Glucagon receptor

glucagon receptor
Identifiers
SymbolGCGR
Entrez2642
HUGO4192
OMIM138033
RefSeqNM_000160
UniProtP47871
Other data
LocusChr. 17 q25
The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa peptide that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the g-protein coupled family of receptors.[1] Stimulation of the receptor results in activation of adenylate cyclase and increased levels of intracellular cAMP.

Glucagon receptors are mainly expressed in liver and in kidney with lesser amounts found in heart, adipose tissue, spleen, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, cerebral cortex, and gastrointestinal tract.

References

1. ^ Brubaker PL, Drucker DJ (2002). "Structure-function of the glucagon receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors: the glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2 receptors". Recept. Channels 8 (3-4): 179-88. PMID 12529935. Retrieved on 2007-08-24. 

External links

The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a powerful federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website.
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Hugo is a male given name, a latinized form of the name Hugh, a German/Teutonic name meaning "Bright in Mind and Spirit".

Hugo is one of the most popular names in Europe ranking as high as #2 in France, #6 in Spain, and #7 in Belgium in 2006.
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The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988.
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Swiss-Prot is a manually curated biological database of protein sequences. Swiss-Prot was created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute.
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locus (plural loci) is a fixed position on a chromosome, such as the position of a gene or a biomarker (genetic marker). A variant of the DNA sequence at a given locus is called an allele. The ordered list of loci known for a particular genome is called a genetic map.
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Possible meanings:
  1. Kachin Defense Army
  2. Kentucky Distillers Association
  3. Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace
  4. kDa Atomic mass unit
  5. Kotelawala Defence Academy

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Peptides (from the Greek πεπτίδια, "small digestibles") are short polymers formed from the linking, in a defined order, of α-amino acids.
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Glucagon is an important hormone involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Produced by the pancreas, it is released when the glucose level in the blood is low (hypoglycemia), causing the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven transmembrane receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, and G protein linked receptors (GPLR
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Adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1 , also known as adenylyl cyclase or AC) is a lyase enzyme.

Types

There are nine known adenylate cyclases in mammals:
  • ADCY1
  • ADCY2
  • ADCY3
  • ADCY4
  • ADCY5

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). The cell membrane (and, in plants, the cell wall) is the barrier between the two, and chemical composition of
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CAMP may stand for:
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
  • Call Admission Multicast Protocol
  • Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol
  • Campaign Against Marijuana Planting
  • Campaign Against Moral Persecution, Inc.

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liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification.
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The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology[1].
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heart is a muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions, or a similar structure in the annelids, mollusks, and arthropods.
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adipose tissue or fat is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body.
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The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen of the human body, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a small reservoir of blood. It is regarded as one of the centers of activity of the reticuloendothelial system (part of the immune system).
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thymus is an organ located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the sternum. Hormones produced by this organ stimulate the production of certain infection-fighting cells. It is of central importance in the maturation of T cells.
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In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, "near" or "at" + -renes, "kidneys").
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The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates<ref name="New Standard" />. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including
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cerebral cortex is a structure within the vertebrate brain with distinct structural and functional properties. In non-living, preserved brains, the outermost layers of the cerebrum has a grey color, hence the name "grey matter".
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gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste.
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Transmembrane receptors are integral membrane proteins, which reside and operate typically within a cell's plasma membrane, but also in the membranes of some subcellular compartments and organelles.
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven transmembrane receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, and G protein linked receptors (GPLR
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Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, is expressed in metazoan photoreceptor cells. It is a pigment of the retina that is responsible for both the formation of the photoreceptor cells and the first events in the perception of light.
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An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Classification


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Muscarinic receptors are those membrane-bound acetylcholine receptors that are more sensitive to muscarine than to nicotine. Those for which the contrary is true are known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Muscarine and nicotine are both alkaloids.
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adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. Adrenergic receptors specifically bind their endogenous ligands, the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline (called epinephrine and norepinephrine
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Identifiers
Symbol AGTR2

Entrez 186
HUGO 338
OMIM 300034

RefSeq NM_000686
UniProt P50052
Other data

Locus Chr. X q22-q23 The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensins as ligands.
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Bombesin is a 14 amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of a frog. It has two known homologues in mammals called neuromedin B and gastrin releasing peptide. It works on the gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine hormone and it stimulates gastrin release from G cells.
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