Felix Zuloaga

Félix María Zuloaga

Preceded by
Succeeded by

NationalityMexican
Political partyConservative



Félix María Zuloaga Trillo (March 31, 1803, Álamos, SonoraFebruary 11, 1898, Mexico City) was a Mexican general and a Conservative leader in the Mexican civil war (Reform War|War of the Reform). In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Zuloaga served three times as Conservative president of Mexico (in opposition to Benito Juárez, the constitutional president). His third term was nominal, and he exercised no real power.

Background

Zuloaga was born in Sonora. He attended primary school in Chihuahua before entering a seminary in Mexico City. Thereafter he returned to Chihuahua, enlisting in the the civil militia in 1834. He participated in campaigns against the Apaches and Comanches.

He returned to the capital in 1838 and entered the army as a second lieutenant of engineers. He took part in the Pastry War against the French (1838) and the War of Texas Independence. Initially a liberal in politics, in 1840 he defended the government of President Anastasio Bustamante (who had both liberal and conservative connections). The following year he was allied with Antonio López de Santa Anna. He fought the separatists in Yucatán and directed the fortifications at Monterrey. During the war with the United States he was mayor of Chihuahua.

He rejoined the army, and in 1838 was named president of the Council of War of the garrison of Mexico City.

In 1854 he fought against the liberals supporting the Plan de Ayutla, and was taken prisoner. He was now a brigadier. In 1855 he was a representative of Chihuahua in the Junta of Representatives of the States that met in Cuernavaca.

Conservative president of Mexico

Zuloaga fought against the conservatives in two campaigns in Puebla, but on December 17, 1857 he came out against the newly proclaimed constitution. Two days later, liberal President Ignacio Comonfort accepted the rebel Plan de Tacubaya, thus abandoning the Constitution of 1857. This in effect was an autocoup. Various liberals protested, including Benito Juárez, the president of the Supreme Court and constitutionally next in line to succeed to the presidency, but they were arrested and imprisoned.

The conservatives, however, were not satisfied with Comonfort's autocoup. On January 11, 1858, General Zuloaga demanded the president's resignation (although Comonfort and Zuloaga had been friends). Comonfort resisted for ten days, and during that time he freed Juárez and the other liberals who had been jailed. Upon Comonfort's deposition, Juárez claimed the presidency, but Zuloaga was in military command of the capital, and Juárez left to establish his government in Guanajuato. This was the beginning of the War of the Reform. Comonfort left the country, repudiated by all parties.

On the complete success of the Plan de Tacubaya Zuloaga was elected interim president of the republic (January 21, 1858). He held this position until December 24, 1858, when he was deposed by conservative General Manuel Robles Pezuela (as a substitute for General Miguel Miramón, who was on campaign), under the Plan de Navidad. Robles Pezuela held the presidency until January 21, 1859, and on January 24 Zuloaga returned to office. (José Mariano Salas also claimed the conservative presidency briefly.) Zuloaga's second term lasted until February 1, 1859, and he was replaced by Miramón.

On May 9, 1860, Zuloaga issued a proclamation reclaiming the presidency, but the following day Miramón had him arrested. Miramón was reported to have told Zuloaga upon his arrest, "I will teach you how to win the presidency." Zuloaga escaped from León, Guanajuato on August 3, 1860 and marched to Mexico City. However the Governing Council there refused to recognize him as president.

He was president again from December 28, 1860 to December 28, 1862, but in name only, because he spent this time on campaign.

Later life

Upon the triumph of the liberals in the War of the Reform, Zuloaga was declared an outlaw because of his responsibility for the execution of Melchor Ocampo. Zuloaga tried to ally himself with the French during the Empire, but without success. In 1865 he was exiled to Cuba. He returned to Mexico years later, after the death of Juárez. He did not reenter politics, but became a tobacco merchant. He died in Mexico City in 1898 at the age of 95.

References

  • (Spanish) "Zuloaga, Félix María," Enciclopedia de México, v. 14. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
  • (Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrúa, 1984.
  • (Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.

External links

Preceded by
Ignacio Comonfort
Conservative President of Mexico
1858
Succeeded by
Manuel Robles Pezuela
Preceded by
Manuel Robles Pezuela
Conservative President of Mexico
1859
Succeeded by
Miguel Miramón
Preceded by
Miguel Miramón
Conservative President of Mexico
1860–1862
Succeeded by
none


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Benito Pablo Juárez García (IPA [be'nit̪o 'paβ̞lo 'xwaɾes gaɾ'sia]) (March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian who served five terms [1] (1858–1861),
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Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was fought from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836 between Mexico and the Texas (Tejas) portion of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
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Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera (Jiquilpan, Michoacán, July 27, 1780 – February 6, 1853 in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato) was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. He was a Conservative.
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Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against
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Benito Pablo Juárez García (IPA [be'nit̪o 'paβ̞lo 'xwaɾes gaɾ'sia]) (March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian who served five terms [1] (1858–1861),
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