Ghazni

Coordinates:
Ghazni

Ghazni
ProvinceGhazni
Coordinates
Population (2006)[1]141000
Area
Time zone Kabul
Ghazni City (Persian: غزنی - Ğaznī) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an approximate population of 141,000 people. It is the capital of Ghazni Province, situated on a plateau at 7,280 feet (2,219 m) above sea level. It is linked by highways with Qalat to the south-west, Kabul to the northeast and Gardez to the east.[2] The population of Ghazni City is multicultural and multi-ethnic, with approximately 50% Tajiks, 25% Pashtuns, 20% Hazaras, and a small number (5%) of Hindus.[3]

Ghazna and Ghaznīn are the old names for Ghazni.

History

Enlarge picture
The minaret of Ghazni, built by Bahram Shah during the Ghaznavids
Ghazni City was a thriving Buddhist center before and during the 7th Century AD. In 683 AD, Arab armies brought Islam to the nearby regions.Yaqub Saffari from Zaranj reigned over the vast region. After the city was rebuilt by Yaqub’s brother, it became the dazzling capital of the Ghaznavid Empire from 994 to 1160, encompassing much of northern India, Persia and Central Asia. Many iconoclastic campaigns were launched from Ghazni into India. The Ghaznavids took Islam to India and returned with fabulous riches taken from both prince and temple god. Contemporary visitors and residents at Ghazni write with wonder of the ornateness of the buildings, the great libraries, the sumptuousness of the court ceremonies and of the wealth of precious objects owned by Ghazni’s citizens.

The city was sacked in 1151 by the Ghorid Ala'uddin but then made into their secondary capital from 1173. It again flourished but only to be permanently devastated, this time in 1221 by the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan led by his son Ögedei Khan.[4]

Ghazni City is famous for its minarets built on a stellar plan. They date from the middle of the twelfth century and are the surviving element of the mosque of Bahramshah. Their sides are decorated with geometric patterns. Upper sections of the minarets have been damaged or destroyed. The most important mausoleum located in Ghazni City is that of Sultan Mahmud's. Others include the Tombs of poets and scientists, for example the Tomb of Al Biruni. The only ruins in Old Ghazni retaining a semblance of architectural form are two towers, about 43 m (140 ft) high and some 365 m (1,200 ft) apart. According to inscriptions, the towers were constructed by Mahmud of Ghazni and his son.

In the 1960s a 15-meter female Buddha was discovered lying on its back and surrounded by empty pillars that once held rows of smaller male Buddhas. Parts of the female Buddha have been stolen. In the 1980s a mud brick shelter was created to protect the sculpture, but the wood supports were stolen for firewood and the shelter partially collapsed.

During the First Anglo-Afghan War, the city was stormed and taken over by the British forces on July 23, 1839 in the Battle of Ghazni. The Afghan Civil War and the continued conflict between the Taliban and the Afghan Northern Alliance during the 1990s put the relics of Ghazni in jeopardy. The Taliban placed Fazl Uddin in charge of protecting the artifacts.

Ghazni’s strategic position, both economically and militarily, assured its revival, albeit without its dazzling former grandeur. Through the centuries the city figures prominently as the all important key to the possession of Kabul.

Water

Ghazni City is located in an area of extreme drought.[5] Recently, one of the gates on a fifty-year-old dam on the Jikhai River broke, bringing up concerns among the inhabitants of Ghazni city about the water supply. The dam serves as a good source of irrigation water to Ghazni City and the surrounding agricultural areas.[6] Nearby dams have a history of flooding and causing severe damage and death.[7] Efforts have begun to remedy this situation.[8]

Places to see

  • Citadel
  • Minarets of Ghazni
  • Palace of Sultan Mas'ud III
  • Tomb of Sebuktigin
  • Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud
  • Mausoleum of Sanai
  • Museum of Islamic Art
  • Tapa Sardar Excavations

Notables from Ghazna

See also

References and footnotes

1. ^ Central Statistics Office of Afghanistan, Kabul, LINK
2. ^ Geography. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
3. ^ District Profile. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
4. ^ Ghazni. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2007, Columbia University Press.
5. ^ Geography. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
6. ^ Ghazni's Zanakhan Dam damaged. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
7. ^ River Dam burst swamps Ghazni city of Afghanistan. Pakistan Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
8. ^ Ghazni. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.

External links




Twelve largest cities of Afghanistan by population
Kabul Kandahar Herat Mazari Sharif Qunduz Taluqan Puli Khumri Jalalabad Charikar Sheberghan Ghazni Sari Pul
geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
..... Click the link for more information.
Afghanistan

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Afghanistan


  • Constitution
  • Loya jirga
  • President
  • Vice President
  • Cabinet of Ministers

..... Click the link for more information.
Ghazni (Persian: غزنى) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the east of the country. Its capital is Ghazni City. The province lies on the important Kabul to Kandahar road, and has historically functioned as an important trade
..... Click the link for more information.
geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
..... Click the link for more information.
population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the
..... Click the link for more information.
20th century - 21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
2003 2004 2005 - 2006 - 2007 2008 2009

2006 by topic:
News by month
Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
..... Click the link for more information.
Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

..... Click the link for more information.
time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
..... Click the link for more information.
fɒːɾˈsiː in Perso-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style):  
Pronunciation: [fɒːɾˈsiː]
Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and areas of Uzbekistan and Pakistan.
..... Click the link for more information.
This page has been semi-protected from editing to deal with vandalism.
Semi-protection is not an endorsement of the current version. To see other versions, view the [ page history].
..... Click the link for more information.
Ghazni (Persian: غزنى) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the east of the country. Its capital is Ghazni City. The province lies on the important Kabul to Kandahar road, and has historically functioned as an important trade
..... Click the link for more information.
Qalat

Coordinates:
Province Zabul
Coordinates
Population (2006)[1] 9900

Area
Time zone Kabul

Qalat
..... Click the link for more information.
Kabul

Coordinates:
Province Kabul
Coordinates
Population (2005)[1]
2994000 (1st)
UN estimate of city proper
City Districts
..... Click the link for more information.
Gardez

Coordinates:
Province Paktia
Coordinates
Population (2007)[1] 111747

Area
Time zone Kabul

Gardēz
..... Click the link for more information.
multiculturalism is used to describe the recognition of cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space.

Some countries have official, or de jure, multiculturalism policies aimed at preserving different cultures or cultural identities
..... Click the link for more information.
Tājīk (Persian: تاجيک; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: Тоҷик
..... Click the link for more information.
This page has been semi-protected from editing to deal with vandalism.
Semi-protection is not an endorsement of the current version. To see other versions, view the [ page history].
..... Click the link for more information.
Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. They are predominantly Shia Muslims and speak the Hazaragi dialect of the Persian language.
..... Click the link for more information.
Hindu ( pronunciation  , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the
..... Click the link for more information.
Buddhism is often described as a religion[1] and a collection of various philosophies, based initially on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as Gautama Buddha.
..... Click the link for more information.
The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era.

Overview

During this century, the Eastern Roman Empire continued suffering setbacks, which increased after the 630s, when the Arab prophet Muhammad militantly
..... Click the link for more information.
6th century - 7th century - 8th century
650s  660s  670s  - 680s -  690s  700s  710s
680 681 682 - 683 - 684 685 686
..... Click the link for more information.
AD and Ad may refer to:
  • Anno Domini, Latin for "In the Year of (Our) Lord", applied to years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars following 1 BC
  • Advertisement, the promotion of an item, service, company, and/or idea

Media and culture


..... Click the link for more information.
AD Tulunid dynasty 868-905 Hamdanid dynasty 890-1004 Ikhshidid dynasty 935-969 Uqaylid Dynasty 990-1096 Zengid dynasty 1127-1250 Ayyubid dynasty 1171-1246 Bahri dynasty 1250-1382 Burji dynasty 1382–1517

Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari (840-879) (Persian: یعقوب لیث صفاری
..... Click the link for more information.
Zaranj

Coordinates:
Province Nimruz
Coordinates
Population 70000

Area
Time zone Kabul

Zaranj
..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now. A how-to guide is available, as is general .
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.
9th century - 10th century - 11st century
960s  970s  980s  - 990s -  1000s  1010s  1020s
991 992 993 - 994 - 995 996 997
..... Click the link for more information.
11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1130s  1140s  1150s  - 1160s -  1170s  1180s  1190s
1157 1158 1159 - 1160 - 1161 1162 1163

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.