Genie

GEnie was an online service created by a General Electric business - GEIS (now GXS) that ran from 1985 through the end of 1999. At its peak in 1991, GEnie claimed around 400,000 users. Peak simultaneous usage was around 10,000 users. It was one of the pioneering services in the field, though eventually replaced by the Internet and graphics-based services, most notably AOL.[1]

Early history

GEnie was founded by Bill Louden in May 1985 and was launched as an ASCII text-based service by GE's Information Services division in October 1985, and received attention as the first serious commercial competition to CompuServe. Louden was originally CompuServe's product manager for Computing, Community (forums), Games, ecommerce, and email product lines. Louden is credited with creating the first online forums, chat, and consumer email products while at CompuServe. He also designed and developed Megawars, the first online multi-player online game (or MMOG), in 1982.

The service was run by General Electric Information Services (GEIS, now GXS) based in Rockville, Maryland. GEIS served a diverse set of large-scale, international, commercial network-based custom application needs, including banking, Electronic Data Interchange and e-mail services to companies world-wide, but was able to run GEnie on their many Mark III time-sharing mainframe computers that otherwise would have been underutilized after normal U.S. business hours. This orientation was part of GEnie's downfall. Although it became very popular and a national force in the on-line marketplace, GEnie was not allowed to grow. GEIS executives steadfastly refused to view the service as anything but "fill in" load and would not expand the network by a single phone line, let alone expand mainframe capacity, to accommodate GEnie's growing user base. (Later, however, GE did consent to make the service available through the SprintNet time-sharing network, which had its own dial-up points of presence.)

The initial price for connection, at both 300 bits per second and the then-high-speed 1200 bits per second, was $5-$6 per hour during "non-prime-time" hours (evenings and weekends) and $36 an hour (to discourage daytime use) otherwise, later adjusted to $6 per hour and $18 per hour, respectively. 2400 bit/s was also available a premium. Later, GEnie developed the Star*Services package, soon renamed Genie*Basic after Prodigy threatened a trademark lawsuit over the use of the word "Star". It offered a set of "unlimited use" features for $4.95/month. Other services cost extra, mirroring the tiered service model popular at the time.

GEnie's forums were called RoundTables (RTs), and each, as well as other internal services, had a page number associated with it, akin to a web address today; typing "m 1335", for instance, would bring you to the GemStone III game page. For some time, GEnie published a bimonthly paper magazine called LiveWire. The service included RTs, games, mail, and shopping.

GEnie's chat room was called the LiveWire CB Simulator,[1] after the popular CB radios of the time.

Games

GEnie had a reputation as being the home of excellent online games. Top titles included: Other major titles included:

RoundTables

A RoundTable on GEnie was a discussion area containing a message board ("BBS"), a chatroom ("RealTime Conference" or RTC) and a Library for permanent text files. They were part of an online community culture that predated the Internet's emergence as a mass medium, which also included such separate entities as CompuServe forums, Usenet newsgroups, and e-mail mailing lists.

Most RoundTables were actually operated not by GEnie employees but by independent contractors working from home, which was standard practice for online services at the time. The contractors received royalties on time spent in their forums. In the most popular forums, this revenue stream was often substantial enough to hire one or two part-time or full-time staffers. Many RoundTables also had a number of unpaid assistants, working for a "free flag" (which granted them free access to that RoundTable) or an "internal account" (which granted free access to all of the service).

RoundTables available on GEnie included:
  • The 911 / Emergency RoundTable for discussion of emergency preparedness...and a forum set up for quick mobilization during emergencies
  • The A2 RoundTable for discussion of Apple computers, an early home of Apple devotees
  • The Astrology RoundTable
  • The Aviation Roundtable (sysops Roy Barkas, Dick Flanagan, Bill Moulas and Linda Pendleton)
  • The Comics RoundTable
  • The CP/M RoundTable
  • The Education RoundTable, which included a separate area for younger, school-aged GEnie users
  • The Forth RoundTable, a popular discussion board for the Forth programming language
  • The Health RoundTable
  • The IBM PC RoundTable - Sysop's Charlie Strom and Rick Ruhl
  • The Japan RoundTable, including "Japanimation Online", an early anime forum http://www.cjas.org/~leng/lainspotting/2006/03/pre-web-anime-fandom-out-of-archives-4.html
  • The Left Coast RoundTable (initially The California RoundTable, later The American West RoundTable)
  • The MIDI/WorldMusic RoundTable, an early MIDI discussion forum hosted by Robert Moore
  • The NBC Online RoundTable http://www.pegboard.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=23
  • The New Age RoundTable
  • PetNet - all things animal
  • The Public Forum and Non-Profit Connection, dedicated to political discussion as well as assisting non-profits to use online resources to further their mission,
  • The Religion and Philosophy RoundTable
  • The four Science Fiction RoundTables, the official online home of the Horror Writers Association and the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America before the Internet became popular (SFWA members, who were all published authors, received free access to the SF RoundTables)
  • The Jerry Pournelle RoundTable
  • Scorpia's Games RoundTable, dedicated to games of all types, including GEnie's hosted online games
  • The Scuba RoundTable
  • The ShowBiz RoundTable, created by film critic Bill Warren in 1989 and still active today on the online service Delphi
  • The Space and Science RoundTable
  • The Spaceport RoundTable, oriented around engineering projects that could be carried out in space.
  • The Sports RoundTable
  • The TeleJoke RoundTable, which was managed by Brad Templeton and cross-linked with the Usenet newsgroup rec.humor.funny.
  • TI-99/4A and Geneve RoundTable
  • The TSR Online RoundTable
  • The White House RoundTable for making available press releases and other hard to find administration materials and for partisan discussions on actions of the Bill Clinton administration
  • The Windows RoundTable - Sysop's Rick Ruhl and Charlie Strom
  • The Writers' Ink RoundTable

Lack of commercial success

Although GEnie developed a loyal following – especially for its hosted forums, among the online gaming crowd, and among science-fiction writers and fans – and for years was second as a service provider only to CompuServe itself, it never had enough backing from GEIS management and was never considered strategic. The service failed to keep up when Prodigy and America Online produced graphics-based online services that drew the masses. Programs such as Aladdin, which had been developed earlier by an independent developer and eventually supported by GEnie, helped many of the newcomers who came to GEnie from Prodigy and AOL adjust; these were the equivalent of modern-day email programs and newsreaders, incorporating a more user-friendly interface which automated message and mail downloading and posting. But GEnie's marketing was all but non-existent, and word-of-mouth was insufficient to keep it going in the face of media blitzes from the new services.

In addition, as the Internet gained popularity, GEnie took its time developing GEnie Mail-to-Internet Mail gateways, which were extremely expensive, and support for Usenet newsgroups.

GE sold GEnie in 1996 to Yovelle, which was later taken over by IDT Corp. IDT attempted to transition Genie (now all-lowercase) to an internet service provider, but ultimately failed. IDT also attempted to place a GUI on the still text-based service. This client was actually in use for the final few months, but GEnie did not last long for the GUI client to become popular.

Visitors to GEnie dropped with the growth of other online services and fell dramatically following a very sudden change in the fee structure in 1996. The users were notified with only 12 hours' notice that all basic services would cease to exist, while prices of the other services would rise dramatically. The short amount of advance warning meant that many people would not be able to log on that very night, and there was insufficient time to contact friends and create means of keeping in touch for the future. The resulting exodus produced a great deal of anger against the owners of GEnie. By the final year, insiders reported fewer than 10,000 total users.

On December 4, 1999, it was announced that GEnie would close for good on December 27 due to Y2K issues. Remaining users gathered in chat areas of the few RoundTables remaining to say goodbye and "watch the lights go out" at midnight on the 26th. But GEnie did not close for four more days and a dwindling number watched at the close of each day. The RoundTables and all areas of GEnie, except the Top, became unavailable slightly before midnight on December 30, 1999. There were still several users chatting at the end.

GEnie's Legacy

GEnie, particularly its specialized RoundTables, served as an arena for collaborations that had impact in American popular culture. Several books, TV shows, films, and other projects had their genesis and inspiration on GEnie. One example is the Babylon 5 television show, created by J. Michael Straczynski, which was first announced publicly in GEnie's Science Fiction RoundTables. The SFRTs served as the show's first online "home" and were the source of many in-jokes and references throughout its run.

Bill Louden, the original creator of GEnie, formed a group of investors to buy the Delphi online service from News Corp, where he led the transition of the service from text-only to the Web (and from a pay-per-hour to an advertising-supported revenue model).

Many of the contractors who ran GEnie RoundTables (such as Syndicomm) went on to operate forums on other online services, such as Delphi and AOL, and many remain active online today with Web communities or blogs.

Famous users

Many notable personalities were early adopters of the online medium, and were a prominent presence on GEnie, either active in one of its RoundTables, or frequent public participants in GEnie's CB Chat. Other well-known science fiction authors who were frequent visitors to the SFRT included Dafydd ab Hugh, John Barnes, Michael Banks, Steven Brust, Michael A. Burstein, Debra Doyle, Gregory Feeley, Neil Gaiman, Joe Haldeman, Katharine Kerr, Paul Levinson, James D. Macdonald, George R.R. Martin, Rich Normandie, Mike Resnick, Robert J. Sawyer, J. Neil Schulman, Josepha Sherman, Susan Shwartz, Sherwood Smith, Martha Soukup, Judith Tarr, Harry Turtledove, Leslie What, and Jane Yolen.

Science fiction editors Gardner Dozois, Scott Edelman, Peter Heck, Beth Meacham, Patrick Nielsen Hayden, Teresa Nielsen Hayden, and Dean Wesley Smith were also frequent participants.

Notes

1. ^ [2] The Information Center's guide to LiveWire CB Simulator

See also

External links and references




Genie is the English term for the Arabic جني (jinnie). The word “jinn” literally means anything which has the connotation of concealment, invisibility, seclusion, and remoteness. In pre-Islamic Arabian folklore and in Islamic Culture, a jinni (also “djinni” or “djini”) is a member of the jinn (or “djinn”), generally thought to be a race of supernatural creatures.

Etymology and definitions

Arabic

Genie is the usual English translation of the Arabic term jinni, but it is not directly an Anglicized form of the Arabic word, as is commonly thought. The English word comes from French génie, which meant a spirit of any kind, which in turn came from Latin genius, which meant a sort of tutelary or guardian spirit thought to be assigned to each person at birth. The Latin word predates the Arabic word jinni in this context, and may have been introduced in the Arabian civilization through the Nabataeans. The root however, and its concept of being "hidden" or "concealed" still comes from the Semitic root "GNN", which is originally from Paleo-Hebrew, and from which the Greek word Genesis and the Arabic Jannah (garden or paradise) is derived.

Arabic lexicons, such as Taj-il Uroos, and William Lane's lexicon provide the rendered meaning of Jinn not only for spirits, but also for anything concealed through time, status and even physical darkness. A classical Arabic use of the term Jinn is as follows:

وَلا جِنَّ بِالْبَغْضَآءِ وَالنَّظَرِ الشَّزْر?


And there is no concealment with vehement hatred and the looking with aversion.


English

The first recorded use of the word Genie in English was in 1655 as geny, with the Latin meaning. The French translators of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights later used the word génie as a translation of jinni because it was similar to the Arabic word both in sound and in meaning; this meaning was also picked up in English and has since become dominant. The plural, according to Sir Richard Francis Burton, is Jan.

Jinn in pre-Islamic era

Amongst archaeologists dealing with ancient Middle Eastern cultures, any spirit lesser than a god is often referred to as a “genie”, especially when describing stone reliefs or other forms of art. This practice draws on the original meaning of the term genie for simply a spirit of any sort.

Epigraphic Evidence

Inscriptions found in Northwestern Arabia seem to indicate worship of Djinn, or at least their tributory status. For instance, an inscription from Beth Fasi'el near Palmyra pays tribute to the "Ginnaye", the "good and rewarding gods" ( Hoyland: Arabia and the Arabs, 2001,) providing a sharp resemblance to the Latin Genius and Juno: The Guardian Spirits. This reveals the missing link between the Etymology of these two words.

Folklore

<references/>Types of jinn include the ghul (“night shade”, which can change shape), the sila (which cannot change shape), the Ifrit [i'fɾɪt], and “marid” [mʌ'ɾɪd]. From information in The Arabian Nights, marid seem to be the strongest form of jinn, followed by Ifrit, and then the rest of the jinn.

Arabs believed that the jinn were spirits of fire, although sometimes they associated them with succubi (demons in the forms of beautiful women). The feminine form of jinn is “jinniyah” or “jinneyeh”.

Jinn in Islam

The jinn are said to be creatures with free will, made from 'smokeless fire' by God (the literal translation being “subtle fire”, i.e., a fire which does not give itself away through smoke), much in the same way humans were made of earth. According to the Recitation, jinn have free choice, and Iblis used this freedom in front of God by refusing to bow to Adam when God told Iblis to do so. By refusing to obey God’s order he was thrown out of the Paradise and called “Shaitan” (See Shaitan). In the Qur'an, jinn are frequently mentioned and Sura 72 of the Qur'an named Al-Jinn is entirely about them. Another Sura (Al-Naas) mentions the Jinn in the last verse. In fact, it is mentioned in the Qur'an that Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both “humanity and the jinn”.

The jinn have communities much like human societies: they eat, marry, die, etc. They live in tribes and have boundaries. They follow religions as humans do, and follow the same ranks in armies as humans do. Jinns can settle in a vast area to a tiny hole, as they are massless and can be fit into any space they find sufficient for them. They are invisible to humans, but they can see humans. Sometimes they accidentally or deliberately come into view or into contact with humans. Jinn are believed to live much longer than humans: some of whom are said to be still alive having seen Muhammad (who lived during the 7th century), which would affirm their long life. Much like humans, jinn have learned to assimilate into the human world when they desire to do so. In many cases they live unnoticed among people marked only by the rather unusual or somewhat secretive practises they keep. They cannot breed with humans. Jinn can take on the form of humans and other animals. The can also be summoned by humans.

Humans attempting to perform black magic on humans call Jinn specializing in dirty deeds to perform the magic; such black magic on humans can only be undertaken by dark Jinn - “Ifrit” or “Marid”. In many countries there are people who perform or supposedly perform black magic (usually for cursing other people, or using jinns to influence a marriage to end in divorce, etc) in exchange for money. Thus, a person often pays a magician, who then calls upon a dark jinn, who then performs the magic, at least supposedly. These acts are considered haraam in Islam.

Genie as a Thief

In Muslim beliefs, the genie can also act as a supernatural thief. [3] By some traditions, Prophet Mohammed warned against thieving jinn.

Jinn in post-Islamic Arabic fiction

Evil Ifrit in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights are called “the seed of Iblis”.

The Spirit of the Lamp in the story of Aladdin, a familiar djinn to the Western world (see next section), was such a jinni, bound to an oil lamp. Ways of summoning jinn were told in The Thousand and One Nights: by writing the name of God in Hebrew characters on a knife (whether the Hebrew name for God, Yahweh, or the Arabic Allah is used is not specified), and drawing a diagram, with strange symbols and incantations around it.

The jinn’s power of possession was also addressed in the fictional Nights. It is said that by taking seven hairs out of the tail of a cat that was all black except for a white spot on the end of its tail, and then burning the hairs in a small closed room with the possessed, filling their nose with the scent, this would release them from the spell of the jinn inside them.

Genies in Western culture



The Western interpretation of the genie is based on the Aladdin tale in the Western version of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, which told of a genie that lived in an oil lamp and would grant the wishes of the owner of the lamp, as well as the genie in the tale of The Fisherman and the Jinni. Oddly, lore from these tales seem to get twisted and mixed into each other, thanks in no small part to Disney's animated film adaption of Aladdin.

Many western stories about genies tend to follow the same vein as the famous short story The Monkey's Paw by W. W. Jacobs, with the overriding theme of “be careful what you wish for”; in these stories, wishes can have disastrous, horrific and sometimes fatal consequences. Often, the genie causes harm to the loved ones or innocent people surrounding the wisher, making others pay for its master’s greed or ignorance. While this may be because of the genie's evilness, in other cases the genie may simply misunderstand the wishes.

Exploiting loopholes or twisting interpretations of wishes is a classic trait amongst genies in Western fiction. For example, in “The Man in the Bottle” episode of The Twilight Zone, a poor shopkeeper who finds a genie wishes to become a leader of a great nation - and is transformed into Adolf Hitler at the very end of World War II. Often, these stories end with the genie’s master wishing to have never found the genie, all his previous wishes never to have happened, or a similar wish to cancel all the fouled wishes that have come before.

Awareness about the origins of the genie, and the use of the original spelling jinn has become more common. Usually, the term djinn is used by authors who wish to convey a more serious interpretation of the legendary entity, rather than the comical genies the Western public has become used to, such as Robin Williams' character in Aladdin. However, all Arabian Nights scholars such as Richard Francis Burton prefer the term Jinn....

Examples of Genies in fiction and popular Culture

Books

  • Jinnicky the Red Jinn is one of Ruth Plumly Thompson's most popular original Oz characters. His most notable appearances are in Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz, The Purple Prince of Oz and The Silver Princess in Oz.
  • Mr. Beaver in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe conjectures that the White Witch Jadis was not human (as was her claim), but was in fact half giantess and half Jinn, a descendant of Lilith, Adam’s “first wife”.
  • Christopher Moore’s book Practical Demonkeeping describes the pre-human origin of the Djinn and God’s favor for humans.
  • The “Djinn in charge of All Deserts” gives the lazy camel his hump in the story "How the Camel Got His Hump" from Rudyard Kipling’s Just So Stories.
  • Djinn feature prominently in Tim Powers' supernatural spy novel Declare.
  • Several references to djinn occur in the final short story, entitled “Ramadan”, of Neil Gaiman’s sixth The Sandman collection, . In Gaiman’s novel, American Gods, an ifrit drives a taxicab in New York.
  • In the Bartimaeus Trilogy books by Jonathan Stroud, a djinni is a section of five major spirits, also including afrits (a form of Ifrit) as a creature of fire, marids, foliots, and imps. The trilogy focuses on a five-thousand year-old djinni named Bartimaeus and his unwilling alliance with a teenage boy.
  • In Rachel Caine’s series of books named Weather Warden, the Djinn appear frequently. The Wardens who control fire, weather and earth capture the Djinn in bottles. The two most powerful Djinn in the world are used in these series of books.
  • Dragon Rider, a novel by Cornelia Funke features a djinn named Asif. She stated he was colored dark blue. She also stated he had a thousand eyes, he was so large his shadow could darken an entire ravine, his pointed ears were larger than the wings of a dragon, he had a fat belly, and blue hairs thicker than saplings grow inside his nostrils. He is an example of a serious interpretation of a djinn. He lives in a gray car, materializes from blue smoke, has a thousand eyes, and is omnipotent.If you ask him a question, he will show you it in one of his thousand eyes. A human must ask, it must be seven words, and if Asif has the same question but before him, the questioner must serve him for their entire life. Funke did not state if you could escape him and no character did get to be a slave, but Asif did say to the dragon Firedrake that he made his skin itch so much that a thousand servants had to scratch it for him. The servants were not shown, but mentioned.
  • In the popular book series Children of the Lamp, John and Phillipa Gaunt discover that they are members of the djinn tribe Marid.
  • In the young adult’s book Castle in the Air by Diana Wynne Jones, the sequel to [[Howl's Moving Castle], there is a genie in a bottle and a pair of Djinn.
  • In Jinn a book by Matthew B.J. Delaney, the creature which is being hunted is a Jinn. Has been called "Saving Private Ryan meets Alien in Delaney's tense and involving first novel, a hybrid that transcends its several genres."
  • There are several passing references to djinna in Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses.
  • Julian referenced himself, as well as Jenny's Grandfather, as Djinn (Julian, it's a play off of that name) in the Forbidden Game trilogy by L.J. Smith.
  • In the Necromancer Wars literary series, an evil djinn is captured by a wiccan coven and imprisoned in a bottle.

Comics

  • In the anime and manga series Dragon Ball Z, the character Mr. Popo is a djinn that protects Kami’s Lookout and the final and most powerful villain faced by the heroes was a stylistically-Arabic demon called Majin Buu. “Majin” is the Japanese word for “Magical Being” or “Genie.” Befitting the genie that he is, Majin Buu is a spirit formed from smoke and clouds that utilizes horrific transmutation sorcery which transforms living beings into candy to sate his monstrous appetite, as well as possessing incredible power that quite literally rivalled that of the most powerful gods in the Dragon Ball universe.
  • In the Vertigo comic Fables, a Djinn is released. In this comic, they are considered armong the most powerful creatures in existence.
  • In the comic Jesi The Genie, a former milk goddess is cursed with becoming a genie, and then released during the time of the Arabian Nights by a young man. Jesi also appears in the webcomic Gaijin Hi.
  • ClanDestine, a comic book series by Alan Davis and Mark Farmer and published by Marvel Comics, is about a family of British superheroes in the Marvel Universe, children of a human and a female djinn.
  • Comic fiction author Tom Holt titled one of his novels Djinn Rummy, combining the word Djinn with the popular card game Gin Rummy. The novel is in fact about a number of djinns in the human world, many of which who have corporate sponsoring. Djinns appear frequently in a number of Tom Holt’s books, though it is normally taken for granted that the reader knows some of the fictional background of these characters. (I.e. the books are somewhat chronological).
  • The DC Comic’s characters Johnny Thunder and Jakeem Thunder are masters of the djinn from the 5th dimension named Thunderbolt. Genies in the DCU are summoned by their masters by saying their name backwards. Thunderbolt's true name is Yz, which when said backwards sounds like "say you". Disgraced superhero Triumph was later manipulated by the evil djinn named Lkz, which when said backwards sounds like "so cool". After a conflict involving both the Justice League of America and the Justice Society of America the two genies were merged together changing the Thunderbolt's summoning word to "so cool". The 5th dimension is also home to Superman's enemy, Mister Mxyzptlk. In the pages of JSA it was revealed that imps, like Mxyzptlk and Bat-Mite, are seen as something akin to children. Thunderbolt's son, Shocko and Shocko's wife Peachy Pet are also djinn.

Movies and television

Enlarge picture
A man carefully words his wish for power, only to find he is Adolf Hitler at the conclusion of the Second World War.
  • The original Twilight Zone features two episodes with genies in them: "The Man in the Bottle" and "I Dream of Genie".
  • The sitcom I Dream of Jeannie, which began in 1965 and ran for five seasons, featured Barbara Eden as a 2,000 year-old beautiful blonde Persian genie completely infatuated with the American astronaut master that had found her bottle and set her free in modern America.
  • The horror film Wishmaster features a hateful and evil Djinn as its villain. The film has spawned three sequels.
  • In the 1996 film Kazaam, Shaquille O'Neal played a rapping genie who lived in a boombox.
  • In the animated series Martin Mystery, episodes called “Curse of the Djini” and “Return of the Djini” featured an evil djinn trapped in a skull that could read peoples' mind’s and make them say their wishes. If the djinn died then the wishes would be undone.
  • In the episode "The Wish" of the UPN horror/comedy series Special Unit 2, Special Unit 2 encountered an evil genie-like link who needed to grant 3,000 wishes in order to gain free will. Unlike traditional djinn, this genie did not have supernatural powers other than the ability to transform between gas and solid states. As a result, the genie had to carry out wishes physically. So for example if someone wished for a million dollars the genie had to break into a bank and steal a million dollars for them. If someone wished for a relationship with a beautiful model the genie would have to kidnap the model. These wishes almost always ended in disaster for the genie's masters. After 3,000 wishes had been granted the genie would no longer have to live in bottles or grant wishes.
  • The 1964 comedy The Brass Bottle features a genie (Burl Ives) who causes more problems than he solves for his master (Tony Randall) and his fiance, Barbara Eden (who herself would enter the bottle the very next year in I Dream of Jeannie.)
  • An episode of the TV series Charmed called "I Dream of Phoebe" has the Charmed Ones confronting a trickster Genie that is trying to gain its freedom by granting three wishes.
  • An episode of the CW paranormal drama Supernatural called “What Is And What Should Never Be” has Sam and Dean Winchester hunting a Djinn which did not actually grant wishes. Instead, it would cause the victim to enter a dream state where their greatest wish was granted while the Djinn fed off their life.
  • Desiree from the animated series Danny Phantom is a genie-like ghost who grants any wishes she hears.
  • In the film Long Time Dead the characters do a ouija board, which brings out a vengeful spirit named Djinn.
  • In Fairly Oddparents there's a genie named Norm voiced by Norm MacDonald.
  • In the 1940 movie The Thief of Baghdad, Abu the thief frees a genie from a bottle who promptly tries to kill him, but after Sabu tricks the genie back into the bottle, the genie gives him three wishes. Abu asks first for sausages, second to be taken to king Ahmad, and third, in a fit of anger in an argument, for Ahmad to go to Baghdad, after which the genie abandons Sabu. Fortunately, Abu destroys the All-Seeing Eye, which has freed good spirits that will help him defeat the evil Grand Vizier Jaffar.

Video games

  • The role-playing game features a story told by a party member concerning a man who is unexpectedly asked by a genie to make his third wish. The genie explains that the man's second wish was to return everything to the way it was before his first wish. The man proceeds to wish to remember who he is. The genie replies, "Funny, that was your first wish," as she grants it and vanishes.
  • In the online MMORPG City of Heroes, the vendor Serafina is a free Genie who asks for the player's help to recover her magic bottle. After helping her, Magical Origin characters can use her as a Magic Store.
  • In the videogames Golden Sun and , players encounter Djinn as small benevolent creatures who use their powers to aid the protagonists in battle.
  • The strategy game series, Heroes of Might and Magic, features Genies as playable characters and units. A Genie named Solmyr is also a major protagonist in the series.
  • In the 1980s video game Archon, the Djinn is the champion of the light side, opposite the Dragon who is champion of the dark side.
  • In the video game Primal, the world of Volca is inhabited by evil creatures called Djinns, led by King Iblis and Queen Malikel. Those Djinn live dormant in a volcano, awakening only when the volcano is about to erupt.
  • In the video game Sonic and the Secret Rings, there are two djinn: Shahra the Ring Genie, a Genie of the Ring, who assists Sonic through the game and Erazor Djinn, the game’s main villain who is a Genie of the Lamp.
  • In the SNES game , a powerful Djinn enemy named Fausto appears inside a treasure chest enemy late in the game. He is characterized by high attack, defense, and a weakness to Mario's air attacks, classifying him as a dao, or earth djinn.
  • Djinn are creatures in the game Titan Quest.
  • Djinn are also creatures in the game Guild Wars.
  • In the video game series Final Fantasy, one of the summoned creatures is named Ifrit and offers fire elemental magic.
  • In the video game Vagrant Story, Ifrit is one of the stronger elemental enemies with the affinity of fire.
  • The Pokémon Jirachi is said to grant any wish once it is written on a tag and attached to its three star points on its head.
  • Genies are a major plot element in King's Quest VI as part of the Green Isles folklore.
  • Iblis, while not being the main villain of the story, is featured as a summoned entity by the game's antagonist in second of the Quest for Glory games. The protagonist (Hero) also has the opportunity to summon a lesser djinn who grants him three wishes near the game's end.
  • The real time strategy game engine used in the computer games Age of Empires, Age of Empires II, and , was called the Genie engine.
  • In AdventureQuest, theres a monster called Djinni which is a fire monster and is said to only obey people with a fire orb.
  • In the MMORPG Runescape, one of the game's ramdom events involves a genie appearing and gives you a lamp to rub so it increases one of you skill level's XP by a few points.
  • In the MMORPG Tibia (computer game), the Djinn's are NPC's you can sell expensive items to after completing a quest.

Others

See also

Compare

References

  • al-Ashqar, Dr. Umar Sulaiman (1998). The World of the Jinn and Devils. Boulder, CO: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations.
  • Barnhart, Robert K. The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. 1995.
  • “Genie”. The Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989.

External links

An online service provider can include internet service providers and web sites, such as Wikipedia's or Usenet (commonly accessed through Google Groups). In its original more limited definition it referred only to a commercial computer communication service in which paid members
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General Electric Co.

Public (NYSE:  GE )
Founded 1878 in Menlo Park, New Jersey
Founder Thomas Alva Edison
Headquarters Fairfield, Connecticut,[1] USA

Key people Jeff Immelt, Chairman & CEO
Keith Sherin, Vice Chairman, CFO
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GXS Incorporated

Private
Founded 1967
Headquarters Gaithersburg, MD

Key people David Stanton, Chairman
Gary Greenfield, President & CEO
Bobby Patrick, Chief Marketing Officer
Rowland Archer, Chief Technology Officer
Area served Worldwide
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AOL LLC

Subsidiary of Time Warner
Founded 1985 (as Quantum Computer Services)
Headquarters New York, New York, United States

Key people Randy Falco, Ted Leonsis, Ronald Grant
Industry Internet & Communications
Products Internet service
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American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), generally pronounced ask-ee IPA: /ˈæski/ ( [1] ), is a character encoding based on the English alphabet.
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CompuServe

Subsidiary of AOL
Founded 1969
Headquarters Columbus, Ohio, USA

Industry Internet & Communications
Products ISP
Website www.compuserve.
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General Electric Co.

Public (NYSE:  GE )
Founded 1878 in Menlo Park, New Jersey
Founder Thomas Alva Edison
Headquarters Fairfield, Connecticut,[1] USA

Key people Jeff Immelt, Chairman & CEO
Keith Sherin, Vice Chairman, CFO
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GXS Incorporated

Private
Founded 1967
Headquarters Gaithersburg, MD

Key people David Stanton, Chairman
Gary Greenfield, President & CEO
Bobby Patrick, Chief Marketing Officer
Rowland Archer, Chief Technology Officer
Area served Worldwide
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Rockville, Maryland

Seal
Location in the State of Maryland
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Maryland
County Montgomery
Founded 1717
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This article needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article.
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E-mail (short for electronic mail; often also abbreviated as e-mail, email or simply mail) is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
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Mainframes (often colloquially referred to as Big Iron) are computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, ERP, and financial transaction processing.
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bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a variable R or fb) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. Bit rate is synonymous to data rate and digital bandwidth.
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Prodigy Communications, L.P.

Defunct (Part of AT&T)
Founded 1984
Headquarters Austin, Texas, USA

Industry Telecommunications
Products Telephone, Internet, Television

Prodigy Communications Corporation (Prodigy Services Corp., Prodigy Services Co.
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GemStone IV is a text-based role-playing game (often known as a MUD) produced by Simutronics. Players control characters in a High Fantasy game world named "Elanthia.
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Citizens' Band radio (CB) is, in most countries, a system of short-distance, simplex[1] radio communications between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within the 27 MHz (11 meter) band.
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Air Warrior was the world's first multiplayer on-line air-combat simulator (at least for civilians). A player is able to fly a simulated World War II aircraft, fighting with and against other players, each flying his own simulated aircraft.
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Simutronics is the online games company responsible for GemStone IV, DragonRealms, and many other games. It was founded in 1987 by David Whatley, with husband and wife Tom & Susan Zelinski.
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GemStone IV is a text-based role-playing game (often known as a MUD) produced by Simutronics. Players control characters in a High Fantasy game world named "Elanthia.
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GemStone IV is a text-based role-playing game (often known as a MUD) produced by Simutronics. Players control characters in a High Fantasy game world named "Elanthia.
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Dragon's Gate was an interactive, real time, text-based multi user online fantasy role-playing game, sometimes referred to as a MUD. It was one of the longest running pay-for-play online games in the world, it opened to the public in the spring of 1991 on GEnie.
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CyberStrike is a futuristic 3D combat online game by Simutronics Corporation, involving team combat between customizable mechs, each of which is controlled by a different player.
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Computer Gaming World (CGW) was the first magazine devoted exclusively to computer games. CGW was founded in 1981 by Russell Sipe as a semi-monthly publication.
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NTN Buzztime (AMEX:  NTN ) is a company which produces interactive entertainment across many different platforms. Its most well-known product (simply called Buzztime
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Kesmai was a pioneering game developer and online game publisher, founded in 1981 by Kelton Flinn and John Taylor. The company was best known for the combat flight sim Air Warrior on the GEnie online service, the first graphical MMOG, launched in 1987.
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Kesmai was a pioneering game developer and online game publisher, founded in 1981 by Kelton Flinn and John Taylor. The company was best known for the combat flight sim Air Warrior on the GEnie online service, the first graphical MMOG, launched in 1987.
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CompuServe

Subsidiary of AOL
Founded 1969
Headquarters Columbus, Ohio, USA

Industry Internet & Communications
Products ISP
Website www.compuserve.
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DragonRealms is a medieval fantasy MUD set in the world of Elanthia. It was developed from 1992-1995 and released in February of 1996. It was originally intended for the Ziff-Davis online service.
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Modus operandi (often used in the abbreviated forms MO, M.O. or simply Method) is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as "mode of operation".[1] The plural is modi operandi ("modes of operation").
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Bulletin board system, or BBS, is a computer system running software that allows users to dial into the system over a phone line (or Telnet) and, using a terminal program, perform functions such as downloading software and data, uploading data, reading news, and exchanging
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