Fraction (religion)

The Fraction is the ceremonial act of breaking the consecrated bread during the Eucharistic rite in some Christian denominations.

In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, it is accompanied by the singing or recitation of the Agnus Dei.

The General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 83 states: "The priest breaks the Eucharistic Bread, assisted, if the case calls for it, by the deacon or a concelebrant. Christ's gesture of breaking bread at the Last Supper, which gave the entire Eucharistic Action its name in apostolic times, signifies that the many faithful are made one body (1 Cor 10:17) by receiving Communion from the one Bread of Life which is Christ, who died and rose for the salvation of the world. The fraction or breaking of bread is begun after the sign of peace and is carried out with proper reverence, though it should not be unnecessarily prolonged, nor should it be accorded undue importance. This rite is reserved to the priest and the deacon. The priest breaks the Bread and puts a piece of the host into the chalice to signify the unity of the Body and Blood of the Lord in the work of salvation, namely, of the living and glorious Body of Jesus Christ."

In speaking of the bread to be used at Mass, the General Instruction, 321 recommends "that the eucharistic bread ... be made in such a way that the priest at Mass with a congregation is able in practice to break it into parts for distribution to at least some of the faithful. Small hosts are, however, in no way ruled out when the number of those receiving Holy Communion or other pastoral needs require it. The action of the fraction or breaking of bread, which gave its name to the Eucharist in apostolic times, will bring out more clearly the force and importance of the sign of unity of all in the one bread, and of the sign of charity by the fact that the one bread is distributed among the brothers and sisters."

In Anglican churches, a Fraction Anthem may be sung or spoken during the rite.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine rite, leavened bread is used for the Eucharist. The round loaves, or prosphora, are stamped so that a Greek cross is in the center, with the letters "IC XC NI-KA" (Jesus Christ conquers) occupying the quarters formed by the cross' arms. The portion occupied by this stamp, the "Lamb", is cut out before the Divine Liturgy during the preparatory rite and is the only part consecrated during the Epiclesis. As part of the preparation, the priest cuts the Lamb part way through crosswise into four sections from the bottom, leaving the bread united by the stamped crust on top.

At the Fraction, which follows the Lord's Prayer and the Elevation, the celebrant breaks the Lamb into four portions along the cuts already made with the words, "Broken and divided is the Lamb of God, which is broken and not disunited, which is ever eaten and never consumed, but sanctifieth those that partake thereof." He then arranges the four pieces crosswise on the edge of the diskos. On the invitation of the deacon, "Fill, Master, the holy chalice," the celebrant takes the piece with the letters "IC" and places it into the chalice saying, "The fulness of the cup, of the faith, of the Holy Spirit."

The portion with the letters "XC" is used for the communion of the clergy. The two portions "NI" and "KA" are divided into small pieces and used for the communion of the people. The portion "IC" is not used for communion, but is consumed by the deacon along with any other consecrated elements left over at the end of the Liturgy.
Eucharist (also known as Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a rite or act of worship that most Christians[1] perform in order to fulfill the instruction that they believe Jesus gave his disciples, at his last meal with them before
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The liturgical rite of the Church of Rome is called the Roman Rite. The quite distinct term Latin Rite usually refers not to a liturgical rite but to the particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church that was sometimes referred to also as the Patriarchate of the West,
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Christianity

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Agnus Dei is a Latin term meaning Lamb of God, and was originally used to refer to Jesus Christ in his role of the perfect sacrificial offering that atones for the sins of humanity in Christian theology, harkening back to ancient Jewish Temple sacrifices.
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The General Instruction of the Roman Missal (GIRM) - in the Latin original, Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani (IGMR) - is the detailed document governing the celebration of Mass of the ordinary form of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, and is printed at the start of
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priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to perform and administer religious rites; and in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of the deity or deities.
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Christianity

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Christ is the English term for the Greek word Χριστός (Christós), which literally means "The Anointed One.
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Last Supper (also called Lord's Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles before his death. The Last Supper has been the subject of many paintings, perhaps the most famous by Leonardo da Vinci.
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Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[2] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, and is also an important figure in several other religions.
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Mass is the name given to the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church, in Old Catholic Churches, in the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some largely High Church Lutheran regions, including the Scandinavian and Baltic
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Eucharist (also known as Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a rite or act of worship that most Christians[1] perform in order to fulfill the instruction that they believe Jesus gave his disciples, at his last meal with them before
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
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A fraction anthem is a text spoken or sung during the rite of Holy Eucharist, at the point when the celebrant breaks the consecrated bread. The term is used commonly in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.
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Eastern Christianity

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Byzantine Empire
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Baptism of Kiev
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Eastern Orthodox history
Ukraine Christian history
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The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches.
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A prosphora (Greek Πρόσφορον or Πρόσφορα in plural, Offering) is a small loaf of bread used in Orthodox Christian ritual.
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cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other, dividing one or two of the lines in half. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally; if they run diagonally, the design is technically termed a saltire.
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The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. As such, it is used in the Eastern Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches.
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Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis (Greek Προθησις a setting forth) or Proskomedia (an offering), is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Byzantine-rite Eastern Catholic Churches to the act of
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epiclesis (also sometimes spelled epiklesis, since it is a transliterated Greek word) is that part of the prayer of consecration of the Eucharistic elements (bread and wine) by which the priest invokes the Holy Spirit.
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Lord's Prayer,[1] also known as the Our Father or Pater noster is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. On Easter Sunday 2007 it was estimated that 2 billion Protestant, Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Christians read, recited, or sang the short
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In Christian liturgy the term elevation is used to denote the ritual of raising the consecrated elements of bread and wine during the celebration of the Eucharist. The term refers principally to the elevation immediately after the consecration of each element, though see below.
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paten, or diskos, is a small plate, usually made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic hosts. It is generally used during the service itself, while the reserved hosts are stored in the Tabernacle in a ciborium.
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