Freestyle swimming

Freestyle is one of the official swimming competitions according to the rules of FINA. Although it is technically not a style, its frequent use in this manner is evolving its original meaning. According to the Australian Macquarie dictionary, it is considered as a stroke also known as front crawl or overarm. As there are very few regulations about the way freestyle has to be swum, most swimmers choose to swim front crawl during freestyle, as this style is generally the fastest.

Technique

Freestyle swimming competitions can be any of the unregulated strokes such as front crawl, dog paddle, or sidestroke. Individual freestyle competitions can also be swum in one of the officially regulated strokes (breaststroke, butterfly, and backstroke). For the freestyle part of medley competitions, however, one cannot use breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke. Most competitive swimmers choose the front crawl during freestyle competitions, as this style provides the greatest speed. Freestyle competitions have also been swum completely and partially in other styles, especially at lower ranking competitions. During the Olympic Games, front crawl is swum almost exclusively during freestyle.

Rules and regulation

Freestyle means any style for individual distances and any style but breaststroke, butterfly and backstroke for medley competitions. The wall has to be touched at every turn and upon completion. Some part of the swimmer has to be above water at any time except for the first 15 m after the start and every turn. This rule was introduced to avoid the dangers of swimmers passing out during underwater swimming. (see: History of swimming). The exact FINA rules are:
  • Freestyle means that in an event so designated the swimmer may swim any style, except that in individual medley or medley relay events, freestyle means any style other than backstroke, breaststroke or butterfly.
  • Some part of the swimmer must touch the wall upon completion of each length and at the finish.
  • Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it shall be permissible for the swimmer to be completely submerged during the turn and for a distance of not more than 15 meters after the start and each turn. By that point the head must have broken the surface.

Competitions

There are eight common competitions swam in freestyle swimming, both over either a long course (50 m pool) or a short course (25 m pool). The United States also employs short course yards (25 yard pool). Of course, other distances are also swam on occasions.
  • 50 m Freestyle
  • 100 m Freestyle
  • 200 m Freestyle
  • 400 m Freestyle (500 yards for short course yards)
  • 800 m Freestyle (1000 yards for short course yards)
  • 1500 m Freestyle (1650 yards for short course yards)
  • 4×100 m Freestyle Relay
  • 4×200 m Freestyle Relay
Young swimmers (typically 8 years old and younger) may swim a 25 yard or 25 meter freestyle event. These shorter events are usually for swimmers who are slower than similarly aged swimmers or may have difficulty swimming longer distances.

Freestyle is also part of the medley over the following distances:
  • 100 m Individual Medley (short 25 m pool only)
  • 200 m Individual Medley
  • 400 m Individual Medley
  • 4×100 m Medley Relay
In the long distance races of 800 m and 1500 m, meets hosted by FINA (including the Olympics) only have the 800 m distance for women and the 1500 m distance for men. However, FINA does keep records in the 1500 meter distance for women and the 800 meter distance for men, and many meets in the United States have both distances for both genders.[1]

Well known freestyle swimmers

See also

Endnotes

1. ^ The 2002 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships had an 800 meter distance for men, and 1500 meter distance for women, and appear to have been conducted on this basis since 1989. The 2006 USA Swimming Summer Nationals have both events, as do the 2006 USA Swimming Summer Junior Nationals and the 2005 USMS Long Course Nationals.

Bibliography

  • Hines, Emmett W. (1998). Fitness Swimming. Human Kinetics Publishers. ISBN 0-88011-656-0. 
  • Laughlin, Terry (2001). Swimming Made Easy: The Total Immersion Way for Any Swimmer to Achieve Fluency, Ease, and Speed in Any Stroke. Total Immersion Inc. ISBN 1-931009-01-5. 
  • Colwin, Cecil (2002). Breakthrough Swimming. Human Kinetics Publishers. ISBN 0-7360-3777-2. 
  • (2007) The Macquarie Dictionary Online. Macquarie Dictionary Publishers Pty Ltd. 

External links

Front crawl, also known as The Australian Crawl, is usually regarded as the fastest swimming style developed. It is one of two long axis strokes, the other being the backstroke.
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Swimming is the movement used in water without artificial assistance.

History

Drawings from the Stone Age were found in "the cave of swimmers" near Sura, dating back to 2000 B.C. In 1538 Nicolas Wynman, German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book.
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Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) – International Swimming Federation – is the International Federation (IF) recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for administering international competition in the aquatic sports.
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Front crawl, also known as The Australian Crawl, is usually regarded as the fastest swimming style developed. It is one of two long axis strokes, the other being the backstroke.
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Front crawl, also known as The Australian Crawl, is usually regarded as the fastest swimming style developed. It is one of two long axis strokes, the other being the backstroke.
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Front crawl, also known as The Australian Crawl, is usually regarded as the fastest swimming style developed. It is one of two long axis strokes, the other being the backstroke.
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dog paddle (The term doggy paddle is also popular in the United Kingdom) is a simple swimming stroke. It is characterized by the swimmer lying on their chest and moving their hands and legs alternately in a manner reminiscent of how dogs and other animals swim.
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The sidestroke is a swimming stroke, so named because the swimmer lies on one side. It is helpful as a lifesaving technique and is often used for long-distance swimming. The sidestroke allows the swimmer great endurance.
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Breaststroke is a swimming style swum on the breast. It is the most popular recreational style due to its stability and the ability to keep the head out of the water at all times. In most swimming classes, beginners learn either the breaststroke or the front crawl first.
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The butterfly, (fly for short) is a swimming stroke swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously. The butterfly kick was developed separately, and is also known as the "dolphin kick".
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Backstroke also sometimes called back crawl is one of the three swimming styles regulated by FINA, and the only regulated style swum on the back. This has the advantage of easy breathing, but the disadvantage of not seeing where the swimmer is heading to.
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Medley is a combination of four different swimming styles into one race. This race is either swum by one swimmer as Individual Medley (IM) or by four swimmers as a Medley Relay.
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Olympic Games (often referred to simply as The Olympics or The Games[1]) is an international multi-sport event subdivided into summer and winter sporting events. The summer and winter games are each held every four years (an Olympiad[2]).
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Swimming has been known since prehistoric times. Drawings from the Stone Age were found in "the cave of swimmers" near Wadi Sora (or Sura) in the southwestern part of Egypt.
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An Olympic size swimming pool is the type of pool used in the Olympic Games. The size of the pool is commonly used to define the size of other objects, or to explain how much water is in a particular location.
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In swimming, Short Course (abbreviated SC) stands for a competition organized in a pool of 25 metres in length, instead of a regular Olympic size swimming pool of 50 metres.

In the United States, short course is more often 25 yards; the two are differentiated as SCY and SCM.
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Competitor for  Australia
Men's Swimming
Gold 2000 Sydney 400 m freestyle
Gold 2000 Sydney 4 × 100 m freestyle relay
Gold 2000 Sydney 4 × 200 m freestyle relay
Gold
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Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
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Competitor for  Australia
Men's swimming
Olympic Games
Gold 2000 Sydney[1] 1500 m freestyle
Gold 2000 Sydney 4×200 m freestyle relay
Gold 2004 Athens[2] 1500 m freestyle
Silver
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Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
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Alexander Popov may refer to:
  • Alexander Nikolayevich Popov (1820–1877), a Russian historian
  • Alexander Stepanovich Popov (1859–1905), a Russian physicist

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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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Competitor for  Netherlands
Men’s Swimming
Olympic Games
Gold 2000 Sydney[1] 100 m freestyle
Gold 2000 Sydney 200 m freestyle
Gold 2004 Athens[2] 100 m freestyle
Silver 2004 Athens 200 m freestyle

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Motto
"Je maintiendrai"   (French)
"Ik zal handhaven"   (Dutch)
"I shall stand fast"1

Anthem
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Competitor for  Australia
Olympic Games
Men’s swimming
Gold 1992 Barcelona 1500 m freestyle
Gold 1996 Atlanta 1500 m freestyle
Silver 1992 Barcelona 400 m freestyle
Silver 2000 Sydney 1500 m freestyle
Commonwealth Games
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Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
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Johnny Weissmuller (June 2 1904 – January 20 1984) was an American swimmer and actor who was one of the world's best swimmers in the 1920s, winning five Olympic gold medals and one bronze medal. He won fifty-two US National Championships and set sixty-seven world records.
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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Competitor for  United States
Olympic Games
Gold 2004 Athens[1] 100 m butterfly
Gold 2004 Athens 200 m butterfly
Gold 2004 Athens 200 m individual medley
Gold 2004 Athens 400 m individual medley
Gold
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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