Great standing on the Ugra river



The Great Standoff on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between the forces of Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and the Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the Tataro-Mongols and eventual disintegration of the Horde.

In 1476 Ivan III ceased paying annual tributes to the Horde. These tributes had been collected by the Mongols since the times of Batu Khan. At the time, Akhmat Khan was busy with his struggle against the Crimean Khanate and did not respond. Nearly four years later, in 1480, Akhmat Khan began to take action against the disobedient Russians. His first step was to reach a military agreement with the Polish king Casimir IV for a joint attack on Russia.

As a result, the western borders of Russia was subjected to multiple attacks by the Teutonic Order of Livonia in early 1480. In January of 1480, Ivan's brothers Boris Volotsky and Andrey Bolshoy became dissatisfied with his growing princely authority and turned against him. Akhmat Khan decided to take advantage of the political discontent and, in June of 1480, sent a reconnaissance unit to investigate the right bank of the Oka river. In autumn, his army started to advance towards Moscow, he passed through the Lithuanian territories of his ally king Casimir and stood on the Lithuanian-Muscovite border on the river Ugra[1]. In the face of such grave danger, the Russian boyars fractured into two groups: one, led by okolnichies Oschera and Mamon, wanted Ivan III to flee; the other wanted to fight the Horde. It could be that Ivan's final decision to face the Horde was affected by the Russians who had demanded action on the part of the Grand Duke.



On October 8, 1480 Akhmat Khan planned to bypass the Oka river from the west and thus avoid Ivan's regiments which were located in Kolomna, Serpukhov and Tarusa). This would allow Akhmat Khan to unite his army with Casimir's. Akhmat Khan's forces approached the Ugra river — the Oka's tributary. At the tributary, Akhmat Khan was met by the Russian army under the joint command of Ivan Molodoy (Ivan Junior, Ivan's son) and Andrey Menshoy (Andrey Smaller, Ivan's brother). Akhmat's attempt to cross the Ugra river was rebuffed in a 4-day battle.

After the battle, Akhmat retreated to the town of Vorotynsk, where he decided to wait for Casimir's army. Ivan III moved his army to Kremenets and started to negotiate with the khan, in attempt to buy some time to restore his relations with his rebellious brothers (hence, the Great standing on the Ugra river). It took Ivan III four days (from September, 30 to October, 3) to reconcile with his brothers and another 17 days (until 20 October) for his brothers' armies to arrive at Kremenets. Watching the increasing Russian army and receiving no word from the Polish king, Akhmat chose not to attack the Russians. In the meantime, Casimir IV was dealing with his own country's internal affairs and fighting with the Crimean Khanate. The Mongols waited for reinforcements until November, 11 and then, lacking supplies and suffering from epidemics and freezing weather, turned south.

On January 6, 1481 Akhmat Khan was killed in a clash with the army of Ibak Khan of Tyumen. As a result, the Golden Horde gradually disintegrated. The Great Standoff on the Ugra river put an end to the Tatar-Mongol dominance.

References

1. ^ Sergey Solovyov. History of Russia from the Earliest Times, ISBN 5-17-002142-9, v.5[1]
Ugra (Russian: Угра) is a river in Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts in Russia, left tributary of Oka River. The river is known for the Great standing on the Ugra river.
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Russian}}} 
Writing system: Cyrillic (Russian variant)  
Official status
Official language of:  Abkhazia (Georgia)
 Belarus
 Commonwealth of Independent States (working)
 Crimea (de facto; Ukraine)
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English}}} 
Writing system: Latin (English variant) 
Official status
Official language of: 53 countries
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: en
ISO 639-2: eng
ISO 639-3: eng  
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Ugra may refer to:
  • Ugra River, a river in Russia
  • Ugra (urban-type settlement), an urban-type settlement in Smolensk Oblast, Russia
  • Ugra National Park, a national park in Russia

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Ahmed Khan
Khan
Reign Great Horde: 1465 - 1481
Died January 6 1481
Buried Akhmat (Ahmed) Khan (? – January 6 1481) was a khan of the Great Horde between 1465 and 1481.
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Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title for a sovereign or military ruler in the Altaic languages . It was originally just the title in Turkic for a tribal leader before the Mongols and Turks brought it to the rest of Asia.
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The Great Horde, or Big Horde was the central principality of the Mongol-Tartar Golden Horde, the westernmost successor state of Genghis Khan's legacy.

Following Timur's invasion (roughly reconstituting the Persia-based Ilkhanate), the Golden Horde started to
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Ivan III Vasilevich (Russian: Иван III Васильевич) (22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great
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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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14th century - 15th century - 16th century
1450s  1460s  1470s  - 1480s -  1490s  1500s  1510s
1477 1478 1479 - 1480 - 1481 1482 1483

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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This is a list of the Mongol and Tatar military campaigns in Russia following the Mongol invasion of Rus:
  • 1223: Battle of the Kalka River
  • 1237-1242: Mongol invasion of Rus
  • 1252: Horde of Nevruy devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal.

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Disintegration
(1989) Mixed Up
(1990)

Disintegration is the eighth studio album by rock band The Cure, released in 1989. It peaked at #12 on Billboard's Top 200 Album chart.
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14th century - 15th century - 16th century
1440s  1450s  1460s  - 1470s -  1480s  1490s  1500s
1473 1474 1475 - 1476 - 1477 1478 1479

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Batu Khan (Russian: Баты́й, Ukrainian: Батий, Chinese: 拔都) (c.
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The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: Qırım Hanlığı,
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Motto
none1
Anthem
Mazurek Dąbrowskiego   (Polish)
Dąbrowski's Mazurek
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Casimir IV Jagiellon

Kazimierz IV on miniature
Reign June 29 1440-7 June 1492
(Grand Duke of Lithuania)
25 June 1447-7 June 1492
(King of Poland)
Coronation 29 June 1440 in Vilnius Cathedral as Grand Duke of Lithuania
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Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order (Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, "Order of the German House of St. Mary in Jerusalem", German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St.
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Livonia (Livonian: Līvõmō, Latvian and Lithuanian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland; Polish:
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Andrey Vasilyevich Bolshoy, nicknamed Goryai (Russian: Андрей Васильевич Большой
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Mouth Volga River
Basin countries Russia
Length 1,500 km (932 mi)

Avg. discharge 1,300 m³/s
Basin area 245,000 km²

Oka (Russian: Ока́
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Москв? (Russian)

Location of Moscow in Europe
Coordinates

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This article refers to the aristocratic title of boyar. For the Boyar caste of India, see Boyar (caste).


A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: boier
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Okolnichy (Окольничий in Russian) was an old rank and a position at the court of Russian rulers from the Mongol invasion of Russia until the government reform undertaken by Peter the Great.
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Russians
(Русские)

D. Donskoy • M. Lomonosov • L. Tolstoy • A. Chekhov
F. Dostoevsky • P. Tchaikovsky • M. Tsvetaeva • Y. Gagarin
K.

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Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia lasted from 1219 to 1221. It marked the beginning of the Mongol Conquest of the Islamic States, and it also expanded the Mongol invasions, which would ultimately culminate in the conquest of virtually the entire known world, save for Western Europe,
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17 (1): 74-91.
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