German presidential election, 1925

The presidential election (Reichspräsidentenwahl) of 1925 was the first direct election to the office of President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), Germany's head of state during the 1919-1933 Weimar Republic. The first President, Friedrich Ebert, died on 28 February, 1925. Ebert had been elected indirectly, by the National Assembly, but the Weimar constitution required that his successor be elected by the "whole German people". After two rounds of voting, on 29 March and on 26 April, Paul von Hindenburg was elected as the second president of Germany.

Hindenburg was the candidate of a broad coalition of the political right. Many on the right hoped that once in power he would destroy Weimar democracy from the inside and restore the pre-Weimar status quo. The two other major candidates were Otto Braun of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Wilhelm Marx of Zentrum (also known as the 'Catholic Centre Party'). Braun and Marx's parties were both members of the 'Weimar coalition': the group of parties regarded as most committed to the Weimar system.

The election was important because of the turbulent times in which it occurred and because, under the Weimar constitution, the head of state wielded considerable power. Hindenburg would be again returned in the 1932 election and would play an important role during the rise to power of the Nazis. However, many of Hindenburg's 1925 backers were subsequently disappointed. Although in the years that followed his election many questioned the constitutionality of certain of his actions, Hindenburg never attempted to overthrow the Weimar constitution outright.

Electoral system

During the Weimar Republic the law provided that if no candidate received an absolute majority of votes (i.e. more that half) in the first round of a presidential election then a second ballot would occur in which the candidate with a plurality of votes would be deemed elected. It was permitted for a group to nominate an alternative candidate in the second round.

First round

Seven candidates stood in the first round. Hindenburg was not included among them as he would not be nominated as a candidate until the second round. Instead, the most popular candidate of the political right was Karl Jarres of the German People's Party (DVP), a former Minister of the Interior, Vice-Chancellor of Germany and mayor of Duisburg. Otto Braun, the SPD's candidate, was a former Minister-President of Prussia and a well known and respected figure. Zentrum's candidate, Wilhelm Marx, was the chair of the party and a former chancellor.

The other significant candidates were Ernst Thälmann of the Communist Party (KPD) and Willy Hellpach of the German Democratic Party (DDP). The Nazi Party (NSDAP) put forward Erich Ludendorff but was at that time merely a fringe movement and secured only a negligible share of the vote. The first ballot was held on 29 March, with a turnout of 68.9%.

Candidate Votes (%) Party membership Supporting
Karl Jarres10,410,000 (38.8)German People's Party (DVP)German National People's Party (DNVP)
Otto Braun7,800,000 (29.0)Social Democratic Party (SPD)n/a
Wilhelm Marx3,890,000 (14.5)Zentrumn/a
Ernst Thälmann1,870,000 (7.0)Communist Party (KPD)n/a
Willy Hellpach1,570,000 (5.8)German Democratic Party (DDP)n/a
Heinrich Held1,010,000 (3.7)Bavarian People's Party (BVP)n/a
Erich Ludendorff280,000 (1.1)Nazi Party (NSDAP)n/a

Second round

After the election's first round Jarres withdrew in favour of Hindenburg, who was a monarchist and popular former general. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to stand, supposedly only after first consulting with the deposed Kaiser. His major supporters were the DVP, the German National People's Party (DNVP) and the Bavarian People's Party (BVP). The DVP, and especially its leader Gustav Stresemann, had reservations about the idea of a Hindenburg presidency because of its possible repercussions for German foreign policy, but eventually came on board.

The SPD and Zentrum agreed to make Marx their common candidate to ensure the defeat of Hindenburg and so, after Zentrum refused to support Braun, he withdrew from the race. The DDP also reluctantly agreed to withdraw its candidate and support Marx. As Marx's supporters included both the moderate left and the political centre he was believed to have a high chance of winning. The three participants in the second round were therefore Hindenburg, Marx and Thälmann of the Communists. Because of Thälmann's participation the left-wing vote was split, giving an advantage to Hindenburg. The election occurred on April 26 and with a turnout of 77.6%. Hindenburg won on a plurality of the vote, with 48.3% to Marx's 45.3%.

Candidate Votes (%) Party membership Supporting
Paul von Hindenburg14,655,641 (48.3)NoneDVP, DNVP, BVP, NSDAP
Wilhelm Marx13,751,605 (45.3)ZentrumSPD, DDP
Ernst Thälmann1,931,000 (6.4)Communist Party (KPD)n/a

See also

19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1890s  1900s  1910s  - 1920s -  1930s  1940s  1950s
1922 1923 1924 - 1925 - 1926 1927 1928

Year 1925 (MCMXXV
..... Click the link for more information.
Reichspräsident was the German head of state during the period of the 1919-1934 Weimar Republic and the title was later briefly revived in 1945. The German title Reichspräsident literally means "National President" (reich
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
"Das Lied der Deutschen" (third stanza)
also called "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
..... Click the link for more information.


Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation,
..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1916 1917 1918 - 1919 - 1920 1921 1922

Year 1919 (MCMXIX
..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1900s  1910s  1920s  - 1930s -  1940s  1950s  1960s
1930 1931 1932 - 1933 - 1934 1935 1936

Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII
..... Click the link for more information.
The Weimar Republic ( Weimarer Republik  , IPA: [ˈvaɪ̯marɐ repuˈbliːk
..... Click the link for more information.
Friedrich Ebert (February 4, 1871 – February 28, 1925) was a German politician (SPD), who served as Chancellor of Germany and its first president during the Weimar period.

Born in Heidelberg as the son of a tailor, he himself was trained as a saddlemaker.
..... Click the link for more information.
February 28 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 364 - Valentinian I is elevated as Roman Emperor.

..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.

..... Click the link for more information.
March 29 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


..... Click the link for more information.
April 26 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

It is the first day following the spring equinox which cannot be Easter Sunday in Western Christianity.
..... Click the link for more information.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( listen  ), known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( listen
..... Click the link for more information.
Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician who was Prime Minister of Prussia.

Originally from Königsberg, Prussia, Braun became a leader of the Social Democratic Party there, and was elected to the Prussian Diet in 1913.
..... Click the link for more information.
Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands — SPD) is Germany's oldest political party and its largest in terms of membership. After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher, the SPD reestablished itself as an ideological party,
..... Click the link for more information.
Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863 – August 5, 1946) was a German Lawyer, Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party.

Life

Born in Cologne to a teacher, Marx passed his Abitur in 1881. He then studied law science at the university of Bonn.
..... Click the link for more information.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum) was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Weimar Coalition is the name given to the coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the German Democratic Party (DDP), and the Catholic Centre Party
..... Click the link for more information.
The presidential election (Reichspräsidentenwahl) of 1932 was the second and final direct election to the office of President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), Germany's head of state during the 1919-1934 Weimar Republic.
..... Click the link for more information.
The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, originally known as the DAP (this changed in 1920) and commonly known as the
..... Click the link for more information.


A plurality, relative majority or simple majority is the largest share of something, which may or may not be considered an absolute majority, i.e.
..... Click the link for more information.
Karl Jarres (21 September, 1874 -20 October, 1951) was a politician of the German People's Party (Deutsche Volkspartei, or DVP) during the Weimar Republic. Jarres was born in the city of Remscheid in what is now North Rhine-Westphalia and after legal studies in Bonn as a
..... Click the link for more information.
Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
  • Federal Diet (Bundestag)
  • Federal Assembly
    (Bundesversammlung)
  • Constitutional Court

..... Click the link for more information.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior (in German, Bundesministerium des Innern or BMI) is a ministry of the German federal government. Its main office is in Berlin, with a secondary seat in Bonn. The current minister of the interior is Wolfgang Schäuble.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Vice-Chancellor of Germany (Vizekanzler) in Germany is the second highest position in the cabinet. In case of the Chancellor's absence, the Vice-Chancellor acts in his place, for instance heading cabinet meetings.
..... Click the link for more information.
Duisburg
Schwanentor Bridge
Coat of arms Location

..... Click the link for more information.
The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. When Prussia was an independent kingdom (until 1701) the Prime Minister functioned as the King's Chief Minister and presided over the
..... Click the link for more information.
Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Germany


  • Constitution
  • Federal Council (Bundesrat)
  • Federal Diet (Bundestag)
  • Federal Assembly
    (Bundesversammlung)
  • Constitutional Court

..... Click the link for more information.
Ernst Thälmann (April 16, 1886—August 18, 1944) was the leader of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) during much of the Weimar Republic. He was arrested by the Gestapo in 1933 and held in solitary confinement for eleven years, before being shot in Buchenwald on Adolf
..... Click the link for more information.
Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei DeutschlandsKPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.