Fort Carillon

Fort Ticonderoga
(U.S. National Historic Landmark)
Enlarge picture
Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Lake Champlain
Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Lake Champlain
Location:Ticonderoga, NY
Nearest city:Burlington, VT
Coordinates:_ ]
Area:21,950 acres (87.6 km²)
Built/Founded:1755
Architect:Marquis De Lotbiniere
Added to NRHP:October 15, 1966 [1]
NRHP Reference#:66000519
Governing body:Private museum
Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson River Valley and the French-controlled Saint Lawrence River Valley. The name "Ticonderoga" comes from an Iroquois word tekontaró:ken, meaning "it is at the junction of two waterways".[2] Fort Ticonderoga was the site of four battles over the course of 20 years.

Construction of the fort

Enlarge picture
A view of the restored Fort Ticonderoga, now an early American military history museum.
In 1755, the French began construction of Fort Carillon. That name apparently derived from the musical sounds of a nearby waterfall. Construction proceeded on the fort slowly through 1756 and 1757. The fort was primarily a stone fort well situated for defense against infantry attack. The fort's primary goal was to control the south end of Lake Champlain and to prevent the British from getting a toe hold on the lake.

Ticonderoga during the Seven Years' War

Enlarge picture
U.S. 1955 postage stamp depicting Ethan Allen and Fort Ticonderoga.


In 1757 the French launched a very successful attack upon Fort William Henry from the nearly complete Fort Carillon.

The garrison of the Fort was by Regiment de la Reine. For an account of the regiment at Fort Ticonderoga see the following link: [1].

On July 8, 1758 the British, under General James Abercrombie, staged a frontal attack against hastily assembled works outside the fort's main walls (which were still under construction) in the Battle of Carillon. Abercrombie tried to move rapidly against the few French defenders, opting to forgo field cannon, he relied upon his 16,000 troops. The British were soundly defeated by 4,000 French defenders. This battle gave the fort a reputation for invulnerability, although the fort never again repulsed an attack. The 42nd Highland Regiment (the Black Watch) was especially badly mauled in the attack on Fort Carillon, giving rise to a legend involving the Scottish Major Duncan Campbell.

The terrifying reputation of the Native Americans, for the most part allied to the French, is thought to have provoked the wave of panic that apparently overtook British troops retreating in great disorder by day's end. French patrols later found equipment strewn about, boots left stuck in mud, and many wounded on their stretchers left to die in clearings. In fact, few Natives were actually present during the battle, a large contingent of them having been sent by French governor Vaudreuil on a useless mission to Corlar. The misdirection of Indian fighters gave Montcalm all the more reason to pester at his rival Vaudreuil, complaining that his actions had cost them the opportunity to completely destroy the retreating British (who would later regroup south of Lake George).

The fort was captured the following year by the British, under General Jeffrey Amherst, in the Battle of Ticonderoga.

The fort during the American Revolution



On May 10, 1775, a sleeping British garrison of 22 soldiers was surprised by a small force of Vermonters who called themselves the Green Mountain Boys, and were led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, who walked into the fort through an unlocked gate. Allen later claimed that he demanded to the British commandant that he surrender the fort "In the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress!"; however, his surrender demand was made to a junior officer, not the commandant, and no other witnesses remembered Allen uttering such a phrase.[3] Not a single shot was fired. The colonies obtained a large supply of cannons and powder, much of which was hauled 300 km by Henry Knox during the winter of 1775-1776, to Boston, to support the Siege of Boston.

In 1776, the British returned from Canada and moved down Lake Champlain under General Carleton. A ramshackle fleet of American gunboats delayed the British until winter threatened (see: Battle of Valcour Island), but the attack resumed the next year under General Burgoyne.

Ticonderoga's role in the Saratoga Campaign



In 1777 the British forces moving south from Canada drove the Americans back into the fort, then hauled cannon to the top of undefended Mount Defiance, which overlooked the fort.

"Where a goat can go, a man can go, where a man can go, he can drag a gun" - Maj. Gen. William Phillips quote as his men brought cannon to the top of Mt. Defiance in 1777

Faced with bombardment, Arthur St. Clair ordered Ticonderoga abandoned on July 5, 1777. Burgoyne's troops moved in the next day.

The colonials quickly withdrew across the Lake to Fort Independence on the Vermont side of the Lake. They soon abandoned that fort as well and retreated south to Saratoga. Seth Warner, now the leader of Vermont Republic's Green Mountain Boys, having conducted the American rear guard the previous year as the Americans retreated from Quebec to Ticonderoga, showed his prowess and cool headedness by very nearly defeating the pursuing British. The rear guard led by Americans Warner, Francis and Titcomb demonstrated significant effectiveness in this defensive maneuver. Warner almost certainly would have defeated the larger British force had it not been for the arrival of the flanking German troops sent by Burgoyne. This rear guard is known as the skirmish at Hubbardton and ultimately allowed Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair to retreat to Saratoga with the majority of the Ticonderoga force. This set up the ultimate defeat of Burgoyne later that year in Saratoga. In total 67% of Warner's troops made it through the rear guard battle and effectively stopped the British pursuit.

Abandonment of the fort

After Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga, the fort at Ticonderoga became increasingly irrelevant. The British abandoned Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1780.

Its role in early American history led to five different U.S. Navy vessels and a class of aircraft carrier to be named after it.

The town of Ticonderoga, New York, located on Lake George in the area where the fort stands, also carries its name. The fort is privately owned and was restored in 1909. It is maintained as a tourist attraction, opening for the season on May 10th every year, closing in late October.

The fort was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960[4] Included in the landmarked area are three land masses, including on promontory across Lake Champlain from the fort, in Vermont.[5],[6]

References

1. ^ National Register Information System. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service (2007-01-23).
2. ^ Afable, Patricia O. and Madison S. Beeler (1996). "Place Names", in "Languages", ed. Ives Goddard. Vol. 17 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, p. 193
3. ^ Boller, Jr., Paul F.; George, John (1989). They Never Said It: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505541-1. 
4. ^ Fort Ticonderoga. National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service (2007-09-13).
5. ^ ["Fort Ticonderoga / Mount Independence National Historic Landmark", August 1983, by Charles H. Ashton and Richard W. HunterPDF (2000 KB) National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination]. National Park Service (1983-08).
6. ^ [Fort Ticonderoga--Accompanying 40 photos, from 1983, 1967, and 1980.PDF (6800 KB) National Register of Historic Places Inventory]. National Park Service (1983-08).

See also

Gallery


Fort Ticonderoga. Exterior view ca. 1933.

Fort Ticonderoga. Guns on bastion ca. 1933.

Fort Ticonderoga. Place d'armes ca. 1933.

Fort Ticonderoga. Vault in bakery ca. 1933.

Fort Ticonderoga 1759.


External links

Coordinates:



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Ticonderoga, New York

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Country United States
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The 18th Century lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

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Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defense in warfare. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs.
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Primary sources Otter Creek
Winooski River
Missisquoi River
Lamoille River
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Location Adirondack Mountains
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State of New York

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Hudson River (Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk or Muhheakantuck)

Looking upriver from the Bear Mountain Bridge


Country | USA
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Origin Lake Ontario
Mouth Gulf of Saint Lawrence/Atlantic Ocean
Basin countries Canada (Ontario, Quebec)
United States (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Wisconsin)
Length 1,197 km (744 mi)
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Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George, New York (NY), was built during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) by Sir William Johnson as a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga).
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James Abercrombie or Abercromby (1706 – April 23, 1781) was a British Army general and commander-in-chief of forces in North America during the French and Indian War who met
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Regulars:
464 killed
1,117 wounded,
69 missing
Provincials:
87 killed
239 wounded
8 missing [2]

The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain on what was then
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The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

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Duncan Campbell was a Scots nobleman who died on July 18, 1758, as a result of wounds received in an unsuccessful frontal attack against French forces at Fort Carillon (renamed Fort Ticonderoga when the British took the fort a year later).
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