flehmen response

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A mare exhibits the flehmen response by curling back her upper lip
The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening (from German flehmen, meaning to curl the upper lip), is a particular type of curling of the upper lip in ungulates, felids, and many other mammals, which facilitates the transfer of pheromones and other scents into the vomeronasal organ, also called the Jacobson's Organ. In the flehmen reaction, animals draw back their lips in a manner that makes them appear to be "grimacing". The action, which is adopted when examining scents left by other animals of the same species or prey, helps expose the vomeronasal organ and draws scent molecules back toward it. This behavior allows animals to detect scents, for example from urine, of other members of their species or clues to the presence of prey. Flehming allows the animals to determine several factors, including the presence or absence of estrus, the physiological state of the animal, and how long ago the animal passed by. This particular response is recognizable in stallions when smelling the urine of a mare in heat.

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Flehmen response in Tapirus terrestris
The vomeronasal organ, also called Jacobson's organ, is a chemoreceptor organ thought to have to do with the perception of certain scents and pheromones. It is named for its closeness to the vomer and nasal bones, and is particularly developed in animals such as cats and horses. The organ is located on the roof of the mouth. In addition to house cats and horses, animals who exhibit the flehmen reaction include buffalo, tigers, tapirs, lions, giraffes, and llamas.[1][2][3]

A grimace similar to the flehmen response may also be seen in association with pain.[4] In horses it is often associated with low grade abdominal pain.

Although most adult humans lack a functional Jacobson's Organ (at least generally), a similar human behavior is the instinctive pulling back of the upper lip in a grimace when faced with something considered "disgusting" -- which may have a quite different function.

Source


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Felidae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817

Subfamilies

Felinae
Pantherinae
†Machairodontinae
Felidae is the biological family of the cats; a member of this family is called a felid.
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Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758

Subclasses & Infraclasses
  • Subclass †Allotheria*
  • Subclass Prototheria
  • Subclass Theria

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pheromone is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology.
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The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobson's organ[1] is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. It is the first processing stage of the accessory olfactory system. In adults, it is located in the vomer bone, between the nose and the mouth.
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The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobson's organ[1] is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. It is the first processing stage of the accessory olfactory system. In adults, it is located in the vomer bone, between the nose and the mouth.
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Oestrus is also the biological genus name of the gadfly.


The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus
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A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated.

Stallions will follow the conformation and phenotype of their breed, but within that standard, the presence of hormones such as testosterone may give stallions a thicker, "cresty" neck compared to mares and geldings,
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The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobson's organ[1] is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. It is the first processing stage of the accessory olfactory system. In adults, it is located in the vomer bone, between the nose and the mouth.
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F. s. catus

Trinomial name
Felis silvestris catus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms
Felis lybica invalid junior synonym
Felis catus invalid junior synonym[2]

The cat (
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H.O.R.S.E. is a form of poker commonly played at the high stakes tables of casinos. It consists of rounds of play cycling among:
  • Texas Hold 'em,
  • Omaha eight or better,
  • Razz,
  • Seven card Stud, and
  • Seven card stud E

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F. s. catus

Trinomial name
Felis silvestris catus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms
Felis lybica invalid junior synonym
Felis catus invalid junior synonym[2]

The cat (
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P. tigris

Binomial name
Panthera tigris
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green).

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Tapiridae
Gray, 1821

Genus: Tapirus
Brünnich, 1772

Species

Tapirus bairdii
Tapirus indicus
Tapirus pinchaque
Tapirus terrestris

Tapirs
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P. leo

Binomial name
Panthera leo
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution of lions in Africa


Synonyms
Felis leo
(Linnaeus, 1758)

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