Eurasian lynx

Eurasian Lynx[1]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Carnivora
Family:Felidae
Genus:Lynx
Species:L. lynx
Binomial name
Lynx lynx
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Enlarge picture
Eurasian Lynx range

Eurasian Lynx range


The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. The Eurasian Lynx is the biggest of the lynxes, ranging in length from 80 to 130 cm (32 to 51 in) and standing about 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder. Males usually weigh from 18 to 30 kg (40 to 66 lb) and females weigh 18.1 kg (40 lb) on average.[3] It has grey to reddish fur with black spots. The pattern of the fur is variable; lynxes with heavily spotted fur may exist close to conspecifics with plain fur. The Eurasian Lynx is mainly nocturnal and lives solitarily as an adult. Moreover, the sounds this lynx makes are very quiet and seldom heard, so the presence of the species in an area may go unnoticed for years. Remnants of prey or tracks on snow are usually observed long before the animal is seen.

Lynxes prey on hares, rabbits, rodents, foxes, Roe Deer and Reindeer. As with other cats, trying on larger prey presents a risk to the animal. The main method of hunting is stalking, sneaking and jumping on prey. In winter certain snow conditions make this harder and the animal may be forced to switch to larger prey. The European Lynx likes rugged forested country providing plenty of hideouts and stalking opportunities. The hunting area of an average lynx is from 20 to 60 km² and it could tread more than 20 km during one night.

Status

Once this cat was quite common in all of Europe. By the middle of the 20th century, it had become extinct in most countries of Central and Western Europe. Recently, there have been successful attempts to reintroduce lynx to forests.

Status of the Eurasian Lynx in various countries and regions:
  • Balkan peninsula: In Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Greece there are approximately 100 lynxes, the largest numbers in the remote hills of Western Macedonia.[4]
  • Britain: It was thought that the lynx had died out in Britain either about 10,000 years ago, after the ice had retreated, or about 4,000 years ago, during cooler and wetter climate change. However, carbon dating of lynx skulls taken from the National Museums of Scotland and the Craven caves in North Yorkshire show they lived in Britain between 80 AD and 425.[5]
  • Carpathian Mountains: About 2,800 lynxes live in this mountain range in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Romania and Serbia.[6] It is the largest continuous Eurasian Lynx population west of the Russian border.
Enlarge picture
Lynx in the Numedal Zoo
  • Central Asia: The European Lynx is also native to the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan and Shaanxi, as well as to Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and to Northern Pakistan (Kashmir).
  • Czech Republic: In Bohemia, lynx was exterminated in the 19th century (1830-1890) and in Moravia probably at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. After 1945 migration from Slovakia created a small and unstable population in Moravia. In the 1980s, almost 20 specimens were imported from Slovakia and reintroduced in the Šumava area. At the beginning of 2006 , the population of lynx in the Czech Republic was estimated at 65-105 individuals. Hunting is prohibited, but lynx is often threatened by poachers.
  • Dinaric Alps and Julian Alps: Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina are home to about 130 lynxes.[6] Lynx was considered extinct in these countries since the beginning of the 20th century. However, a resettlement project that begun in Slovenia in 1973 was a success. Today the lynx can be found in the Slovenian Alps and in the Croatian regions of Gorski Kotar and Velebit spanning over the Dinaric Alps and over the Dinara Mountain into western Bosnia and Herzegovina. In all three countries, lynx is listed as an endangered species and protected by law. Realistic population estimates are of 40 lynxes in Slovenia, 50-60 in Croatia and about 40 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croatian massif Risnjak in Risnjak National Park probably got it's name from the croatian word for Lynx, ris.
  • Estonia: There are 900 specimens in Estonia according to the last estimation in 2001.[7]
  • Fennoscandia: Fennoscandian lynxes were close to extinction in the 1930s-1950s but increased again thanks to protection. In the meantime protective hunting for lynxes has been legalised again. The numbers are still on a slow increase. Lynx is the only non-domestic feline in Scandinavia.
  • Finland: 1,100 to 1,200 specimens (2006 est.) [8]
  • Norway: Lynx is found in stable populations throughout Norway except for the western counties, where they are only found sporadically. The national goal of 65 lynxes bred was reached in 2007, with 69 to 74 registered lynxes bred. The population was estimated at 409-439 specimens.[9]
  • Sweden: Sweden had an estimated population of about 1,400 lynxes in 2006. The hunt is controlled by government agencies.[10] Hunters who wish to partake in the hunt for lynx must register for the so-called protective hunt, which takes place in March. There are only a few animals to be shot in each region depending on how many lynxes there are and/or how the Reindeer herding is affected. Every shot animal and shooting location is controlled by the County Administration and the carcass is sent away for analysis to National Veterinary Institute. The shooter himself may keep the skin, if a microchip or transponder is attached by the local police authority. The skull of the shot animal can be sent back to the shooter for a fee of about €70. No more than 75 animals in 20 regions may be shot in 2007, an increase from 51 in 2006 (always about 5 % of the population). In 2006 there were 41 lynxes killed outside hunting, 31 in traffic accidents.
  • France: Lynx was exterminated about the year 1900 but later reintroduced to the Vosges and Pyrenees.
  • Germany: Lynx was exterminated in 1850 . It was reintroduced to the Bavarian Forest and the Harz in the 1990s. In 2002 the first birth of wild lynxes on German territory was announced: a couple of lynxes in the Harz National Park gave birth to the young. Also present in the Eifel, probably from France. And in the Vogelsberg Mountains in Hesse.
  • Netherlands: Lynx is extinct in the Netherlands (since the Middle Ages). Although there were some sightings, they probably stem from captive bred lynx escaped or released to the wild.[11]
  • Poland: There are about 1,000 lynxes in the Białowieża Forest and the Tatra mountains.
  • Russia: More than 90% of all Eurasian Lynxes live in the forests of Siberia. They are distributed from the western borders of Russia to the Pacific island of Sakhalin.
  • Slovakia: Lynx is native to forested areas in Central and East Slovakia. Lynx in Slovakia lives mainly in mixed forests at altitudes from 800 to 1,000 m. Lynx could be found in many national parks of Slovakia and other protected areas.[12][13]
  • Switzerland: Lynx was extinct in 1915 but reintroduced in 1971. From here lynx migrated to Austria, where they had been exterminated as well.

Subspecies

Enlarge picture
Scandinavian Lynx (Lynx lynx lynx)
The following are the recognized subspecies of the Eurasian Lynx. Others have been proposed, but are now considered to be synonyms for these.[1]

References

1. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 541. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.2005&rft.edition=3rd%20edition&rft.pub=Johns%20Hopkins%20University%20Press&rft.pages=541&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnmnhgoph.si.edu%2Fmsw%2F"> 
2. ^ Cat Specialist Group (2002). Lynx lynx. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. The database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened.
3. ^ Eurasian Lynx. Peter Jackson (24 April 1997). Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
4. ^ Action urged to save Balkan lynx. BBC (3 November 2006). Retrieved on May 28, 2007.
5. ^ "The bone-man's legacy"; New Scientist 11 August 2007; pp48-49
6. ^ Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe Species fact sheet - Lynx lynx. Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (no date). Retrieved on May 28, 2007.
7. ^ Estonia - 3. Size & trend. Eurasian Lynx Online Information System for Europe. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
8. ^ Suurpetojen lukumäärä ja lisääntyminen vuonna 2005. Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (7 August 2006). Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
9. ^ Lynx. State of the Environment Norway (19 June 2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
10. ^ Swedish Environmental Protection Agency & Council For Predator Issues.
11. ^ ELOIS - Introduction. Eurasian Lynx Online Information System for Europe (no date). Retrieved on May 28, 2007.
12. ^ Natura 2000 Sites - Rys ostrovid (Slovak). State Nature Conservancy SR (no date). Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
13. ^ Slovakia (SK). Eurasian Lynx Online Information System for Europe (no date). Retrieved on 2007-05-28.

External links

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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Chordata
Bateson, 1885

Typical Classes

See below

Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates.
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Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758

Subclasses & Infraclasses
  • Subclass †Allotheria*
  • Subclass Prototheria
  • Subclass Theria

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Carnivora
Bowdich, 1821

Families
  • 17, See classification

The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: /kɑrˈnɪvərə/
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Felidae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817

Subfamilies

Felinae
Pantherinae
†Machairodontinae
Felidae is the biological family of the cats; a member of this family is called a felid.
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Lynx
Kerr, 1792

Type species
Felis lynx
Linnaeus, 1758

The overall range of Lynx species.

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binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The system is also called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system.
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Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

Carl von Linné, Alexander Roslin, 1775. Currently owned by and hanging at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Felidae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817

Subfamilies

Felinae
Pantherinae
†Machairodontinae
Felidae is the biological family of the cats; a member of this family is called a felid.
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Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea,
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Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, Sibir); is a vast region on the eastern and North-Eastern part of the Russian Federation constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the
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Lynx
Kerr, 1792

Type species
Felis lynx
Linnaeus, 1758

The overall range of Lynx species.

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nocturnality describes sleeping during the daytime and being active at night - the opposite of the diurnal human lifestyle, and that of those animals with which we are most familiar. The intermediate crepuscular schedule (twilight activity) is also common.
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A solitary (Latin solus, meaning alone) person, animal or object is one which is not usually in the companionship of others of its type. Solitary activities are those which do not require (or indeed preclude) the presence of others, such as walking, listening to
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Lepus
Linnaeus, 1758

Type species
Lepus timidus
Linnaeus, 1758

Species

See text
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. There are seven different genera in the family classified as rabbits, including the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), cottontail rabbit (genus
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Rodentia
Bowdich, 1821

Suborders

Sciuromorpha
Castorimorpha
Myomorpha
Anomaluromorpha
Hystricomorpha
Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents
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Vulpini

"Fox" is a general term applied to any one of roughly 27 species of small to medium-sized canids in the tribe vulpini
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Odocoileinae

Genus: Capreolus
Gray, 1821

Species: C. capreolus

Binomial name
Capreolus capreolus
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Odocoileinae

Genus: Rangifer
C.H. Smith, 1827

Species: R. tarandus

Binomial name
Rangifer tarandus
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extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point).
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