Ferrol, Spain

''This article refers to Ferrol, Galicia. For other uses, see Ferrol (disambiguation).
City & Naval Station of Ferrol
Enlarge picture
El Miguel de Cervantes in El Ferrol - 1943
Location in Galicia, Spain and Europe
Coordinates :
Time zone :
UTC+1/SummerUTC+2
Flag Coat of arms
Basic information
Area81.9  km² City
19,214   km² Metrop. Area
Population213,000 Ferrolterra (04/2005)
77,859 City
135,141 Metropolitan Area
Density942.06/km²
FerrolterraFerrol, Eume & Ortegal
Government
NUTS-CodeES4
CountrySpain
RegionGalicia
Subdivisions21 Boroughs
Governing MayorVicente Irisarri since 2007
Governing PartiesPSOE / IU
Website[1]


Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. Today, is best known for the Navantia shipbuilding yards and for having been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons of Spain. Before that, in the 17th century, Ferrol was the most important arsenal in Europe. The city was the birthplace of the Spanish General Francisco Franco in 1892, and was officially known as El Ferrol del Caudillo from 1938 to 1982. It was also the birth place of the founder of the spanish socialist party PSOE, Pablo Iglesias, in 1850. Ferrol has a population of 77,859 and its metropolitan area (i.e., the urban area plus all the satellite towns known as Ferrolterra) has a population of over 213,000 (2007).

Ferrol

(Classification of the Outer and Inner Ports of Ferrol) Note: For those who want to read further about the, non-military, "Ferrol-San Cibrao Port Authority" which covers a substantial part of the Galician coast including all its ports and lighthouses from San Cibrao to Ferrol, it is advisable to visit the external official link which follows: (English) [2]

History

Enlarge picture
The Spanish Armada leaving the Bay of Ferrol (1588)


After various local dominations [3], Henry II gave the town to the Andrade family. [4]. It was only considered a safe harbour under the House of Austria, [5]but became a leading naval centre under the Bourbons. For the first time, the immense strategic importance of the port of Ferrol came to be understood and it was made Capital of the Maritime Department of the North, formed under Ferdinand VI and Charles III for the defence of the Spanish Colonial Empire in America. Rapid and well-planned improvements followed, and the position of Ferrol was made almost unassailable from the sea, the difficulties of disembarking troops on its precipitous coast being heightened by its protecting line of fortresses, particularly San Carlos. [6] The Naval shipyards of A Graña and Ferrol, were built between 1726-1783 and produced ships protected with copper sheets from the rolling mills of Xubia. In 1772, The Spanish Royal Academy of Naval Engineers of Ferrol was created -- the first such academy in Spain.

A decline set during the reign of Charles IV, and in 1800, after the defences had been removed, a British fleet of 109 vessels landed troops on the beach of Doniños to take the Castle of San Felipe. Although only equipped with meagre artillery, the castle small defence force under the command of Count Donadio and helped by citizens of Ferrol, successfully resisted the attack and the fleet withdrew. [7]

The arsenals and fortress remained abandoned and they were easily occupied by the French in 1809.

The alliance with England during the War of Independence failed to prevent the deterioration in the town’s fortunes and, under Ferdinand VII, Ferrol became a “dead” town, losing its title of capital. New activities sprang up, however, during the administration of the Marquis de Molina, Minister for Naval affairs in the mid-19th century.

Ten years after the Spanish-American War of 1898 where the Spaniards lost Cuba and the Philippines, the Maura Government, in an attempt to restore the Spanish Navy and Spanish shipbuilding industry hired to the Spanish Society for Naval Construction (whose major investors were the British firms: John Brown, Vickers and Armstrong) the shipbuilding yards, workshops, foundries and dry docks in Ferrol.

For a period of sixteen years, all the technicians were exclusively British, and the situation was not altered till 1925 when the management was taken over by Spanish engineers, as one of the new policies introduced by the then newly created government, including ministers both civil and military, of the dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera (19231930).

In sight of the outbreak of a civil war, and because there was fear of social unrest in the naval station, the Foreign Office in London, organized a ship to repatriate all the remaining British citizens and on July 22, 1936. The HMS Witch (D89), captained by B.A. Warburton-Lee, departed from Ferrol back to Britain. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) meant that the shipbuilding yards, workshops, foundries and dry docks in Ferrol were taken over by the state and fully nationalized in 1945 under the name "Bazàn", later renamed "IZAR", and from January 2005, Navantia. The town has also been, for centuries, the birthplace of national and international personalities: men and women of letters, statesmen, politicians, and others, amongst them Francisco Franco, after whom the city was officially known as El Ferrol del Caudillo from 1938 to 1982 [8]. The end of the dictatorship and the arrival of democracy in 1978 did not help Ferrol, [9] and from 1982 to the early 1990s, the city confronted numerous problems due to a decline in the naval sector. The beginning of the new millennium however, has been a time of economic expansion and prosperity in general. A new motorway and an outer-port [10] have been recently built; making the communications by land and sea, with the rest of the world, much easier and faster.

Ferrol, the most important Naval Station in the north of Spain [11] , with its well sheltered harbour and busy port, together with the Navantia shipyards seems to be flourishing once again, and with it, the whole heavily populated district of As Mariñas and Ferrolterra. [12]

Quotations

Note: The attack on Ferrol happened in sight of the Napoleonic wars in Europe, where the Spaniards were expected to take side with the French, as they did in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

Ferrol was virtually impossible to blockade in the age of sail, as any strong westerly winds would take the blockading force away along the treacherous north coast of Spain where they had no safe haven. By contrast, British forces blockading Cadiz could seek refuge at Gibraltar, and those blockading the French naval port of Brest could seek refuge in Torbay. The British could then quickly return when the weather changed before too many of the blockaded ships had had time to reach open water via the narrow channels. By contrast, the geography of Ferrol meant that a whole Spanish fleet could slip out on a single tide. By the time the British were able to resume the blockade, the Spanish would be safely away and out to sea.

British Novel

See also

Enlarge picture
Visit Ferrol this Summer Festival August (1934)

Notable Galicians born in Ferrol

Life, culture and industry in Ferrol

History of Galicia and Ferrol

External links

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Partial view of the Navantia Shipyards in Ferrol - In the middle ground of the picture an oil tanker is being repaired - Ferrolterra



[ edit ]City Councils of the three Regions of Ferrolterra.

[ edit ]List of Ports and Lighthouses under the Authority of Ferrol-San Cibrao [13]
Port of San Cibrao with four Lighthouses | Port of Alumina Espanola with six Lighthouses | Roncadoira Point with one Lighthouse | Ria and Port of Vivero with seven Lighthouses | Port of O Barqueiro with five Lighthouses | Estaca de Bares Point with one Lighthouse | Santa Marta's Cove and the Ports of Espasante and Carino with four Lighthouses | Candelaria Point with one Lighthouse | Port of Cedeira with four Lighthouses | A Frouxeira Point with one Lighthouse | Cape Prior with two Lighthouses | Ria of Ferrol and the Ports of Ferrol Outer-port, A Grana, Mugardos and Ferrol Inner-port with twenty three Lighthouses
Enlarge picture
Most Northwestern Rias of Galicia [14]

[ edit ]Municipalities of A Coruña
Abegondo | Ames | Aranga | Ares | Arteixo | Arzúa | A Baña | Bergondo | Betanzos | Boimorto | Boiro | Boqueixón | Brión | Cabana de Bergantiños | Cabanas | Camariñas | Cambre | A Capela | Carballo | Cariño | Carnota | Carral | Cedeira | Cee | Cerceda | Cerdido | Cesuras | Coirós | Corcubión | Coristanco | A Coruña | Culleredo | Curtis | Dodro | Dumbría | Fene | Ferrol | Fisterra | Frades | Irixoa | A Laracha | Laxe | Lousame | Malpica de Bergantiños | Mañón | Mazaricos | Melide | Mesía | Miño | Moeche | Monfero | Mugardos | Muros | Muxia | Narón | Neda | Negreira | Noia | Oleiros | Ordes | Oroso | Ortigueira | Outes | Oza dos Ríos | Paderne | Padrón | O Pino | A Pobra do Caramiñal | Ponteceso | Pontedeume | As Pontes de García Rodríguez | Porto do Son | Rianxo | Ribeira | Rois | Sada | San Sadurniño | Santa Comba | Santiago de Compostela | Santiso | Sobrado | As Somozas | Teo | Toques | Tordoia | Touro | Trazo | Val do Dubra | Valdoviño | Vedra | Vilarmaior | Vilasantar | Vimianzo | Zas

[ edit ]Roman Catholic Church - The five Dioceses of Galicia [15]
Diocese of Ourense | Diocese of Tui-Vigo | Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela | Diocese of Mondoedo-Ferrol | Diocese of Lugo


Coordinates:
Ferrol can refer to:

Geographical terminology (Settlement):

  • Ferrol, Spain, industrial city and major naval station in North-western Spain
  • Ferrol, Virginia, town in the United States of America
  • Ferrol, Romblon, municipality in the Philippines

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UTC+1 is used in the following locations:
  • Central European Time
  • West Africa Time
  • Western European Summer Time*
  • British Summer Time*
  • Irish Summer Time*

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UTC+2 corresponds to the following time zones:
  • Eastern European Time
  • Egypt Standard Time
  • Central Africa Time
  • Israel Standard Time
  • South Africa Standard Time
  • Central European Summer Time
  • West Africa Summer Time

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Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

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population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the
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Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. Today, is best known for the Navantia shipbuilding yards and for having been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons of
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Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


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Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. Today, is best known for the Navantia shipbuilding yards and for having been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons of
..... Click the link for more information.
Ferrol is a local region in the Galician Province of A Coruña. The overall population of this local region is 163,669 (2005).

Municipalities

Ares, Fene, Ferrol, Mugardos, Narón, Neda, Valdoviño, As Somozas, Moeche, San Sadurniño and Cedeira.
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O Eume is a local region in the Galician Province of A Coruña. The overall population of this local region is 27,760 (2005).

Municipalities

Cabañas, A Capela, Monfero, Pontedeume and As Pontes de García Rodríguez.
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Ortegal is a local region in the Galician Province of A Coruña. The overall population of this local region is 15,810 (2005).

Municipalities

Cariño, Cerdido, Mañón and Ortigueira.
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The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative divisions of countries for statistical purposes. The standard was developed by the European Union, and thus only covers the member states of the EU in detail (see
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In political geography and international politics, a country is a political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government.
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Motto
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"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
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Spain

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Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia / Comunidade Autónoma de Galicia

Flag Coat of arms

Capital Santiago de Compostela
Official language(s) Galician and Spanish
Area
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 – % of Spain Ranked 7th
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Country subdivision refers to the division of a country's territory for the sake of its administration, description or other such purpose. The resulting units of division are known generically as "country subdivisions".
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Ferrol is an Atlantic-facing city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia in north-western Spain. Today, is best known for the Navantia shipbuilding yards and for having been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons of
..... Click the link for more information.
Galicia (Spain)

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Galicia


Parliament of Galicia
Xunta de Galicia

Spanish Parliament - Legislative branch
The Spanish Crown - Head of State
Political parties in Galicia
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The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, commonly abbreviated by its Spanish initials, PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español), is the ruling party in Spain and the second oldest, exceeded only by the Partido Carlista, founded in 1833.
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Galicia (Spain)

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Galicia


Parliament of Galicia
Xunta de Galicia

Spanish Parliament - Legislative branch
The Spanish Crown - Head of State
Political parties in Galicia
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The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, commonly abbreviated by its Spanish initials, PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español), is the ruling party in Spain and the second oldest, exceeded only by the Partido Carlista, founded in 1833.
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United Left (Izquierda Unida) is a political coalition that was organized in 1986 during the mobilizations in Spain against NATO. It was formed by several groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was always dominated by the Communist Party of
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A Coruña (also: La Coruña in Spanish, La Corogne in French and La Croyne and Corunna in English) is the most North-western Atlantic facing province of Spain, and one of the four provinces which constitute the autonomous community of Galicia.
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Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia / Comunidade Autónoma de Galicia

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Capital Santiago de Compostela
Official language(s) Galician and Spanish
Area
 – Total
 – % of Spain Ranked 7th
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Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
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Navantia, formerly Bazán or IZAR, has become Spain's leading state-owned shipbuilding firm, offering its services to both military and civil projects.

It was founded in December 2000 following the merger of Astilleros Españoles S.A.
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Armada Española
Spanish Navy


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