Frankfurt am Main

Frankfurt am Main
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The skyline of Frankfurt
The skyline of Frankfurt
Coat of armsLocation
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Coat of arms of Frankfurt am Main
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Frankfurt (Germany)

Administration
CountryGermany
StateHesse
Admin. regionDarmstadt
DistrictUrban district
City subdivisions16 districts (Ortsbezirke)
46 boroughs (Stadtteile)
Governing partiesCDU / Greens
Basic statistics
Population700,213  
Please give "Stand" in YYYY-MM-DD format , e. g. 2005-12-31
[][]
 - Metro5,800,000 
Please give "pop_metro_date" in YYYY-MM-DD format , e. g. 2005-12-31
Founded1st century
Other information
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate codeF
Postal codes60001-60599, 65901-65936
Area codes069, 06109, 06101
Websitewww.frankfurt.de
Location of the city of Frankfurt am Main within urban district
Coordinates:

Frankfurt am Main  (German: [ˈfʁaŋkfʊʁt], English: [ˈfɹæŋkfɜːth] American English: [ˈfɹæŋkfɝʔ]) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a mid-2007 population of 663,567.[0] The urban area had an estimated population of 2,260,001 in 2001.[0] The city is at the center of the larger Frankfurt Rhine Main Area which has a population of 5 million and is Germany's second largest metropolitan area.

Situated on the river Main, Frankfurt is the financial and transportation centre of Germany. Frankfurt is the place of residence of the European Central Bank, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and is one of the two largest financial centres in continental Europe (the other one being Paris). Frankfurt was named Europe's richest city in 2001 as measured by GDP per capita.[3] It is also listed as one of nine Alpha world cities.[4]

Among English speakers the city is commonly known simply as "Frankfurt", though Germans occasionally call it by its full name when it is necessary to distinguish it from the other (significantly smaller) Frankfurt in the German state of Brandenburg, known as Frankfurt (Oder). It was once called Frankfort-on-the-Main in English, a translation of Frankfurt am Main.

Overview

Frankfurt has played a central role in the political history of Germany and the German states for centuries. From 855 to 1792 Frankfurt was the electoral city for the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. In the 1848-49 revolutions, it became a sort of revolutionary capital and was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche, or St. Paul's Church.

The three pillars of Frankfurt's economy are finance, transport, and trade fairs. Frankfurt has been Germany's financial capital for centuries, and it is the home of a number of major banks and brokerages. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is by far Germany's largest, and is one of the world's most important. Frankfurt is also the seat of the European Central Bank which sets monetary policy for the Eurozone economy, and of the German Bundesbank. A number of major German commercial banks, including Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, and Commerzbank, are based in Frankfurt.

Frankfurt has an excellent transportion infrastructure and the Frankfurt International Airport is a major European aviation hub. Frankfurt Airport ranks among the world's top ten airports and serves 304 flight destinations in 110 countries. Depending on whether total passengers or flights are used, it ranks as the second or third busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris' Charles de Gaulle. Its central location at Europe's heart and its excellent accessibility by air, rail and road make Frankfurt Airport City especially attractive. In addition, many large trade fairs take place in Frankfurt each year, notably the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (Frankfurt Motor Show) and the Frankfurt Book Fair, which have far over 100,000 visitors each, but also important special interest fairs like the LinuxWorld Conference & Expo or Musikmesse Frankfurt.

Frankfurt is sometimes nicknamed "Bankfurt", "Mainhattan" (derived from the local River Main) or "The Big Äppel" (a reference to "Äppelwoi", or apple wine, a type of cider which is produced and drunk mainly in the region). It is one of only four European cities that have a significant number of high-rise skyscrapers. With eleven skyscrapers taller than 150 m (492 ft) in 2004, Frankfurt is second behind Paris (La Défense and Montparnasse, with twelve skyscrapers taller than 150 m, not counting the Eiffel Tower), but ahead of London (Canary Wharf and the City, with eight skyscrapers taller than 150 m) and Moscow (seven skyscrapers taller than 150 m). The city of Frankfurt contains the tallest skyscraper in the European Union, the Commerzbank Tower, which is also the second tallest on the continent (after the Triumph-Palace building in Moscow).

Frankfurt is also home to many cultural and educational institutions, the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, many museums, most of them lined up along the Main river on the Museumsufer (museum embankment), and a large botanical garden, the Palmengarten. Frankfurt's second major university, Business School of Finance and Management, focuses on finance. The best-known museums are das Städelsche Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, called Städel, and the Senckenberg Natural History Museum. Others include the Museum for Modern Art, the Schirn Art Gallery, museums for architecture, films, communications and the Jewish Museum/ Museum Judengasse.

During World War II Frankfurt was heavily bombed and its mediaeval city centre was destroyed. The city recovered relatively quickly after the war, and its modern shape was formed. Part of the rebuilding process involved creating one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems in the 1970s. That system includes a light rail system (S-Bahn) capable of reaching outlying communities as well as the city centre, and a deep underground rail system with smaller coaches (U-Bahn) also capable of travelling above ground on street rails.


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Panorama over Frankfurt am Main, the banking city of Germany
Panorama over Frankfurt am Main, the banking city of Germany

History

In the area of the Römer, Roman settlements were established, probably in the first century; some artifacts from that era are found to this day. The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times — it is thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa. Nida (Heddernheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.

The name of Frankfurt on the Main is derived from the Franconofurt of the Germanic tribe of the Franks; Furt (cf. English ford) denotes a low point passage across a stream or river. Alemanni and Franks lived there and by 794 Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd (-furt -vurd) is first mentioned.

In the Holy Roman Empire, Frankfurt was one of the most important cities. From 855 the German kings and emperors were elected in Frankfurt and crowned in Aachen. From 1562 the kings/emperors were also crowned in Frankfurt, Maximilian II being the first one. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II was elected. He was crowned, on purpose, on Bastille Day, 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. The elections and coronations took place in St. Bartholomäus cathedral, known as the Kaiserdom (en: Emperor's Cathedral), or in its predecessors.

The Frankfurter Messe (en: Frankfurt trade fair) was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an Imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the Empire. Since 1478 book trade fairs have been held in Frankfurt, the Frankfurter Buchmesse being still the most important in Germany and, some might say, the world.

In 1372 Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt (en:Imperial city), i.e. directly subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.

Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War, but it suffered from the bubonic plague that was brought to the city by refugees. After the end of the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth.

In the Napoleonic Wars Frankfurt was occupied or cannonaded several times by French troops. It nevertheless still remained a free city until the total collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806 it become part of the principality of Aschaffenburg under the Fürstprimas ('Prince-Primate', 25 July 1806 – 19 October 1813: Karl Theodor Anton Maria Kämmerer von Worms, Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg (b. 1744 – d. 1817), 1803–1806 Prince-archbishop of Regensburg). This also meant, that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. Napoleon intended to make his adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais, already prince de Venise ("prince of Venice", a newly established primogeniture in Italy) Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop didn't have legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813, when military tide turned in favor of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies, which turns over the Napoleonic order of central Europe. Dalberg abdicated in favor of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never did rule after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt being taken by the allies.

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1812-1815, redrawing the map of Europe) dissolved the grand-duchy, and Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated revolution of 1848, Frankfurt was home to the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung), which resided in St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) (see German Confederation for details) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian king declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt lost its independence after Austro-Prussian War as Prussia annexed in 1866 several smaller states, among them the free city of Frankfurt. The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914 the citizens of Frankfurt founded the University of Frankfurt, later called Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. This is the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest universities.

After World War I Frankfurt was occupied by French troops as a means of reprisal, because the French found the German side guilty of having violated in some details the clauses of the peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland. In 1924 Ludwig Landmann became the first Jewish Mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. However, during the Nazi era, the synagogues of Frankfurt were destroyed.

The city of Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II. About 5,500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once famous medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was destroyed. The reconstruction after the war took place in an (often-simple) modern style, thus irrevocably changing the architectural face of Frankfurt. Only very few landmark buildings have been reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner.

After the end of the war Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse-(Darmstadt) and the Prussian Hesse provinces. The city was part of the American administered zone of Germany. The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945-1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949-1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital of West Germany — they even went as far as constructing a new parliament building that has never been used for its intended purpose, and is now a TV studio. In the end, Konrad Adenauer (the first post-war Chancellor) preferred the tiny city of Bonn, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also for another reason; many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt, one of the largest German cities, and a former centre of the old German-dominated Holy Roman Empire, would be accepted as a "permanent" capital of Germany, thereby weakening the West German population's support for reunification and the eventual return of the capital city to Berlin.

Population

Frankfurt is a multicultural city. Most immigrants are from Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Spain, North-African countries, Iran, Lebanon, and the United States. The Frankfurt Area is also home to the (now 2nd) largest Korean community in Europe. 180 different nationalities reside in Frankfurt.

For a long time Frankfurt was a Protestant-dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved to the city. Today a narrow plurality of citizens are Catholic. Frankfurt has the second largest Jewish community (after Berlin) in Germany.

Geography

Geographic location

The city is located on both sides of the River Main. The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest (Frankfurter Stadtwald) Germany's largest forest within a city. The centre of Frankfurt is located on the north of river.

Neighbouring communities and areas

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view from south, the "Taunus" as background
To the West, Frankfurt borders the Main-Taunus district (Towns and Municipalities Hattersheim am Main, Kriftel, Hofheim am Taunus, Kelkheim (Taunus), Liederbach am Taunus, Sulzbach (Taunus), Schwalbach am Taunus and Eschborn); to the Northwest the Hochtaunuskreis (Towns Steinbach (Taunus), Oberursel (Taunus), and Bad Homburg v.d. Höhe; to the North the Wetteraukreis (Towns Karben and Bad Vilbel); to the Northeast the Main-Kinzig district (Municipality Niederdorfelden and the town Maintal); to the Southeast the city Offenbach am Main; to the South the Offenbach district (Town Neu-Isenburg); and to the Southwest the Groß-Gerau district (Towns Mörfelden-Walldorf, Rüsselsheim and Kelsterbach).

City divisions and districts

The city is divided into 46 Stadtteile or Ortsteile which is again divided into 118 Stadtbezirke or city districts. The largest Ortsteil in area is Sachsenhausen-Süd. Most Stadtteile are incorporated suburbs, or Vororte, or previously separate cities. Some like Nordend arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit after the unification of Germany. Others were formed from settlements, which previously belonged to other city divisions, like Dornbusch (Frankfurt am Main).

The 46 city divisions are combined into 16 area districts or Ortsbezirke, which each have a district committee and chairperson.

History of incorporation

Until the middle of the 19th century, the city territory of Frankfurt consisted of the present-day Stadtteile of Altstadt, Innenstadt, Bahnhofsviertel, Gutleutviertel, Gallusviertel, Westend, Nordend, Ostend and Sachsenhausen. After 1877, a number of previously independent areas were incorporated into the city, see .

Main sights

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Frankfurt Cathedral.
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St. Paul's Church
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Alte Oper, now a concerthall.
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City Theater at night.

Cathedral

Saint Bartholomeus' Cathedral (Dom Sankt Bartholomäus) is a Gothic building, which was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time. It is the main church of Frankfurt. From 1356 onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from 1562 to 1792, emperors were crowned here.

Since the 18th century, Saint Bartholomeus' has been called "the cathedral" by the people, although it has never been a bishop's seat. In 1867, the cathedral was destroyed by a fire and rebuilt in its present style. The height of the cathedral is 95 m.

Römer

The name of the town hall means "Roman". In fact, nine houses were acquired by the city council in 1405 from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the town hall and was later connected with the neighbouring buildings. In the upper floor, there is the Kaisersaal ("Emperor's Hall") where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets.

The Römer was partially destroyed in World War II, and later rebuilt.

Saint Paul's Church



St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) is a national historic monument in Germany with great political symbolism, because it was the seat of the first democratically elected Parliament in 1848. It was established in 1789 as a Protestant church but was not finished until 1833. Its importance has its root in the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the church during the revolutionary years of 1848/49 in order to write a constitution for a united Germany. The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power, and in 1849 Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force of arms and the parliament was dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.

St. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly the interior of the building, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is not used for religious services, but mainly for exhibitions and events.

Alte Oper

Main article: Alte Oper


Alte Oper, Frankfurt's famous opera house, was built in 1880 by the architect Richard Lucae. It was one of the major opera houses of Germany, until it was destroyed in World War II. It was not until 1981 that the old opera was fully rebuilt and reopened. Today it functions as a concert hall, while operas are performed in the Oper Frankfurt. The inscription on the frieze of the Old Opera says: "Dem Wahren, Schönen, Guten" ("To the true, the beautiful, the good").

Oper Frankfurt

The Oper Frankfurt is a leading opera company of Germany and one of the most important opera houses in the world.

20th century architecture

Skyscrapers

Frankfurt is unique for its skyscrapers, and it is one of only a few European cities to allow skyscrapers within the old central part of town. Along with Paris, London and Warsaw, it also is one of the few European cities to have a significant number of skyscrapers.

The major skyscrapers are:

Other structures

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"Hammering Man" in front of the Messeturm skyscraper
Henninger Turm: a grain silo owned by Henninger Brewery with observation deck and restaurant, offering a breath-taking view over downtown Frankfurt from its south shore. The tower has been closed to the public since October 31, 2002.
Europaturm
a telecommunications tower known as the "Frankfurt TV Tower". Until 1999, it was open to the public, with an entertainment establishment in the revolving top. It is normally referred by the locals as the "Spargel" (Asparagus) due to its tall circular central structure.

Culture

Festivals

Frankfurt hosts several festivals, fairs, and carnivals throughout the year. The most famous is the Rheingau-Music-Festival with many (mostly classical) concerts at castles and under the open sky surrounded by vineyards. It's an annual festival, taking place in May. Another major festival in the city is the "Museumsuferfest"; "Museum-Riverbank-Festival". It is one of the biggest cultural festivals in Germany, which offers the opportunity to see, buy, smell, taste and hear new things from all around the world. The festival takes place yearly at the end of summer and attracts an average of 3 million visitors. The festival goes over a period of 3 days and ends with a spectacular show of fireworks. Frankfurt is also known for having one of the largest red light districts in Germany in vicinity of the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station).

Museums



"Museumsufer":

South side, in this order:
  • Ikonenmuseum
  • Museum für Angewandte Kunst
  • Museum der Weltkulturen
  • Deutsches Filmmuseum
  • Deutsche Architekturmuseum
  • Museum für Kommunikation
  • Städel
  • Liebieghaus
  • Museum Giersch
North side:
  • Jewish Museum (Frankfurt)
  • Historisches Museum (Frankfurt)
The street (south-side) itself (Schaumainkai) is on Saturday most partially closed to traffic for Frankfurt's largest flea market.

Downtown:

Culinary specialties

Transport

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Frankfurt International Airport.
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Frankfurt Central Station.
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Frankfurt underground train.
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A tram in Frankfurt.
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Velotaxi in Frankfurt, Germany

Airports

The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt International Airport. The airport has three runways and is one of the busiest airports in Europe, along with London Heathrow Airport, Charles de Gaulle International Airport and Schiphol International Airport. It is the biggest cargo-airport in Europe. Frankfurt can also be accessed via Frankfurt-Hahn Airport which is located approximately 120 km (75 mi) from the actual city.

Railways

Frankfurt Central Station recently underwent a major development to allow trains from all over Germany to arrive at the station. Long distance trains run by Deutsche Bahn exit and arrive at the station everyday and less luxurious EuroCity and InterCity trains do the same. The Airport Long Distance Station is a modern station for the ICE highspeed trains at the Airport beside the A3 Motorway.

Local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV), the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world. Only the Berlin integrated public transport system (VBB) is larger.

Public transport

The city comprises two underground railway systems: the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn, as well as an above-ground tram system known as the Straßenbahn. Information about the U and S Bahn can be found on the RMV website.

The S-Bahn is a far more extensive rail network and is above ground for the majority of the routes, however, they are largely subterranean in the city centre. The S-Bahn provides access to the suburbs of Frankfurt and to the main airport, as well to nearby cities and larger towns (such as Darmstadt, Hanau and Wiesbaden), and most smaller towns that are on the way.

The U-Bahn has seven lines serving the city centre and some larger suburbs. The trains that run on the line are in fact lightrails as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre. There is only one line that is completely underground.

The Straßenbahn (tram) only operates within the centre of Frankfurt and some smaller suburbs, making it a popular option for mid-day business commuting. It also provides extensive access to the district of Sachsenhausen on the southern bank of the river Main.

A number of bus lines complete the public transportation system of Frankfurt. Night buses take over the service of the U-Bahn and Straßenbahn at 1:30 am to 3:30 am on Friday and Saturday nights.

Taxis

Most taxis can be found outside all S-Bahn, U-Bahn stations and major intersections. The normal way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail one down on the street.

Bicycles

Deutsche Bahn also rent out bicycles to the public. One finds them at many major road intersections and railway stations. All one has to do is make a phone call to hire them for €0.06/min or they can be hired per day for €15,-. The bicycles are a bit heavy but they do have shock absorbers to ensure a smooth journey. The silver-red colour of the bikes with their unique frame make them easily visible and difficult to steal.

The public can now use a velotaxi which involves the operator using a tricycle with a sheltered capsule on top. There is room for two people and the operators cover all of the city centre.

Frankfurt has also a network of modern cycle routes throughout city.

Roads

The roads and streets of Frankfurt city centre are usually congested and some areas are pedestrian-only streets. Despite these congested streets, there are numerous car parks located throughout the city. Frankfurt is also a traffic hub of the German Autobahn system. Within the direct city vicinity Frankfurt connects to the A 1, A 3, A 5, A 66, A 67, A 648, A 661 and A 45 Autobahns.

Buses

Frankfurt has an extensive city bus system that augments the streetcar and U-Bahn system run by the RMV

Economy and business

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Bull and Bear face-off in front of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Frankfurt am Main is a financial and service centre of global importance and, as the focal point of the dynamic Rhine-Main economic region, is one of the leading locations for companies in Europe. Its central location, its well-developed infrastructure with the largest airport on the continent, the concentration of internationally active companies (many of them have headquarters in the city) of various sectors provide Frankfurt with one of the top positions in Europe.

As one of the leading financial centres, more than 300 national and international banks are represented in the Main metropolis. Amongst others, the European Central Bank and the German Bundesbank have their headquarters in Frankfurt. This is also where the Deutsche Börse Group is located.

According to a ranking list produced by the University of Liverpool, Frankfurt is the richest city in Europe by GDP per capita. After Frankfurt are Karlsruhe, Paris and then Munich.

With over 922 jobs per 1000 inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. The high number of around 600,000 positions with only 650,000 inhabitants of the city itself is explained by the high number of commuters who work in the city, which raises the per capital GDP of the resident population significantly. Furthermore, it is only on work days and certain Saturdays when shops are open that Frankfurt can claim to have a million inhabitants. On other days, the statistics regarding Frankfurt's wealth are reduced, in favor of the communities and towns of the so-called Speckgürtel (literally bacon belt), such as Bad Homburg v.d. Höhe, Königstein im Taunus, Kronberg im Taunus and Bad Soden am Taunus, many of whose inhabitants work in Frankfurt. Frankfurt has the highest concentration of lawyers in Germany, with one lawyer per 99 inhabitants, and also the highest per-capita level of debt in Germany (excepting Germany's three city-states), because of a set of massive public works projects in the 1980s under CDU mayors Walter Wallmann and Wolfram Brück.

Frankfurt also occupies the fifth position on another list ranking major cities according to quality of life. Despite that, Frankfurt also had, as of 2003, the highest levels of crime per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany. However, this statistic is a result of the commuter population, for it is calculated based on the 650,000-inhabitant figure, and also includes crimes committed at the airport, such as smuggling. Frankfurt is therefore a very safe city, corrorborated by surveys among the inhabitants.

The Frankfurt Airport is the single largest place of work in Germany.

Electronic communication

Frankfurt is also an important location for the internet. Frankfurt is home to Germany's largest internet exchange point, DE-CIX, and is where domain names are registered for the top-level-domain .de.

Trade

Fairs have a long tradition in Frankfurt, which, with the Frankfurt Trade Fair is recognized as the premier city for medieval fairs and modern-day trade shows. Even in the Middle Ages, traders could sell their goods in Frankfurt. Frankfurt was connected with Leipzig, the other of the two most important locations for fairs in the Holy Roman Empire, by means of the Via Regia.

Alongside the Frankfurt Book Fair, Frankfurt hosts the International Automobile Exhibition, the Achema, and the Ambiente Frankfurt, the largest consumer goods trade show in the world.

Finance

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Frankfurt's Bankenviertel (financial district)
Frankfurt is known as a centre of high finance. The headquarters of Germany's three largest banks are all located in central Frankfurt. The Deutsche Bank is located on the Mainzer Landstraße in the vicinity of the Taunus foothills. A few avenues further into the city, one can recognize the Commerzbank's skyscrapers, the highest of which is almost 300 m (0 ft) tall.

Despite what its name would suggest, the Dresdner Bank is also headquartered in Frankfurt. Dresdner Bank now belongs to Allianz Bank in Munich. Frankfurt is also the location of the largest Dutch "direct bank", ING. Several important non-public banks are also located in Frankfurt, such as Bankhaus Metzler, Hauck and Aufhäuser, Delbrück Bethmann Maffei (which belongs to the Dutch ABN Amro) and BHF-Bank.

Among the largest non-public banks are the DZ Bank, the DekaBank, the Frankfurter Sparkasse (savings bank), and the Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen (HELABA). Most of the remaining 300 banks are small domestic businesses.

With the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and XETRA, which belong to the Deutsche Börse, Frankfurt has the second largest stock exchange in Europe, and accounts for the largest proportion of trades in Germany. In terms of market capitalization, the Deutsche Börse is the largest stock exchange in the world.

Other businesses

Frankfurt is home to chemical industries, advertising, software business and call centers. Business development and other important departments of the Deutsche Bahn are located at the DB-Headquarters in Gallus. Because of Hoechst AG, Frankfurt is considered the "Apothecary of the World". Höchst's industrial park in Frankfurt is one of the three largest locations for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Europe. Frankfurt is also home to several large German industrial associations, such as the Chemical Industry Association; the Association for German Machine- and Equipment-building; the Electrotechnical, Electronic, and Information Technology Association e.V. with its affiliated electrotechnical standards commission; and the Association of German Automobile Producers, which is currently moving to Franfurt. The Union of German Automobile Producers meets in Frankfurt every two years to coincide with the International Automobile Exhibition, mentioned above. Furthermore, the Trade Association of German Booksellers has its headquarters in Frankfurt, and organizes the Frankfurt Book Fair. In terms of labor unions, Frankfurt is home to the headquarters of IG Metall and IG Bau, two of Germany's largest labor unions.

Businesses with regional headquarters or based in and near Frankfurt include:

Property and Real Estate

Frankfurt has the highest concentration of home owners in Germany. This is partly attributed to number of financial workers in the city but also because of its cosmopolitan nature with a quarter of the city's population being foreigners. For this reason Frankfurt's property market often operates differently than the rest of the country where the prices are generally much flatter than Frankfurt. Germany property prices are pulled down national because of the former East Germany, however, economically sound cities like Frankfurt and other cities in the west of Germany have a bouyant housing market, which attracts a lot of buyers from the Far East.

Establishments and organization

Frankfurt am Main is a banking metropolis also with respect to state-owned banks. Alongside the Bundesbank (the German central bank) and the KfW Banking Group, the German office of the International Finance Corporation (part of the World Bank group) and the European Central Bank have their headquarters in Frankfurt.

Beyond that, Frankfurt is the home to the German National Library, the Hessian State Supreme Court, and the Hessian State Employment Court, and has its own police academy. The fire department, founded in 1874, and the volunteer fire department have eight firehouses. Until their dissolution at the end of 2003, Frankfurt was the location of the Federal Disciplinary Court.

Frankfurt also hosts 88 consulates. Only New York and Hamburg have more foreign representation, excluding capital cities. Russia and China have recently opened general consulates in Frankfurt. The Consulate General of the United States in Frankfurt in Eckenheim is the largest American consulate in the world.

Media

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Editorial department building of Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurt was one of the first cities with daily newspapers, and is home to two international newspapers. The conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung has its editorial offices and its printing houses in the vicinity of Mainzer Highway in the Gallus neighborhood. The left-of-center Frankfurter Rundschau moved its editorial offices and printing houses to the Sachsenhausen neighborhood in July 2005. Another conservative regional newspaper, the Frankfurter Neue Presse, printed by the Frankfurt society, is next to the printing house of the Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung. Frankfurt has a tabloid newspaper, NEWS Frankfurt from the Handelsblatt publishing company, printed on smaller tabloid-style leaf, with a modern layout. The Welt Kompakt is printed in a similar format, and appears in Frankfurt and Berlin. Frankfurt is also home to Reuters's German headquarters in the Messeturm.

Several magazines also originate from Frankfurt. The Journal Frankfurt is the best-known magazine for events, parties, and "insider tips", and has its editorial offices in the Gallus neighborhood. An "ecological magazine", Öko-Test, publishes materials for the Green Party of Germany in Bockenheim. Bockenheim is known for the quiz magazine of the same name, and is home to the editorial office of the satire magazine, Titanic.

Frankfurt's first radio station was the Südwestdeutsche Rundfunkdienst AG (Southwest German Radio Service), founded in 1924. Its successor service is the public broadcaster Hessischer Rundfunk (Hessian Broadcast). Its "Funkhaus am Dornbusch" station is one of the most important radio and television broadcasters. There is also the ARD-Stern that broadcasts from individual senders via a high-service network. Bloomberg TV and RTL have regionals studios on the Neuen Mainzer Straße, downtown. Other broadcasters in Frankfurt include Main FM and Radio X. The largest private radio station in the region FFH, is located nearby in Bad Vilbel.

Since August 1945, the American Forces Network had broadcasted from Frankfurt. Due to troop reductions, the AFN's Frankfurt location has been abandoned. Since October 2004, the AFN has broadcast its European programs from Mannheim.

Education and research

In Frankfurt am Main, there are two universities and several specialist schools. The oldest and most well-known university in the city is the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, with locations in Bockenheim, Westend, and Riedberg, and university hospital in Niederrad. Alongside the university is the banking academie HfB - Business School of Finance & Management, formerly known as the Hochschule für Bankwirtschaft (Institution of Higher Learning for Banking Economics), with its campus in the Ostend (Eastend) neighborhood. Since 2001, it has been a specialist institution for the teaching Economics and Management, or FOM.

Frankfurt has the State Institution of Higher Learning for Artistic Education known as the Städelschule, founded in 1817 by Johann Friedrich Städel, that was taken over by the city in 1942 and turned into a state art school. Another art school is the State Instutution for Music and Performance Art, initially as a private school known as Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium founded in 1878. The Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main (Professional School of Frankfurt) was created out of several older organizations in 1971, and offers courses in engineering and economics. Until September 2003, Frankfurt was also home to a school for library science and administration.

The Philosophical-Theological Institution of Saint George (Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen, a private institution with membership in the German Jesuit Association, has been located in Frankfurt's Sachsenhausen neighborhood since 1950. The city is also home to three Max-Planck-Institutes: the Max Planck Institute for European History of Law (MPIER), Max Planck Institute for Biophysics, and the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research. The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, sponsored by several institutional and private sources, is involved in theoretical research in physics, chemistry, neurology, and computer science.

Sport

Frankfurt hosts the following sports teams or clubs:
Frankfurt used to host these former teams or clubs:

Sister cities

Frankfurt has several Sister cities

See also

References

1. ^ (German) Stadt Frankfurt. "Frankfurter Statistik Aktuell". Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
2. ^ (English) World Urban Areas. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
3. ^ (English) City Mayors. "Europe's 61 richest cities". Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
4. ^ World Cities. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  • Frankfurt — City Guide, Kraichgau Verlag (ISBN 3-929228-21-1)

External links

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Anthem
"Das Lied der Deutschen" (third stanza)
also called "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
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Länder (singular Land). Since Land is the literal German word for "country", the term Bundesländer (federal states; singular Bundesland
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Hesse

Flag Coat of arms

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Darmstadt

''Map of Hesse highlighting the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt
State| Hesse
Darmstadt
7,444.88 km
3,780,374 (30 Sep. 2005)
Pop. density| 0 /km
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Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
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This is a list of urban districts in Germany. Germany is divided into 429 districts (not to be confused with the larger Regierungsbezirk); these consist of 313 rural districts (Landkreise, see List of German rural districts) and 116 urban districts (
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The Alliance '90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements.
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population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the
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date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated.
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metropolitan area is a large population centre consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central cities and their zone of influence.
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date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated.
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The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period
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time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
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Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in most European and some North African countries.

Its time offset is UTC+1. During daylight saving time CEST is used instead (UTC+2).
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Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in most European and some North African countries. During the winter, Central European Time (UTC+1) is used.
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UTC+1 is used in the following locations:
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UTC+2 corresponds to the following time zones:
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German car number plates (Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered. Whenever a person changes their main place of residence in Germany, or buys a new car, they are required to buy new number plates.
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Postal codes in Germany, Postleitzahl (plural Postleitzahlen, abbreviated to PLZ), consist of five digits, which indicate the wider area (first two digits), and the postal district (last three digits).

The present system was introduced on 1 July 1993.
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Area codes in Germany (German Vorwahl) have two to five digits, not counting the leading zero. The leading zero must be dialed when calling from within Germany and must be omitted when calling from abroad.
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geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
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Länder (singular Land). Since Land is the literal German word for "country", the term Bundesländer (federal states; singular Bundesland
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Hessen
Hesse

Flag Coat of arms

Details
Location

Coordinates
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Germany

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Anthem
"Das Lied der Deutschen" (third stanza)
also called "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
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Frankfurt Rhine Main Area and Frankfurt Rhine-Main Region both redirect to here.


The officially designated Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, often referred to as Frankfurt Rhine Main Area or Rhine Main Area
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Origin Upper Franconia
Mouth Rhine
Basin countries Germany
Length 529 km (329 miles)

Avg. discharge ±200 m³/s (7,000 ft³/s)
Basin area 27,292 km² (10,538 mi²)

The Main
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