Great Central Railway



The Great Central Railway (GCR) was a railway company in England which came into being when the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway changed its name in 1897 in anticipation of the opening in 1899 of its London Extension (See Great Central Main Line). In 1922 it was grouped into the London and North Eastern Railway.

History

The new GCR

Upon assuming its new title, the GCR main line ran from Manchester London Road Station via Penistone, Sheffield, Brigg and Grimsby to Cleethorpes. A second line left the aforementioned line at Penistone and served Barnsley, Doncaster and Scunthorpe before rejoining the Grimsby line at Barnetby. Other lines linked Sheffield to Barnsley (via Chapeltown) and Doncaster (via Rotherham and also a line linking Lincoln and Wrawby Junction. Branch lines in north Lincolnshire ran to Barton-upon-Humber and New Holland and served ironstone quarries in the Scunthorpe area. In the Manchester are lines ran to Stalybridge and Glossop.

In the 1890's the MS&LR began construction of its "Derbyshire Lines", in effect the first part of its push southwards. Leaving its east - west main line at Beighton Junction, some 5 1/2 miles east of Sheffield, the line headed towards Nottingham, a golden opportunity to tap into the collieries in the north of county before reaching that city. A loop line was built to serve its new Central Station in Chesterfield.

The "London Extension"

The MS&LR had obtained Parliamentary approval in 1893 for its so-called Extension to London. On 1 August 1897 the original name of the railway was changed to become the Great Central Railway. Building work started in 1895: the new line, some 92 miles (147km) in length, opened for coal traffic on 25 July1898; for passenger traffic on 15 March 1899, and for goods traffic on 11 April 1899.

The new line was built from Annesley in Nottinghamshire to join the existing Metropolitan Railway (MetR) Extension at Quainton Road, where the line became joint MetR/GCR owned, to return to GCR metals at Harrow for the final section to Marylebone. On 2 April1906 an "Alternative Route" or "alternative main line", running from Grendon Underwood Junction to Neasden was opened. The line was joint GCR/GWR between Ashenden Junction and Northolt Junction.

It was the last complete mainline railway to be built in Britain until section one of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link opened in 2003. It was also one of the shortest-lived intercity railway lines, being closed to passenger trains between Aylesbury and Rugby Central in 1966, leaving villages such as Woodford Halse without a railway. A Diesel Multiple Unit (DMU) shuttle service ran between Rugby Central and Nottingham (Arkwright Street) until it was also withdrawn in 1969.

Currently Chiltern Railways uses the lines south of Aylesbury for local services into London, and uses the Alternative Route south of Haddenham and the widened lines south of Neasden as the southern part of its main line from Birmingham to London.

Other new lines

Joint working

Apart from the three branches in the Liverpool area noted above, the GCR lines proper in the north of England were all east of Manchester. Nevertheless, GCR trains could run from coast to coast by means of joint working with other railways. The largest of those utilized in this way were those under the Cheshire Lines Committee: the other participants were the Midland Railway and the Great Northern Railway, taking in both Liverpool and Southport. Other joint undertakings were (west to east):

Key Officers

For those in position prior to 1899, dates are as served for the MS&LR.

General Managers

Locomotive Engineer

Chief Mechanical Engineer

GCR locomotives

These could generally be divided into those intended for passenger work, especially those used on the London Extension and those for the heavy freight work.
  • see Locomotives of the Great Central Railway

Pollitt's locomotives

These were those taken over from the MS&LR, mainly those of class F2, 2-4-2 tank locomotives, and also classes D5/6 4-4-0 locomotives.

Robinson locomotives

During Robinson's regime, many of the larger express passenger engines came into being:
  • Classes B1-B9: 4-6-0 tender locomotives
  • Classes C4/5: 4-4-2 tender locomotives
  • Classes D9-11: 4-4-0 tender locomotives
  • Class J13: 0-6-0T
  • Classes L1/L3: 2-6-2T
  • Classes O4/5: 2-8-0, heavy freight locos, including ROD engines
  • Class Q4: 0-8-0 heavy shunting locomotive
  • Class :three locos used at Wath marshalling yard

Major stations

Wath marshalling yard

The new marshalling yard at Wath-upon-Dearne was opened in November 1907. It was designed to cope with coal trains, full and empty; it was worked with electro-pneumatic signalling.

Docks

Grimsby docks

Grimsby was dubbed the "largest fishing port in the world" in the early 20th century; it owed its prosperity to the ownership by the GCR and its forebear, the MS&LR. Coal and timber were also among its biggest cargoes. There were two main docks: the Alexandra Dock (named for Queen Alexandra) and the Royal Dock, the latter completed in 1852. The total area of docks was 104.25 acres (42ha). These docks were linked by the Union Dock

Immingham Dock

This dock [71 acres (29ha)] was mainly concerned with the movement of coal, and was completed in 1912.

External links

Historical Study Group


The "Big Four" pre-nationalisation British railway companies
    [ e]
Great Western London Midland & Scottish London & North EasternSouthern
GWR constituents: Great Western RailwayCambrian RailwaysTaff Vale Railway
Barry RailwayRhymney Railway(full list)
LNER constituents: Great Central • Great EasternGreat NorthernGreat North of Scotland
Hull & BarnsleyNorth BritishNorth Eastern(Full list)
LMS constituents: CaledonianFurnessGlasgow & South Western Highland
Lancashire & YorkshireLondon and North WesternMidlandNorth Staffordshire(Full list)
SR constituents: London and South Western RailwayLondon, Brighton and South Coast Railway
South Eastern RailwayLondon, Chatham and Dover Railway(Full list)
See also: History of rail transport in Great Britain 1923 - 1947List of companies involved in the grouping
Great Central Railway (GCR) is a heritage railway in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire split in two sections.

The Southern section runs for 8.25 miles from Loughborough to the northern outskirts of Leicester.
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Franchise(s): Not subject to franchising;
Open-access operator
November 2007 - 2011
Main route(s): London Kings Cross – Sunderland
Other route(s): None
Fleet size: 3 (planned)
Stations: 7 (planned)
Parent company:
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Motto
Dieu et mon droit   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen".
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The Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR) was formed, by amalgamation in 1847. The MS&LR changed its name to the Great Central Railway in 1897 in anticipation of the opening in 1899 of its London Extension.
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s  1870s  1880s  - 1890s -  1900s  1910s  1920s
1894 1895 1896 - 1897 - 1898 1899 1900

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s  1870s  1880s  - 1890s -  1900s  1910s  1920s
1896 1897 1898 - 1899 - 1900 1901 1902

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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The Great Central Main Line (GCML), also known as the London Extension of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway was a main railway line in England that linked Sheffield with Marylebone Station in London via Nottingham and Leicester.
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The Great Central Main Line (GCML), also known as the London Extension of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway was a main railway line in England that linked Sheffield with Marylebone Station in London via Nottingham and Leicester.
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1890s  1900s  1910s  - 1920s -  1930s  1940s  1950s
1919 1920 1921 - 1922 - 1923 1924 1925

Year 1922 (MCMXXII
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Acts of Parliament of predecessor
states to the United Kingdom

Acts of English Parliament to 1601
Acts of English Parliament to 1641
Acts and Ordinances (Interregnum) to 1660
Acts of English Parliament to 1699
Acts of English Parliament to 1706
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London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) was the second-largest of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It existed from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948.
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Manchester Piccadilly

Location
Place Manchester City Centre
Local authority City of Manchester
Coordinates

Operations
Station code MAN
Managed by Network Rail
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Penistone

Location
Place Penistone
Local authority Barnsley

Operations
Station code PNS
Managed by Northern Rail

Platforms in use 2
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Sheffield Victoria station was the main Sheffield station on the Great Central Railway (known prior to 1897 as the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway), between Chesterfield and Penistone.
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Brigg

Platform one, looking east towards Barnetby
Location
Place Brigg
Local authority North Lincolnshire

Operations
Station code BGG
Managed by Northern Rail


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Grimsby Town

Location
Place Grimsby
Local authority North East Lincolnshire

Operations
Station code GMB
Managed by TransPennine Express

Platforms in use 3
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Cleethorpes

Location
Place Cleethorpes
Local authority North East Lincolnshire

Operations
Station code CLE
Managed by TransPennine Express

Platforms in use
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Barnsley Interchange

Location
Place Barnsley
Local authority Barnsley (borough)

Operations
Station code BNY
Managed by Northern Rail

Platforms in use 2
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Doncaster

Location
Place Doncaster
Local authority Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster

Operations
Station code DON
Managed by GNER

Platforms in use 8
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Scunthorpe

Location
Place Scunthorpe
Local authority North Lincolnshire

Operations
Station code SCU
Managed by TransPennine Express

Platforms in use 2
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Barnetby

Location
Place Barnetby-le-Wold
Local authority North Lincolnshire

Operations
Station code BTB
Managed by Transpennine Express

Platforms in use 4
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Chapeltown

Location
Place Chapeltown
Local authority Sheffield

Operations
Station code CLN
Managed by Northern Rail

Platforms in use 2
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Rotherham Central

Location
Place Rotherham
Local authority Rotherham

Operations
Station code RMC
Managed by Northern Rail

Platforms in use 2
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Lincoln Central

Location
Place Lincoln
Local authority Lincoln, Lincolnshire

Operations
Station code LCN
Managed by Central Trains

Platforms in use 5
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Barton-upon-Humber

Barton-upon-Humber ()
|240px|Barton-upon-Humber (

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New Holland is a small village and port on the Humber estuary in North Lincolnshire, England. The port handles mostly bulk cargoes. Formerly the embarkation point for the London & North Eastern Railway's ferry service to Hull Victoria Pier.
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Stalybridge

Population 22,568 (2001 Census)
OS grid reference SJ963985
Metropolitan borough Tameside
Metropolitan county Greater Manchester
Region North West
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Glossop

Glossop ()

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Chesterfield

Location
Place Chesterfield
Local authority Chesterfield, Derbyshire

Operations
Station code CHD
Managed by Midland Mainline

Platforms in use 2
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worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.
An Act of Parliament or Act is law by the parliament (see legislation).
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