Florentine Codex

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Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl.
Florentine Codex is the name given to 12 books created under the supervision of Bernardino de Sahagún between approximately 1540 and 1585. It is a copy of original source materials which are now lost, perhaps destroyed by the Spanish authorities who confiscated Sahagún's manuscripts. The original source materials were records of conversations and interviews with indigenous sources in Tlatelolco, Texcoco, and Tenochtitlan.

The Florentine Codex is primarily a Nahuatl language text, written by trilingual Nahuatl, Spanish and Latin Aztec students of Sahagún. This Nahuatl text is written on the right side of the codex. Sections of this text were translated into Spanish, and written in the left column. However, many sections were not translated and some only summarized in their translation. In their place, the Florentine Codex has roughly 1,800 illustrations done by Aztec tlacuilos using European techniques. Some of the Spanish translation was censored or otherwise rewritten by Sahagún.

Perhaps more than any other source, the Florentine Codex has been the major source of Aztec life in the years before the Spanish conquest even though a complete copy of the Florentine Codex, with all illustrations, was not published until 1979. Before then, only the censored and rewritten Spanish translation had been available.

Other versions

There is also a Spanish-only version of Sahagún's document. This copy was taken to Europe in 1580 by Rodrigo de Sequera, and is also referred to as the Sequera manuscript.

The Spanish text was the basis for the Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of New Spain) which is kept at the Laurentian Library in Florence.

The Codex Matritense is a copy and compilation from the same sources as the Florentine Codex, corresponding to the material recompiled in Tlatelolco and Texcoco in Nahuatl. It has five books, and includes 175 illustrations. It is a very heavily censored translation of the Florentine Codex by Sahagún himself, done to appeal to the Spanish authorities. The two codices are housed in the Library of the Royal Palace and the Royal History Museum, in Madrid. Other names include the Codices Matritense and the Madrid Codex (not to be confused with the Maya Madrid Codex).

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Aztec warriors as shown in the Florentine Codex.
A short version of this document, "Breve compendio de los soles idolátricos que los indios desta Nueva España usaban en tiempos de su infidelidad" ("Short Compendium of the Idolatry Used by the New Spain Indians during their Unfaithfulness"), was sent by Sahagún to Pope Pius V.

See also

References

  • "Sahagún y el nacimiento de la cronica mestiza" by Enrique Florescano. Relaciones 91, verano 2002, vol XXIII, CONACULTA.
  • Leon-Portilla, Miguel; Aztec Thought and Culture; University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.
Bernardino de Sahagún (1499–October 23 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (
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Tlatelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry.
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Texcoco (Classical Nahuatl: Tetzco(h)co, IPA: [tetsˈkoʔko]) was a major Acolhua city-state in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican
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Tenochtitlan or Mexico-Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec civilization, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Distrito Federal in central Mexico.
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Mexico
(Mexico (state), Distrito Federal, Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca, Michoacán and Durango)
Total speakers: 1.7 million
Language family: }} 
Official status
Official language of: none
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The Aztec world
Aztec society
Nahuatl language
Aztec calendar
Aztec religion
Aztec mythology
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture
Aztec history
Aztln
Aztec codices
Aztec warfare
Aztec Triple Alliance
Spanish conquest of Mexico
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The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. The most important conquistador in this conquest was Hernán Cortés.
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Laurentian Library (Biblioteca Mediceo Laurenziana) in Florence, Italy is famous as a repository of nearly 11,000 manuscripts and early printed books.[1] Built in a cloister of the Medicean Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze under the patronage of the Medici pope,
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Country Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Florence (FI)
Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democrats of the Left)

Area km
Population
 - Total (as of 2006-06-02)
 - Density /km

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Tlatelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry.
..... Click the link for more information.
Texcoco (Classical Nahuatl: Tetzco(h)co, IPA: [tetsˈkoʔko]) was a major Acolhua city-state in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican
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Pope St. Pius V, O.P. (January 17, 1504 – May 1 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, was Pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.
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Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture.
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Miguel León-Portilla (born in Mexico City, 22 February 1926) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and a prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature.

He wrote a doctoral thesis on Nahua philosophy under the tutelage of Fr. Ángel María Garibay K.
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