Feminism in Norway

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Feminism in Norway has its political origins in the movement for women's suffrage that was officially started in 1885, but can be traced back to earlier literary and historical sources.

Historical views of women in Norway

Although men dominated the pantheon of kings and warriors in the Norse Kings' sagas, women often played essential roles. For example, Harald Fairhair's mother Ragnhild Sigurdsdotter foresees the rise of her son as a national leader. Similarly, in Norse mythology, female deities play pivotal roles in the unfolding of the cosmology and eschatology. The Oseberg find of a Viking ship was a funeral for a prominent pre-Christian woman, approximately 834 CE.

Whatever attitudes toward women were prevalent in pagan Norway, the country fell in line with mainstream patriarchical mores and practices from the 11th century onwards. From 1388 to 1412, Queen Margaret ruled Norway as part of the Kalmar Union, the only female regent of Norway to date.

Early pioneers

Women's issues were first articulated in the public sphere by Camilla Collett (1813-1895), widely considered the first Norwegian feminist. Originating from a literary family, she wrote a novel and several articles on the difficulties facing women of her time, and in particular forced marriages. But also Amalie Skram (1846-1905) gave voice to a woman's point of view with her naturalist writing.

Aasta Hansteen (1824-1908) wrote also of the spiritual worth of women and led a life in open opposition to the expectations of her time.

Henrik Ibsen's play A Doll's House in 1879 put women's rights in the public debate, in which the protagonist Nora leaves her husband, feeling undervalued and disrespected. Ibsen's portrayal in many of his plays broke with traditional stereotypes of the ideal woman.

The Norwegian Association for Women's Rights was founded in 1884 by Gina Krog and Hagbart Berner. The organization raised issues related to women's rights to education and economic self-determination, and above all, universal suffrage.

Suffrage

Womens right to vote was passed by law, June 11 1913 by the Norwegian Parliament. Norway was the second country in Europe after Finland to have full suffrage for women.

Women's liberation

Contemporary issues

External links

Feminism is an ideology focusing on equality of the sexes.[1] Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender inequalities and discrimination against women.
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The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement or Women's Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence.
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Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. It encompasses work done in a broad variety of disciplines, prominently including the approaches to women's roles and lives and feminist politics in anthropology and sociology, economics,
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Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism which is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. Feminists have taken many different approaches to the analysis of cinema.
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Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to economics. Research under this heading is often interdisciplinary, critical, or heterodox.
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Feminist Sexology is an offshoot of traditional studies of sexology that focuses on the intersectionality of sex and gender in relation to the sexual lives of women. Feminist sexology shares many principles with the overarching field of sexology; in particular, it does not try to
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Women’s rights, as a term, typically refers to the freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or illegitimately suppressed by law, custom, and behavior in a particular society.
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Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism and of efforts to bring about gender equality.
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Antifeminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms.[1] It addresses a range of points either criticizing feminist ideology and practice or arguing that it be restrained.
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Women's history is the history of female human beings.

Rights and equality

Women's rights refers to the social and human rights of women. One of the first women's rights declaration was the "Declaration of Sentiments".
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Feminist history refers to the re-reading and re-interpretation of history from a female perspective. It is not the same as the history of feminism, which outlines the origins and evolution of the feminist movement.
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The term women's suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. The movement's origins are usually traced to the United States in the 1820s.
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1755
  • Corsica (rescinded upon annexation by France in 1769)
  • 1756 colonial, Massachusetts, Lydia Taft, Uxbridge, Massachusetts town meeting
  • 1776

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  • suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the women's suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. The word was originally coined to describe a more radical faction of the suffrage movement in the UK, mainly members of the Women's
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    Women's suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue at the turn of the 19th century. Among self-governing countries still extant today, New Zealand was the first to give women the vote in national elections.
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    Suffragist is a more general term for members of the movement, whether radical or conservative, male or female. American women preferred this more inclusive title, but people in the United States who were hostile to suffrage for the American woman used the UK word.
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    women's suffrage in the United States was a primary effort of those involved in the greater women's rights movement of the 19th century. Women's suffrage was permanently granted in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
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    First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. It focused on de jure (officially mandated) inequalities, primarily on gaining the right of women's suffrage.
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    Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s.

    Overview

    Second Wave Feminism is generally identified with a period beginning in the early nineteen sixties.
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    See also:  and
    Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s.
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    Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in fiction and in fact, as it is expressed in art and literature in the physiques and feats of female athletes, martial artists, and other powerfully built women, and in gender-related and sexual orientations.
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    Anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism) combines anarchism with feminism . It views patriarchy as a manifestation of hierarchy and thus a fundamental problem of society .
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    Black feminism essentially argues that sexism and racism are inextricable from one another[1]. Forms of feminism that strive to overcome sexism and class oppression but ignore or minimize race can perpetuate racism and thereby contribute to the oppression of many
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    Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze the historical, social, political, and economic roles of Mexican American, Chicana, and Hispanic women in the United States. It is especially concerned with issues of gender.
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    Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership.
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    Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. (Alcoff, 1988).
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    Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. Many Catholics adhere to and have written on the philosophy, though the philosophy is not specifically Catholic.
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    Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism.[2]
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    Equity feminism and gender feminism are terms coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism?.[]

    Equity feminism

    Hoff Sommers describes Equity feminism as an ideology that aims for full civil and legal equality and distinguish it from
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    Equality feminism is a submovement of feminism. It is fundamentally at odds with difference feminism and expresses the crucial similarities between the 'male' and 'female' sexes.
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