affiliate with either or both. Their “hyphenated” identities, as in the case of Chinese-Filipinos, apart from indicating ancestry, may connote a sense that they as individuals straddle two worlds—one experience is specific to their unique ethnic identity, while the other is that of broader Philippine society. These “hyphenated” Filipinos, many of whom have profound and immediate connections to their homelands, have often been accused and criticized of holding loyalties to other countries. However, they claim that critics miss important points. There are many “hyphenated” Filipinos who, while being unable to sacrifice half of who they are, do not define or desire to define themselves as such, but rather are defined as such by other people with different treatment. The result is that even if these Filipinos are, in the words of the Panatang Makabayan, “a true Filipino in thought, in word, [and] in deed,” they still may end up having a different experience, and for that reason may develop shared understandings with others of their type, whether they want that or not. This in itself becomes, ironically, a reason for them to be interested in their “hyphenated” identity, as they learn how to cope with the unique experiences dealt them.

Population history

Enlarge picture
Map of the ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines.
The first humans in the Philippines are the Tabon Man, who was postulated to have lived at 30,500-11,000 BCE, and the Cagayan Man, who is in turn thought to live at about 250,000-500,000 BCE. The archaeological evidences indicate similarities of the two aforementioned fossils to fossils found in China and Indonesia.

The next group that arrived are the nomadic Negritos, whose ancestors were similar to the ancestors of the Andamanese and occupied several scattered areas throughout the islands. Unlike the following groups, they arrived before the Last Ice Age ended and were able to use land bridges.

Current archaeological evidences subscribe to the “Mainland Theory” of Peter Bellwood, that the ancestors of the present-day Filipinos, as well as that of the Malays, Indonesians, and the Pacific Islanders first crossed the Taiwan Strait 4,000 years ago, during the Iron Age. These early voyagers are thought to be the Austronesians. They used balangays (boats) to cross the Bashi Channel to the Philippines. This is attested by the fact that in Taiwan and the Philippines, the peoples are subdivided into several small tribes, whereas in Malaysia and Indonesia, most peoples are homogenous or are divided into large tribes, indicating that Taiwan, then the Philippines, was the starting point for Austronesian migration, and that the present-day Malays and Indonesians, as well as the Pacific Islanders instead came from the Philippines, and not from Malaya or Sumatra.

By the 14th century, the ethnic landscape in the country was already relatively fixed. The Austronesians from Taiwan gradually supplanted the Negritos then occupied the plains, deltas, and the coastal areas. Together with the later migrant Southern Chinese, they formed the primary ancestral lineage of the present-day Filipinos.

Frequent trades with China and Japan in the north, and with the Malays, Indians, Persians, and Arabs from the west and south also contributed to the ethnic and cultural make-up of the coastal areas. These included th adoption of Baybayin, Islam, as well as the concept of Karma.

With the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, two new groups of people were introduced to the country. These are the Spaniards and the American Indians. The Spaniards settled in the plains around Manila and Cavite, and some of them intermarried with the natives and the Southern Chinese. These gave rise to the Mestizos for peoples of mixed Austronesian and Spanish descent, and the ‘’Tornatras’’ for peoples of mixed Austronesian and Southern Chinese descent. Over time, Mestizo and Tornatra communities have also sprung up in various parts of the archipelago, particularly in Cebu, Iloilo, and Bacolod. The American Indians that were brought here, according to author Austin Craig, nearly numbered similar to the native population. Most of them are of Nahuatl (Aztec) or Yaqui descent, or are Mexican mestizos themselves. Many of them intermarried with the indigenous population, particularly in Luzon. By the opening of the Suez Canal in 1867, the Philippines was opened for foreign trade, and there are many Europeans, particularly Britons, Germans, and French, who have settled in the islands. By the end of the Spanish domination, the loosely-bound ethnic groups of the islands, including those of half-foreign descent, began calling themselves Filipinos, a term that is originally reserved for a person of pure Spanish descent born in the Philippines.

American colonization in 1898 brought in a new ethnic group, the Anglo-Americans, and the Philippines was held by most American authors as the westernmost outpost of American ethnic and territorial expansion. A plan formulated by the American government was to transfer all the African Americans in the Mainland United States to the Philippines, but this never materialized, due to the Philippine-American War. From 1898 until the present-day, a continuous trickle of American immigration to the Philippines, mostly White Americans, has resulted to the country’s having the largest American and Amerasian population outside of North America.

Presently, the Philippines has over 160 distinct indigenous ethnic groups, over half of which are unique linguistic groups, but aside from this, there has been a great deal of intermarriage between the indigenous population and the foreign colonizers and immigrants that it is nearly impossible to set the proportion constants between the various groups. Prehistoric movements of people throughout the region have resulted to the country’s having a large minority comprised of Southern Chinese, Indians, and Arabs, while contemporary migrations have also led to a sizeable Spanish and American populations. More modern immigrations to the country have seen large numbers of Americans, Koreans, Japanese, and Indonesians settle in the islands, particularly during the 21st century. As of now, about 10% of all Filipinos have Southern Chinese ancestry, while 4% of the population is at least partly descended from the European and American colonizers and immigrants. Current increasing trends in immigration and interracial marriage with Caucasians, particularly Americans, as well as with East Asians, particularly Chinese and Japanese, are expected to result to a significant rise in the number of Filipino mestizos by the end of the first half of this century.

Rankings

According to one source, the following are the twenty largest ethnic groups in the Philippines as of July, 2007:[2]

Indigenous ethnic groups

Bicolano

Main article: Bicolano people
The Bicolanos originate from the southeastern tip of Luzon: Bicolandia or the Bicol region. There are several Bicolano languages, of which there is a total of 3.5 million speakers.[3]

Bicol played a major role in shipbuilding for the Manila-Acapulco trade.[4]:3 However, possibly due to its being located in the typhoon belt,[5]:8 Bicol remains one of the country’s most economically depressed areas, with the lowest income recorded among the regions,[4]:8 despite its abundant mineral reserves, and its lumber, abaca and tourism industries.[4]:7

The most popular religious icon of Bicol is the Nuestra Señora de Peñafrancia, Patroness of Bicol. This image of the Blessed Virgin Mary is endearingly addressed as “ina” (mother).[4]:7

Ibanag

Main article: Ibanag people
The Ibanags are an ethnic minority numbering a little more than half a million people, who inhabit the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya. They are one of the largest ethnic minorities in the Philippines.

Ilocano

Main article: Ilocano people
Akin to the Ibanags and Ivatans, the Ilocanos are the inhabitants of the lowlands and coastal areas of northern Luzon. Throughout the centuries of the Spanish colonial era up to the present, the Ilocano were noted for their tendency to migrate.[6]:4 Today, there is Ilocano presence in central Luzon, Manila, and some towns in the Visayas and Mindanao. [6]:1 Many Filipino-Americans are of Ilocano descent. In Hawaii, they make up 85% of the Filipino-American population.[7]

There are more than 8 million speakers of the Ilocano language[8], making it the third most widely spoken language in the Philippines. Most Ilocanos are Catholics; however, Ilocanos comprise the largest membership within the Philippine Independent Church.

Ivatan

Main article: Ivatan people
The Ivatan are predominant in the Batanes Islands of the Philippines.

Kapampangan

Main article: Kapampangan people
The Kapampangan or Capampañgan (English: Pampangan; Spanish: pampangueño or pampango) people originate from the central plains of Luzon, starting from Bataan up to Nueva Ecija. The Kapampangan language is spoken by more than two million people, and has been shown to be related to some Indonesian dialects.[9] Most Kapampangans are Catholics.

In the Spanish colonial era, Pampanga was known to be a source of valiant soldiers. There was a Kapampangan contingent in the colonial army who helped defend Manila against the Chinese Pirate Limahon. They also helped in battles against the Dutch, the English and Muslim raiders.[10]:3 Kapampangans, along with the Tagalogs, played a major role in the Philippine Revolution.[11]

Moro

Main article: Moro people
The Moros comprise of various ethnolinguistic groups in southern and western Mindanao who have a similar ancestry to other lowland Filipinos, but whose religion is Islam. The largest of these are the Tausug, the Maguindanao, the Maranao, the Samal, the Yakan, and the Banguingui. These ethnolinguistic groups are very diverse in terms of language and culture, and have been politically independent from each other up until recently.[12] Collectively, they are also called Moros. The word Moro in English means 'moor'. Hence, it has been used by other ethnic groups as a pejorative term. However, some Muslims have used the word moro and have taken pride in it, that they have applied the term Bangsamoro, meaning 'Moro nation', to their homeland. Muslim Filipinos have an independent justice and education system centrally based in Cotabato City. All in all, they comprise 5% of Filipinos,[13] making them the sixth largest ethnic group in the country.

Pangasinan

Main article: Pangasinan people
The Pangasinan are the ninth largest Filipino ethnic group. They originate from the northwestern seaboard of Luzon. Anthropologically speaking, the Pangasinan are descended from the mountain dwellers of the Cordilleras and are closely akin to the Cordilleranos.

The Pangasinan are one of the first peoples in the Philippines to have experienced Chinese influence through regular trade as well as the permanent settling of the Chinese, especially in the towns bordering Lingayen Gulf[1]

Sambal

Main article: Sambal people
The Sambal are the original Austronesian inhabitants of the province of Zambales and the city of Olongapo in the Philippines. They have traditionally been a highly superstitious warrior culture.

Tagalog

Main article: Tagalog people
Tagalog territory stretches from the central plains of Luzon to the islands of Mindoro and Marinduque.[14]This article incorporates facts obtained from The Political Graveyard. The Tagalogs were initially animists. From the 14th to the 16th century, Islam had made inroads among the Tagalog ruling class.[15] The Tagalogs were Christianized, as were most ethnic groups in the Philippines, during the Spanish colonial era between the sixteenth and nineteenth century.

The Tagalogs are the first settlers of Manila. In the late 16th century, Spain chose Manila as the capital of its Philippine colony.[14]:3 From then onwards, it has been the political and economic center of the Philippines. Manila and the surrounding Tagalog areas played a leading role in the Philippine Revolution and the EDSA revolution. Throughout the centuries, there have been massive migrations by other ethnic groups to Manila, and many of them have intermarried with the Tagalog population.[14]:1

The Tagalog language was chosen as the basis for a national language in 1937. Today, Filipino, a de facto standardized version of Tagalog, is taught nationwide, and is the language of national television, cinema and popular music.[16] There are more than 15 million native speakers of Tagalog.[17] However, around 70% of Filipinos can speak the national language.[14]:1

Visayan

Visayans are a multilingual ethnic group located in the Visayas and a large part of Mindanao. Visayan languages with the most number of native speakers are Cebuano, with 20 million;[18] Ilonggo (or Hiligaynon), with 7 million;[19] and Waray-Waray, with 2.5 million.[20] There are some ethnolinguistic groups however that have languages which are classified as Visayan but do not refer to themselves as Visayan. For instance, the Muslim ethnolinguistic group Tausug only use Bisaya to refer to those who are Christian. Meanwhile, there are people who identify as Visaya (primarily those from Metro Manila[14]:1 and the United States) but do not speak Visayan languages.

Visayans were initially animists who were known for being traders and raiders.[21]:1 Magellan’s landing in the Visayas in 1521 marks the start of Christianization of the Visayas and the rest of the Philippines. This event is celebrated by the feast of the Sto. Niño, the most popular religious icon of the Visayas.

Major Visayan cities like Cebu , Bacolod and Iloilo played major political, economic and cultural roles during the Spanish colonial era.[21] Visayans were also involved in the Philippine Revolution,[21]:4 and in the modern Philippine Republic; so far, there has been three Presidents from the Visayas.

Aside from the three largest groups, namely Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Waray, who speak Visayan languages, there are also the Romblomanon, Masbateño, Karay-a, Aklanon, and Cuyonon, to name a few others.

Tribal groups

There are 100 or so different sea-based or highland-based tribal groups in the Philippines. Among Filipinos, they are ones least influenced by western or Islamic cultures. While some tribal groups living in Luzon have been Americanized and Westernized--an example of which is the predominance of Protestantism in Cordillera Administrative Region—the tribal groups living in Mindoro and Palawan are still generally animistic, while many of those in Mindanao practice folk Islam.

Bajau

The Bajau of the Sulu Archipelago are sometimes described as the sea gypsies due to their semi-nomadic nature. Despite being Muslim, they are distinct from the Moro.

Igorot

The Cordillerano or Igorot, live in the highlands of Luzon. They are primarily located in the Cordillera Administrative Region.

Lumad



The Lumad of Mindanao includes several tribes such as the Manobo, the Tasaday, the Mamanwa, the Mandaya, and the Kalagan. They primarily inhabit eastern parts of Mindanao such as the Caraga and Davao Regions.

Mangyan

The Mangyan of are the primary inhabitants of Mindoro. They are known for their Buhid and Hanuno'o scripts.

Negrito groups

The scattered Negritos include the Aeta in Luzon and the Ati of Panay, the Batak of Palawan, and the Mamanwa of Mindanao. They have features that are distinct from the majority.

Palawan tribes

The tribes of Palawan are a diverse group of tribes primarily located in the island of Palawan. The Tagbanwa is know for their script.

Non-indigenous ethnic groups

Chinese

Main article: Chinese Filipino
There has been Chinese presence in the Philippines since the ninth century;[22] although large scale migrations of Chinese to the Philippines only started during the Spanish colonial era, when the world market was opened to the Philippines.[23]

Most Chinese Filipinos, or Tsinoys, are located in centers of commerce. They have been instrumental in the growth of small and medium-sized businesses and large corporations in the past centuries up to the present. Not surprisingly, the old center of trade and industry in Manila is Binondo, the biggest Chinatown in the Philippines. Many Filipinos with Chinese ancestry played major roles in the Philippine Revolution.[24]

The Philippines has one of the most assimilated Chinese communities in Asia. A famous Filipino politician with Cebuano-Chinese ancestry even declared, with some exaggeration, that there is no family in Cebu City without a trace of Chinese blood.[25] It is estimated that among Filipinos, 10% have some Chinese ancestry and 2% are “full-blooded” Chinese. [26] Furthermore, a genetic study claims that 50% of the Filipino “racial mix” is of Chinese origin (i.e. from the land now known as China, not Han Chinese).[27].

The vast majority of Chinese-Filipinos have their ancestral roots in either Fujian province or Guangdong province, in which they are members of the Min (Fukienese) and Yue (Cantonese) ethnic groups.

Spanish

There has been a Spanish presence in the Philippines since the early sixteenth century. The Spanish colonial era in the country (1565-1898) was limited almost entirely to government administrators, military men and religious missionaries. Many of these came from Mexico, as the Philippines was, for many years, governed as a province attached to it. Later in the colonial era, Spanish entrepreneurs, most of whom where Basques, also arrived. There has been a significant Hispanic influence on Philippine religion and culture;[28] 85% of Filipinos are Catholics, and Philippine languages contain thousands of Spanish loanwords. Since Spanish was only taught to a small minority, the ilustrados, and migrations of Spanish speakers was small compared to that of Latin America, Spanish language speakers in the Philippines never went beyond 5% of the population.[29]

According to a genetic study which included 28 genotyped individuals from the Philippines, "Some European introgression was also evident in Southeast Asia (2.3%–7.8%) and the Philippines (3.6%)."[27]{p.434} A large part of this European introgression is very likely of Spanish origin. Filipinos with a mix of Spanish ancestry, Spanish mestizos, are particularly visible in show business, and some leaders in Philippine business and comerce are of Spanish descent.[30] Spanish and Spanish-speaking families are mostly found in areas that had agricultural importance during the Spanish colonial era, like Bacolod and Iloilo, and old centers of commerce, like Cebu and Manila. Today, these group are estimated to be numbering around several hundreds of thousands of the Philippine population and constitute the seventh largest Filipino ethnic group.

American

American presence in the Philippines is contemporaneous and relatively high, owing to the half a century of colonization of the Philippines by the United States. The Philippines has the second largest population of American citizens outside of the United States, many of whom have been naturalized. Many predominate in religious and educational sectors, as well as in several multinational businesses. There are 110,000 Americans in Manila alone, excluding temporary embassy officials, military staff, and temporary residents. The most important contribution of the United States to the Philippines include secular democracy, English as a second language, and the public school system. However, the U.S. nationals are also blamed for making the Philippines economically dependent to the United States, the effects of which are still felt by Filipinos of today.[31] A continuous trickle of Americans who opt to live in the country contribute to an increasing number of Amerasians in the country, particularly in Angeles City, Metro Manila and Metro Cebu.

Arab

Arabs have also contributed especially to Filipino Muslim society. Most Filipinos of Lebanese descent, however, are Christians and, like many Lebanese Christians, do not consider themselves Arabs.

Indian

Indian presence in the Philippines has been ongoing since prehistoric times, predating even the coming of the Europeans by at least two centuries. Some people of Cainta, Rizal have some South Asian ancestry due to the British occupation of Manila during the Seven Years' War.

Japanese

The Japanese as well as the Okinawans, who have been present even before the Spanish in areas such as Paco.[32] and Davao. Currently most are businessmen and many have intermarried with Filipinas.

Jewish

Jews have also been and still are present in the country, albeit in lesser numbers, and even had a temple in Manila,[33] and currently a synagogue in Makati.[34] Current estimates peg their number to be approximately 900.

Korean

Koreans, who are approximately numbered at 92,000, are for the most part, temporary students and workers who train in the country,and elderly people attracted by lower living expenses. The Philippines is host to the largest South Korean community in Southeast Asia.

Mexican

Colonists from New Spain arrived in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period. Between 1565 and 1815, many Mexicans, Spaniards, and Filipinos sailed to and from the Philippines and Mexico as sailors, crewmen, prisoners, slaves, adventurers, and soldiers in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon assisting Spain in its trade between Mexico and the Philippines.

Other

The most notable non-Spanish European groups in the Philippines are the , Belgians, Dutch, and the . Others include , , , as well as some Scandinavians. Most of them maintain cultural norms and practices distinct from the general population and have become recognizably independent in ethnic identity, worldview, social standing, and linguistic heritage. Many European expats in the Philippines have taken locals as their spouses and have settled down with families; some had migrated to the Philippines for that specific purpose. The majority of the European expatriates living in the Philippines are British, who number about 12,000. Germans number about 961, and French about 700. Unaccounted are Dutch, Belgians, and other central Europeans, who are for the most part, either semi-permanent settlers, NGOs, or missionaries. Meanwhile, due to the ever-increasing number of inter-racial marriages, as well as sex tourism industry and rampant prostitution, the number of Eurasians are increasing. The Philippines has Asia's largest Eurasian population.

There is also the presence of other Asian nationalities in the country. Indonesians, Malaysians, as well as Thais and Vietnamese form the bulk of the Asian expatriate population in the Philippines. Most are Muslims, and some are Christians, Animists, or Buddhists. Most of them are businessmen. Indonesians, in particular, number about 36,000 according to a recent survey. Most Indonesians in the Philippines are of Javanese or Sundanese extraction, while some are Sulawesi or Maluku natives. Although Indonesians have been prejudiced as terrorists and extremists, many of them peaceful Islamic missionaries living in Mindanao, although there are also some who are members of the Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist group. Most of them live in Mindanao, and speak Indonesian, Cebuano, Tagalog, and English. Another significant minority in the Philippines are the Urdu-speaking Pakistanis, who number around 21,000. Most of them are businessmen and are permanent residents of the country. There are some seasonal Marathi, Nepalese, and Tamil settlers in the Philippines.

Notes

1. ^ The Philippines ranks 8th among 240 countries in terms of diversity. YEOH Kok Kheng, Towards an Index of Ethnic Fractionalization, Table 1.
2. ^ Country listing, Philippines. The Joshua project. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
3. ^ Bicolano, Central. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
4. ^ CCP Encyclopedia or Philippine Art, Peoples of the Philippines, Bicolano
5. ^ CCP Encyclopedia or Philippine Art, Peoples of the Philippines, Bicolano "Located in the typhoon belt which subjects the region to about 12 storms yearly, Bicol has had annual floods inundating 42,000 hectares of prime land for one month with an estimated damage of 20 million pesos."
6. ^ CCP Encyclopedia or Philippine Art, Peoples of the Philippines, Ilocano
7. ^ The filipino Community in Hawaii. University of Hawaii, Center for Philippine studies. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
8. ^ Ilocano. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
9. ^ Pampangan. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
10. ^ CCP Encyclopedia or Philippine Art, Peoples of the Philippines, Kapampangan
11. ^ Nick Joaquin, Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming (Pasig: Anvil Publishing, 2004), 236.
12. ^ Nick Joaquin, Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming (Pasig: Anvil Publishing, 2004), 226.
13. ^ Muslim Filipinos. U.S. Library of congress: Country Studies. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
14. ^ CCP Encyclopedia or Philippine Art, Peoples of the Philippines, Tagalog
15. ^ see Joaquin, Nick: Manila, my Manila
16. ^ Rubrico, Jessie Grace (1998): The Metamorphosis of Filipino as National Language
17. ^ Tagalog. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
18. ^ Cebuano. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
19. ^ Hiligaynon. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
20. ^ Waray-Waray. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
21. ^ CCP Encyclopedia or Philippine Art, Peoples of the Philippines, Cebuano
22. ^ Teodoro A. Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People (Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, 1990), p. 24
23. ^ Nick Joaquin, Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming (Pasig: Anvil Publishing, 2004), 42.
24. ^ Benedict Anderson, ‘Cacique Democracy in the Philippines: Origins and Dreams’, New Left Review, 169 (May-June 1988)
25. ^ Gavin Sanson Bagares, 'Why Cebu City is a Big Chinatown', Philippine Daily Inquirer, A16 (January 28, 2006)
26. ^ The Chinese in the Philippines: some basic facts. Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
27. ^ Cristian Capelli et al. (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania". American Journal of Human Genetics 68: 432–443. 
28. ^ See John Leddy Phelan's "The Hispanization of the Philippines"
29. ^ Benedict Anderson, ‘Cacique Democracy in the Philippines: Origins and Dreams’, New Left Review, 169 (May-June 1988)
30. ^ e.g., the Zobel de Ayalas of Manila and the Aboitizes of Cebu
31. ^ Nick Joaquin, Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming (Pasig: Anvil Publishing, 2004), 318.
32. ^ City of Manila, Evolution of the City of Manila. accessed February 5, 2007.
33. ^ Frank Ephraim, Escape to Manila: From Nazi Tyranny to Japanese Terror (ISBN 0-252-02845-7), Narrates the story of the newly arrived Jews in the Philippines; from their day of their arrival, their daily life in Manila, to their departure to other destinations a decade later.
34. ^ Bet Ya‘aqov Synagogue

See also

External links

  • Racism and crime, racism targeted at Filipinos of part- or non-Austronesian descent
  • The Forgotten Angels, article on Filipino mestizos
  • Why all our languages must be preserved (part 1, part 2), article arguing that language extinction leads to ethnic-group extinction

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Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnic group. Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos, from "i"-from, and "looc"-bay, they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'from our language'.
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Pangasinan (Pangasinan:Totoon Pangasinan, Spanish: pangasinense) are the eight largest Filipino ethnic group. They are the residents or indigenous peoples of the Province of Pangasinan, of the provinces of the Republic of the Philippines, located on the west
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Kapampangans or Capampañgans (Spanish: pampangos or pampangueños) are the eighth largest Filipino ethnic group, numbering at about 2,890,000. Kapampangans are descended from Austronesian-speaking immigrants to the Philippines during the Iron Age.
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Tagalogs are one of the largest Filipino ethnic groups. The name Tagalog comes from the native term taga ilog, meaning 'people living near a/the river'. The prefix taga- means 'coming from' or 'native of', while the word ilog means 'river'.
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Bicolanos are the the fifth-largest Filipino ethnic group.

Area

Bicolanos live in the southeastern peninsula of Luzon, now containing the provinces of Camarines Sur, Albay, Sorsogon, and Catanduanes.
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Malay race (Malay: bangsa Melayu) was proposed by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840).[1] Since Blumenbach, many anthropologists have rejected his theory of five races, citing the enormous complexity of classifying races.
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RACE can refer to:
  • Research and Development in Advanced Communications Technologies in Europe, a program launched in 1988 by the Commission of the European Communities
  • Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends, a molecular biology technique

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Negrito refers to a small-statured, dwindling ethnic group which is now restricted to isolated parts of Southeast Asia. Negritos are arguably the most enigmatic people on our planet as they belong to an ancient stratum of Homo sapiens in Asia.
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Mindanao<nowiki />

Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao

Geography <nowiki/>
Location South East Asia <nowiki />
Archipelago
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Western culture or Western civilization is a term used to generally refer to most of the cultures of European origin and most of their descendants. It comprises the broad, geographically based, heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs (such as religious
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91,077,287 (2007) [1]
Regions with significant populations
Significant overseas populations
Note: No data available on number of Filipino descendants in Southeast Asia-Pacific, Latin America, China and Spain

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Moro are a multilingual ethnic group and the largest mainly non-Christian[1] ethnic group in the Philippines, comprising about 5% of the total Philippine population as of 2005,[2] making them the sixth largest ethnic group in the country.
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Igorot, the Tagalog word for mountaineer, was often used with reference to all groups. At one time it was employed by lowland Filipinos in a pejorative sense, but in recent years it came to be used with pride by youths in the mountains as a positive expression of their separate
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1,146,250
(1.5% of the Philippine population) [1]
Regions with significant populations  Philippines
(Metro Cebu, Metro Manila, Angeles, Bacolod, Davao, Iligan, Iloilo, Lucena, Sulu, Tarlac, Vigan, Zamboanga)

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Spanish settlement in the Philippines, is a term used to describe the arrival of Spanish emigrants into the Philippine Islands, which first took place in the late 16th century, during the Spanish colonial period of the islands.
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Filipino mestizo is a term used in the Philippines, to designate Filipinos of mixed Austronesian (indigenous) and foreign (primarily European) ancestry. The term "Mestizo", which comes from the Spanish word for mixed race, originally referred to Filipinos of part Austronesian and
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Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principles of Jus sanguinis. In other words, descent from a parent who is a citizen/national of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring Philippine citizenship.
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Kapampangans or Capampañgans (Spanish: pampangos or pampangueños) are the eighth largest Filipino ethnic group, numbering at about 2,890,000. Kapampangans are descended from Austronesian-speaking immigrants to the Philippines during the Iron Age.
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