Hakata Bay

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The city of Fukuoka encircling Hakata Bay. The colored areas represent the different wards of the city.


Hakata Bay (博多湾, -wan) is a bay in the northwestern part of Fukuoka city, on the Japanese island of Kyūshū. It faces the Tsushima Strait, and features beaches and a port, though parts of the bay have been reclaimed in the expansion of the city of Fukuoka. The bay is perhaps most famous for the Mongol invasions of Japan of 1274 and 1281 which took place nearby; both invasions are sometimes referred to as the "battle of Hakata Bay."

Geography

The Bay is defined by sandbars, Shikanoshima (Shika Island), and Genkaishima (Genkai Island) to the northwest, and the Itoshima Peninsula to the east. Five wards of Fukuoka city border on the bay, which is sometimes labeled "Fukuoka Bay" on maps. Sometimes, the bay is divided into Hakata, Fukuoka, and Imazu Bays, though for simplicity's sake, the term "Hakata Bay" is commonly used as a catch-all to refer to all three.

The bay is roughly 10 km from north to south, and 20 km from east to west, covering an area of roughly 134 km². The coastline stretches 128 km. The mouth of the bay is only 7.7 km wide, shielding it to a great extent from the waves of the Strait. The bay is only 10 metres deep on average, 23 m at its deepest point, though the tides bring a two metre change in the water level. Set routes are used, therefore, through the bay, to protect ships' drafts.

Land reclamation began to be undertaken in the Meiji period, and continued into the post-war period. Since 1945, 11.67 square kilometres of land have been reclaimed from the bay, primarily to improve or reinforce the effective functioning of the port. In 1994, an artificial island was created and called "Island City" (アイランドシティ, Airandoshiti).

Some particular petrified trees in the area are said to have been the masts of ships used in Empress Jingū's third century invasion of Korea. Veins of mica and pegmatite under the bay, part of a geologic fault, are under governmental protection.

Much of the area is included in the Genkai National Park, and efforts are made to maintain and preserve the natural features and environment both in the bay and on its islands. Though much of the shoreline is natural, some parts, particularly in and around the port itself, are artificial and developed upon, the bay's shoreline was officially designated as natural wilderness and parkland somewhat crudely.

Islands

A number of small islands are contained either within the bay or around it.
  • Hashima (端島, Ha Island)
  • Island City
  • Mishima (御島, Mi Island)
  • Nokonoshima (能古島, Noko Island)
  • Shikanoshima (志賀島, Shika Island)
  • Ugurushima (鵜来島, Uguru Island)
  • Takarajima (宝島, Takara Island)

History

The bay and its surrounding settlements were active and significant locations as early as the 3rd century and the Kofun period. Many historical figures of great significance passed through or lived in Hakata, and many major events occurred there. The ruins of Fukuoka Castle lie along the bay, and an active port has existed there for many centuries.

The area is said to have been recognized by China as early as 57 CE. Emperor Guangwu of Han is believed to have bestowed a Golden Seal to the local leaders, acknowledging (or granting) their authority over the area then called Na no kuni (奴国, Na Country or Na Province). Emissaries from the Chinese kingdom of Cao Wei arrived in the 3rd century, and Empress Jingū is said to have launched her invasion of Korea from this port. By the 7th century, Hakata was the port through which official missions to T'ang China were sent and received.

Following the defeat of Yamato (Japan) and Baekche in the battle of Hakusukinoe in 663, fears arose of invasions from Silla and China, and areas around the bay were fortified. The first mention of the area (by the name Chikushi) in the Nihon Shoki corresponds to this time period.

Kūkai was one of many famous people in Japanese history who journeyed to China through this port. In 806, he returned to Japan and founded the Tōchō-ji nearby. Sugawara no Michizane, after having been ambassador to China, and holding a number of other high posts at Court in Kyoto, was demoted to a post in Hakata in 901. Fujiwara no Sumitomo, having opposed Taira no Masakado's rebellion in 939, fled to Hakata two years later, where he was captured and killed.

As the closest major bay and port to mainland Asia in Japan, Hakata has played a major role in diplomacy and trade with Korea and China throughout much of history. This also made it, however, a key point of attack for attempts to invade the Japanese islands. In the Toi Invasion of 1019, Jurchens seized several nearby islands, using them as bases from which to raid and attack Hakata.

Mongol emissaries first arrived in 1268, and all the samurai armies of Kyūshū was mobilized in anticipation of the first of the Mongol invasions of Japan, which came six years later. Kublai Khan's forces seized Tsushima and Iki Island before landing on the shores of Hakata Bay on November 19th. The invaders were eventually repelled, and extensive fortification efforts were undertaken in the ensuing years. The second invasion arrived in 1281, and was similarly repelled. Though referred to in Japanese as the battles of Bun'ei and Kōan (文永と弘安の役), both of these invasion attempts are frequently referred to in English sources as the "Battle of Hakata Bay."

Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier arrived in Hakata in 1550, introducing Christianity to Japan. Kyūshū would be the center of Christianity in Japan for several decades, as a number of daimyō (feudal lords) and their subjects converted. Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded the island in 1587, and banished the missionaries, outlawing Christianity as a threat to his power.

Through the Edo period (1603-1868), Hakata handled only for domestic trade, as international trade or travel was forbidden by the Tokugawa shogunate except at designated ports. Hakata reopened to international trade in 1899. Following the end of World War II, this was one of the primary ports through which Japanese soldiers and civilian residents of the colonies were repatriated. Hakata remained an important port throughout the post-war period, and still serves this function today.

References

  • Much of this article's content comes from the corresponding article on the Japanese Wikipedia.
Fukuoka (福岡市 Fukuoka-shi
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Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡 tsushima kaikyō
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Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. One involves creating new land from sea- or riverbeds, the other refers to restoring an area to a more natural state (such as after pollution or salination have made it unusable).
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1 kilometre =
SI units
0 m 0106 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 mi
A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol km
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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The draft (or draught) of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained.
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Petrified wood (from the Greek root "petro" meaning "rock" or "stone", literally "wood turned into stone") is a type of fossil: it consists of fossil wood where all the organic materials have been replaced with minerals (most often a silicate, such as quartz), while retaining the
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Mica may refer to:
  • Mica, a silicate mineral group
  • The biblical prophet Micah
  • The book of Micah in the Tanakh
  • Mica is a song by Danish indie rock band Mew.

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Pegmatite is a very coarse-grained igneous rock that has a grain size of 20 mm or more; such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.

Most pegmatites are composed of quartz, feldspar and mica; in essence a "granite".
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fault or fault line is a planar rock fracture, which shows evidence of relative movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes.
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Fukuoka Castle (福岡城 -jō) is a Japanese castle located in Chūō-ku, Fukuoka, Japan. The castle is also known as Maizuru Castle (舞鶴城 -jō) or Seki Castle (石城 -jō).
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Emperor Guangwu (January 15, 5 BC - March 29, 57), born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). He ruled over the whole of China from 36 until 57.
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A Chinese seal is a seal or stamp containing Chinese characters used in East Asia to prove identity on documents, contracts, art, or similar items where authorship is considered important.
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Nakoku (奴国) was a state[1]
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Cao Wei (Chinese: 曹魏; Pinyin: Cáo Wèi; Wade-Giles: Ts'ao Wei) was one of the regimes that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period.
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History of Korea
Jeulmun Period
Mumun Period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
   Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
   Sui wars
 Baekje
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Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of Baekgang-gu or by the Japanese name Battle of Hakusukinoe (白村江の戦い Hakusuki-no-e no Tatakai or Hakusonkō no Tatakai)[1]
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History of Korea
Jeulmun Period
Mumun Period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
   Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
   Sui wars
 Baekje
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The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀
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Sugawara no Michizane (菅原道真 845 - March 26, 903), also known as Kan Shōjō (菅丞相), a grandson of Sugawara no Kiyogimi (770-842) (known as Owari no Suke and Daigaku no Kami), was a scholar, poet, and politician
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Fujiwara no Sumitomo (藤原純友)(d. 941) was a Japanese Heian era court noble and warrior. From 939 to 941 he aided the Taira clan in a series of revolts.
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Taira no Masakado (平将門) (?–940) was a member of the Kammu Taira clan of Japan. He was the son of Taira no Yoshimasa, Chinjufu-shogun. His childhood name was Souma Kojiro. Taira no Masakado was a powerful landowner in the Kanto region.
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The Toi invasion (Japanese: 刀伊の入寇 toi no nyūkō) was the invasion of northern Kyūshū by Jurchen pirates in 1019.
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Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; Pinyin: nǚzhēn
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