Gando Convention

The 1909 Jiandao/Gando Convention (間島協約) was a treaty signed between Japan and China in which Japan received railroad concessions in Manchuria (Northeast China).

In 1907, Japan made up a land claim that the southern part of Jilin province of Northeastern China was part of Korea, which was under Japanese colonial control at that time. Japan had made up this so called "Jian Dao/Gando" issue to expand its control in China and extract more concessions from the Qing Dynasty, which was on the verge of collapse. As a result of this treaty, Japan attained greater control in North-eastern China, and China kept its own land from taken by the Japanese claim. After the defeat of Japan in WWII, both Koreas have used "Jian Dao/Gaodo" issue to prop up Korean nationalism.

For years, the South Korean government purposely avoided making an official statement regarding the Gando Convention. However, in 2004, the South Korean government issued the following statement: "Our government takes the position that the 1909 Gando Convention, signed by Japan without concern for Korea's position, is null and void, to the extent that the Eulsa Treaty, which deprived Korea of its diplomatic rights in 1905, is a null-and-void treaty obtained through duress."

This immediately ignited controversy, as it implied that the region north of Baekdu Mountain (Changbai Mountain) and the Tumen River was Korean territory. On October 14 2004, South Korean foreign affairs minister Ban Ki-moon partially retracted the statement about the voiding of the Gando Convention [1]. This was in an attempt to ameliorate the diplomatic scrape caused by the original statement.
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treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. A Treaty may also be known as: (international) agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, exchange of letters
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China (Traditional Chinese:
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Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run along railways or railroads. Rail transport is part of the logistics chain, which facilitates the international trading and economic growth in most countries.
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Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu
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Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 中国东北; Traditional Chinese: 中國東北; Pinyin:
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홍익인간(弘益人間) 널리 인간을 이롭게 하?
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Aegukga (애국가; 愛國歌)
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Eulsa Treaty or Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty was made between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on 17 November 1905, influenced by the result of the Russo-Japanese War. The treaty in effect made Korea a protectorate of Japan, though its legal standing is disputed.
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Baekdu Mountain, also known as Changbai Mountain in Chinese, is a volcanic mountain on the border between China and North Korea, located at .
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Tumen or Dumen River is a 521 km-long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea, and Russia, rising in Mount Baekdu and flowing into the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
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October 14 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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Ban Ki-moon (born June 13 1944)[] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Before becoming Secretary-General, Ban was a career diplomat in South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the United Nations.
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