Foreign relations of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan's declaration of "permanent neutrality" was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. Although the Government of Turkmenistan claims to favour trade with and export to the United States and Turkey, it has significant commercial relationships with Russia and Iran and a growing cross-border trade with Afghanistan. The Government of Turkmenistan often appears to be trying to use the conflicting interests of these regional powers as a means to extract concessions from the others, especially on energy issues. Turkmenistan has poor relations with Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.

International disputes

Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined with Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran. Turkmenistan has no common land or Caspian Sea border with Russia. Issues between Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan were settled in 2003. Problems remain also between Iran and Azerbaijan.

Natural resources

Following the death of President Saparmurat Niyazov in December 2006, there has been much speculation and uncertainty regarding the fate of Turkmenistan's natural resources. Turkmenistan is rich in natural gas, and currently sells most of its gas to Russia and Ukraine. However, the recent change of regime has raised questions that perhaps in a new political climate China, India, Iran and the United States could start to play a more prominent role.

External links

Anthem
Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem


Capital Ashgabat

Largest city Ashgabat
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Headquarters
(and largest city)
Official languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Membership 192 member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Establishment
 - 
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
1992 1993 1994 - 1995 - 1996 1997 1998

Year 1995 (MCMXCV
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Turkmenistan

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Turkmenistan


  • Constitution
  • President
  • Gurbanguly
    Berdimuhammedow
  • Assembly
  • People's Council
  • Military of Turkmenistan
  • :(incl.

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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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Motto
Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem
İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān Â²


Capital
(and largest city) Tehran

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Motto
none
Anthem
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
(March of Azerbaijan)
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Anthem
National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan


Capital Tashkent

Largest city Tashkent
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Anthem
My Kazakhstan


Capital Astana

Largest city Almaty
Official languages Kazakh (state language), Russian
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Anthem
My Kazakhstan


Capital Astana

Largest city Almaty
Official languages Kazakh (state language), Russian
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Motto
none
Anthem
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
(March of Azerbaijan)
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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān Â²


Capital
(and largest city) Tehran

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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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Anthem
My Kazakhstan


Capital Astana

Largest city Almaty
Official languages Kazakh (state language), Russian
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Motto
none
Anthem
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
(March of Azerbaijan)
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20th century - 21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
2000 2001 2002 - 2003 - 2004 2005 2006

2003 by topic:
News by month
Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān Â²


Capital
(and largest city) Tehran

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Motto
none
Anthem
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
(March of Azerbaijan)
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Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow [θɑːpɑːrmɯːrɑːt niːjɑːðɒv
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2007 December >>
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2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31

December (
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20th century - 21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
2003 2004 2005 - 2006 - 2007 2008 2009

2006 by topic:
News by month
Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
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gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as electricity. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane.
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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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Anthem
Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля  
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China (Traditional Chinese:
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