H&E stain

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H&E stained lung tissue sample from an end-stage emphysema patient. RBCs are red, nuclei are blue-purple, and other cellular and extracellular material is pink.
H&E stain, or hematoxylin and eosin stain, is a popular staining method in histology. It is the most widely used stain in medical diagnosis; for example when a pathologist looks at a biopsy of a suspected cancer, the histological section is likely to be stained with H&E and termed H&E section, H+E section, or HE section.

The staining method involves application of the basic dye hematoxylin, which colors basophilic structures with blue-purple hue, and alcohol-based acidic eosin Y, which colors eosinophilic structures bright pink.

The basophilic structures are usually the ones containing nucleic acids, such as the ribosomes and the chromatin-rich cell nucleus, and the cytoplasmatic regions rich in RNA.

The eosinophilic structures are generally composed of intracellular or extracellular protein. The Lewy bodies and Mallory bodies are examples of eosinophilic structures. Most of the cytoplasm is eosinophilic. Red blood cells are stained intensely red.

The structures do not have to be acidic or basic to be called basophilic and eosinophilic. The terminology is based on the affinity to the dyes.

Other colors, e.g. yellow and brown, can be present in the sample; they are caused by intrinsic pigments, e.g. melanin.

Some structures do not stain well. Basal laminae need to be stained by PAS stain or some silver stains, if they have to be well visible. Reticular fibers also require silver stain. Hydrophobic structures also tend to remain clear; these are usually rich in fats, eg. adipocytes, myelin around neuron axons, and Golgi apparatus membranes.

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Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. It is similar to fluorescent tagging.
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Histology (from the Greek ἱστός) is the study of tissue sectioned as a thin slice, using a microtome. It can be described as microscopic anatomy.
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Pathologist redirects here. For other uses of the terms pathology or pathological, see pathology (disambiguation).


Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells and bodily fluids.
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A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically (for example, using
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Histological section refers to thin slices of tissue applied to a microscopic slide, usually around 5 to 10 micrometres thick, which are viewed under a microscope.

Sections are usually stained with dyes to give optical contrast before viewing.
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Haematoxylin, hematoxylin, Natural Black 1, or C.I. 75290 is extracted from the wood of the logwood tree. When oxidised it forms haematein, a compound with rich blue-purple colour, and is used, together with a suitable mordant (most commonly Fe(III) or Al(III)
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Basophilic is a technical term used by histologists. It describes the microscopic appearance of cells and tissues, as seen down the microscope, after a histological section has been stained with a basic dye. The most common such dye is haematoxylin.
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Eosin is a fluorescent red dye resulting from the action of bromine on fluorescein. It can be used to stain cytoplasm, collagen and muscle fibers for examination under the microscope.

There are actually two very closely related compounds commonly referred to as eosin.
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Main article: Eosin
Eosinophilic means "loves eosin", and refers to the staining of certain tissues, cells, or organelles after they been washed with eosin, a dye.
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A nucleic acid is a macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains. In biochemistry these molecules carry genetic information or form structures within cells. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
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A ribosome is a small, dense, functional structure found in most known cells that assemble proteins and polypeptides used in cell division. It catalyses the assembly of individual amino acids into polypeptide chains by reading messenger RNAs and binding amino acids that are
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Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes. It is found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, and within the nucleoid in prokaryotes.[1] The nucleic acids are in the form of double-stranded DNA (a double helix).
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nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles]]

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl.
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Left: An RNA strand, with its nitrogenous bases. Right: Double-stranded DNA.]] Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, which plays several important roles in the processes of translating genetic information from
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Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues.
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Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells. They are identified under the microscope when histology is performed on the brain.

Lewy bodies appear as spherical masses that displace other cell components.
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Mallory bodies (also known as "alcoholic hyaline" or "Mallory's hyaline) are pathologic inclusions found in the cytoplasm of liver cells. They are most commonly found in the livers of people suffering from alcoholic hepatitis.
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Cytoplasm is a gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that fills most cells. Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that is kept separate from the cytoplasm by a double membrane layer. The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol, organelles and inclusions.
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Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate body's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood.
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Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole "blacks" and "browns" or their mixed copolymers. The most common form of biological melanin is a polymer of either or both of two monomer molecules: indolequinone, and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid.
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basal lamina is a layer on which epithelium sits and which is secreted by the epithelial cells. It is often confused with the basement membrane, and sometimes used inconsistently in the literature, see below.
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Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used in histology and pathology. This method is primarily used to identify glycogen in tissues. The reaction of periodic acid selectively oxidizes the glucose residues, creates aldehydes that react with the Schiff reagent and
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Silver staining is the use of silver to stain histologic sections. This kind of staining is important especially to show proteins (for example type III collagen) and DNA. It is used to show both substances inside and outside cells.
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Reticular fibers or reticulin is a histological term used to describe a type of structural fiber composed of type III collagen. Reticular fibers crosslink to form a fine meshwork (reticulum).
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Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

Description

There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white fat and brown fat,
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Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. It is an outgrowth of glial cells: Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons while oligodendrocytes supply it to those of the central nervous system.
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Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
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axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma.

Anatomy


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