Hemel Hempstead

Hemel Hempstead
Enlarge picture
Hemel Hempstead (United Kingdom)

Hemel Hempstead (United Kingdom)

Hemel Hempstead shown within the United Kingdom
Population 81,143
OS grid referenceTL056071
District Dacorum
Shire county Hertfordshire
Region East
Constituent country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town London
Postcode district HP1, HP2, HP3
Dialling code 023 92
Police Hertfordshire
Fire Hertfordshire
Ambulance East of England
UK Parliament Hemel Hempstead
European Parliament East of England
List of places: UKEnglandHertfordshire
Coordinates: Hemel Hempstead is a town in Hertfordshire, England with a population of 81,143 at the 2001 Census (but now estimated at around 89,000 by Hertfordshire county council) . Developed after World War II as a new town, it has existed as a settlement since the 8th century. It is part of the district (and borough since 1984) of Dacorum and the Hemel Hempstead constituency.

On 11 December 2005 it was brought into the news by the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire.

Geography

Hemel Hempstead is located at Latitude 51° 45'N and Longitude 0° 28' 20" W and is 27 miles north west of Central London.

Hemel Hempstead grew up in a shallow chalkland valley at the confluence of the rivers Gade and Bulbourne. The main railway line from London Euston to the Midlands passes through Apsley and Hemel Hempstead railway stations a mile to the south of the town centre, as does the Grand Union Canal. These communication links, as well as the original A41 trunk road, all follow the natural course of the Bulbourne valley. The new town expansion took place up the valley sides and on to the hilltop plateau above the original Old Town. In the 1990s, a motorway style bypass was built further to the south and west of the town and numbered as the A41, which does not follow the natural lie of the land. Hemel is also linked to the M1 motorway to the east. The M25 is a few miles to the south. To the North and West lie mixed farm and woodland with scattered villages, part of the Chiltern Hills. To the South lies Watford and the beginnings of the Greater London connurbation. To the east lies St Albans an historic cathedral and market town and now like Hemel Hempstead, part of the London commuter belt.

Possibly the best view of Hemel Hempstead in its physical setting is from the top of Roughdown Common, a chalk hill to the south of the town, at TL 049 055 .

Origin of the name

The settlement was called by the name Henamsted or Hean-Hempsted, i.e. High Hempstead, in Saxon times and in William the Conqueror's time by the name of Hemel-Amstede.[1] The name is referred to in the Domesday Book as "Hamelamesede", but in later centuries it became Hamelhamsted.

Another opinion is that Hemel probably came from "Haemele" which was the name of the district in the eighth century and is most likely either the name of the land owner, or could mean "broken country". [4]

Pre WWII residents affectionately knew it simply as "Hempstead". Present day residents say simply "Hemel".

The modern Dutch place names of Haamstede and Heemstede probably have a similar root[2] which means homestead.

The town may have given its name to the Town of Hempstead, New York.

History

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Hemel Hempstead Old Town
Remains of Roman villa farming settlements have been found at Boxmoor and Gadebridge which span the entire period of Roman Britain.

The first recorded mention of the town is the grant of land at Hamaele by Offa, King of Essex, to the Bishop of London in AD705.

Hemel Hempstead on its present site is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as a vill, Hamelhamstede, with about 100 inhabitants. The church of St Mary was built in 1140, one of the finest Norman churches in the county. The church features a very tall 200 foot spire added in the 12th century, and one of Europe's tallest.

After the Norman conquest the land thereabouts was given to Robert, Count of Mortain, the elder half brother of William the Conqueror as part of the lands associated with Berkhamsted Castle. The estates passed through many hands over the next few centuries including Thomas á Becket in 1162. In 1290 King John's grandson, the Earl of Cornwall, gave the manor to the religious order of the Bonhommes when he endowed the monastery at Ashridge. The town remained part of the monastery's estates until the Reformation and break-up of Ashridge in 1539.

In that same year the town was granted a charter by King Henry VIII to become a Bailiwick with the right to hold a Thursday market and a fair on Corpus Christi Day. The first Bailiff of Hemel Hempstead was William Stephyns (29th December 1539). The King and Anne Boleyn are reputed to have stayed in the town at this time.

Unusually fine medieval wall paintings from the period between 1470 and 1500 were discovered in some cottages in Piccotts End, very close to Hemel Hempstead in 1953. This same building had been converted into the first cottage hospital providing free medical services by Sir Astley Cooper in 1827 .[3]

Hemel's position on the shortest route between London and the industrial Midlands put it on the Sparrows Hearne turnpike road in 1762, the Grand Junction Canal in 1795 and the London and Birmingham Railway in 1837[4]. However it remained principally an agricultural market town throughout the nineteenth century. In the last decades of that century development of houses and villas for London commuters began. The Midland railway built a branch connecting to its main line at Harpenden in 1877 (see The Nicky Line). Hemel steadily expanded, but only became a borough on 13th July, 1898. During World War II, a stick of bombs demolished houses at Nash Mills. The nearby Dickinson factories were used to produce munitions.

After World War II, in 1946, the government designated Hemel Hempstead as the site of one of its proposed New towns designed to house the displaced population of London where slums and bombsites were being cleared. On 4th February 1947 the Government purchased 5,910 acres of land and began work on the "New Town". The first new residents moved in during April 1949 and the town continued its planned expansion through to the end of the 1980s. Hemel grew to its present population of 80,000, with new developments enveloping the original town on all sides. The original part of Hemel is still known as the "Old Town".

Its geographical position, between London and the Midlands, acted again in the 1960s when the M1 motorway was routed just to the east of the town. This gave it a central position on the country's motorway network.

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Buncefield oil fire explosion


In the 1970s, the town decided to abolish its mayor and set up in place, a district council. The first chairman of that council was Chairman John Johnson (1913-1977). In the 1980s, the town then decided to revert back to its original state, with a mayor. The political atmosphere of the town has changed significantly. Once a Labour stronghold, the town has seen an increase in Conservative Party voting in recent years, and the current MP, Mike Penning, is Conservative.

As of the 2001 census, Hemel Hempstead is the most populated urban area in Hertfordshire, narrowly more populated than its traditionally "larger" rival, Watford.

There was a major explosion in the town at the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal, Buncefield at 6am on Sunday 11 December 2005. See 2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire. The Maylands Avenue industrial estate was severely damaged and much of it will need to be demolished. Nearby residential districts of Adeyfield, Woodhall Farm and Leverstock Green were also badly damaged and around 300 people made temporarily homeless. There were 41 people with minor injuries and 2 were seriously hurt. The only reason no one was killed was because it occurred before dawn on a Sunday.

New town

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Marlowes shopping centre and pedestrianised high street, the centre of Hemel Hempstead since the Newtown was built, taken 2006


Hemel Hempstead was announced as candidate No 3. for a New Town in July 1946, in accordance with the government's "policy for the decentralisation of persons and industry from London". Initially there was much resistance and hostility to the plan from locals, especially when it was revealed that any development would be carried out not by the local council but by a newly appointed government body, the Hemel Hempstead Development Corporation (later amalgamated with similar bodies to form the Commission for the New Towns). However, following a public inquiry the following year, the town got the go-ahead. Hemel officially became a New Town on February 4, 1947.

The initial plans for the New Town were drawn up by architect G. A. Jellicoe. His view of Hemel Hempstead, he said, was “not a city in a garden, but a city in a park.” However the plans were not well-received by most locals. Revised, and less radical plans were drawn up, and the first developments proceeded despite local protests in July 1948. The first area to be developed was Adeyfield. At this time the plans for a double "magic" roundabout at Moor End were first put forward, but in fact it was not until 1973 that the roundabout was opened as it was originally designed. The first houses erected as part of the New Town plan were in Longlands, Adeyfield, and went up in the spring of 1949. The first new residents moved in early 1950.

At this time, work started on building new factories and industrial areas, to avoid the town becoming a dormitory town. The first factory was erected in 1950 in Maylands Avenue. As building progressed with continuing local opposition, the town was becoming increasingly popular with those moving in from areas of north London. By the end of 1951, there was a waiting list of about 10,000 wishing to move to Hemel. The neighbourhoods of Bennett's End, Chaulden and Warner's End were started. The Queen paid a visit shortly after her accession in 1952, and laid a foundation stone for a new church in Adeyfield - one of her first public engagements as Queen. The shopping square she visited is named Queen's Square, and the nearby area has street names commemorating the recent conquest of Everest, such as Hilary and Tenzing Road.

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Riverside, extension to the Marlowes shopping precinct opened 2005


The redevelopment of the town centre was started in 1952, with a new centre based on Marlowes south of the old town. This was alongside a green area called the Water Gardens, designed by Jellico, formed by ponding back the River Gade. The old centre of the High Street was to remain largely undeveloped, though the market square closed and was replaced by a much larger one in the new centre. The former private estate of Gadebridge was opened up as a public park. New schools and roads were built to serve the expanding new neighbourhoods. New housing technology such as prefabrication started to be used from the mid-50s, and house building rates increased dramatically. Highfield was the next neighbourhood to be constructed. The M1 motorway opened to the east in 1959, and a new road connecting it to the town was opened.

By 1962, the redevelopment of the new town as originally envisaged was largely complete, though further expansion plans were then put forward. The nearby USAF base of Bovingdon, which had served as the town's de facto airport, closed at this time, though private flying continued for a further 7 years. Dacorum College, the library, new Police station and the Paviliion (theatre and music venue) were all built during the 1960s. The town seemed to attract its fair share of celebrity openings, with shops and businesses opened by Frankie Vaughan, Benny Hill, Terry-Thomas, and the new cinema was opened by Lauren Bacall. The last of the originally-planned neighbourhoods, Grovehill, began construction in 1967. However, further neighbourhoods of Woodhall Farm and Fields End were later built as part of the extended plans.

Like other first generation new towns, Hemel is divided into residential neighbourhoods, each with their own "village centre" with shops, pubs and services. Each neighbourhood is designed around a few major feeder roads with many smaller cul-de-sacs and crescents, intended to minimise traffic and noise nuisance. In keeping with the optimism of the early postwar years, much of the town features modernist architecture with many unusual and experimental designs for housing. Not all of these have stood the test of time.

Neighbourhoods in Hemel Hempstead

  • Adeyfield - Located on a hill to the east of the old town, this was the first of the New town Districts to be started. The first four families of Hemel Hempstead’s new town moved into their homes in Adeyfield on Wednesday, February 8, 1950.
  • Apsley - a nineteenth century mill town a mile south of old Hemel which grew up around the paper making industry. Now a suburb of Hemel with many warehouse outlets set in Retail parks and a large J Sainsburys Supermarket.
  • Bennetts End Located on the rising ground to the south west and another original district of the new town. Construction began in 1951 and by autumn 1952 300 houses were occupied.
  • Boxmoor- A mostly Victorian developed district to the south-west which grew up because of its proximity to the LMS railway station and trains to London.
  • Chaulden - a sixties estate south west of the town.
  • Cupid's Green - a sixties estate north east of the town on the site of the old fireworks factory.
  • Felden -Felden is a partly rural area south west of Hemel Hempstead that has many wealthy detached houses. It is home to the national headquarters of the Boys' Brigade.
  • Gadebridge - A later 1960s development located north west of the old town.
  • Grovehill- Grovehill is a small estate towards the northern edge of Hemel Hempstead. Within the estate there are such features as 'Henry Wells Square' containing the local shops, a pub and 'Mings Fish Bar', a local fish and chip shop. The estate also contains 'Grovehill Community Centre', the local 'Grovehill Playing Fields', home to many football pitches, a baseball ground and changing facilities. Grovehill also incorporates various churches, a doctor's surgery and a dental surgery as well as several schools.
  • Highfield - a district of the original new town located north of the old town.
  • High Street Green -
  • Leverstock Green - A village which pre-existed the new town and which has now been subsumed into it, although retaining its original village centre. It was once a popular place for actors and artists to live.
  • North End Farm
  • Nash Mills
  • Warner's End
  • Woodhall Farm - A housing estate on the western edge of town towards Redbourn. Woodhall Farm was built in the mid to late 1970s on the former Brock's Fireworks site with a mix of private and housing association stock. Built by Fairview Estates it has property ranging from 4 bedroom detached houses down to one bedroom low -rise flats. The area has a shopping centre with a Sainsburys, Newsagents, Take Away and Off Licence. It also has two infant and middle schools and a doctors surgery serving the local area.

Developments since the new town

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Apsley Lock Marina on the Grand Union Canal, Hemel Hempstead


The Jarman Park Leisure centre (Leisure World) was opened, containing eight film screens (Empire Cinema), ten pin bowling (Hotshots), ice rink (Silver Blades), water park (Aqua Splash)and night clubs (Lava and Ignite). This development, and those of the adjacent MacDonalds and restaurant Tesco superstore, were built on land originally donated to the town for recreational purposes. Land has also been reserved for a hotel, but to date (May 2007) this remains derelict. Replacement openspace was created to the east of the town, near to Leverstock Green, Longdean Park and Nash Mills.

The former Dickinsons factory site, straddling the canal at Apsley, has been redeveloped with housing, a mooring basin, and an hotel. An office block is planned. Some buildings have been retained for their historic interest and to provide a home for the projected Paper Museum.

An indoor shopping mall was developed adjacent to the south end of the Marlowes retail area, and in 2005 the Riverside development designed by Bernard Engle Architects was opened, effectively extending the main shopping precinct towards the Plough roundabout. The new centre includes several outlets for national retailers including Debenhams, Starbucks, Virgin Records, etc. These two developments have moved the "centre of gravity" of the retail centre away from the traditional market and the north end of Marlowes has become an area for secondary outlets.

Sport

Hemel Hempstead Town football club dates back to 1885 and now play in the Southern Football League Premier Division. Nicknamed The Tudors, they play at Vauxhall Road in the Adeyfield area of the town.

Hemel Stags, founded in 1981, are the only rugby league team from the South of England to play in the Rugby League Conference National league.

Schools

The six secondary schools in the area are
  • Hemel Hempstead School - A Specialist Performing Arts School
  • Cavendish School and Specialist Sports College
  • The Astley Cooper School - A Specialist College for the Visual Arts
  • Adeyfield School - Business and Enterprise College
  • John F Kennedy Catholic School - A Specialist Technology College (Roman Catholic)
  • Longdean School - A Maths and Computing College
  • Lockers Park Preparatory School, established in 1874, is a boarding school for boys aged 7-13.
In addition there is a West Herts College Campus based in the town centre.

Political representation

Hemel Hempstead returns its own MP at Westminster. At the May 2005 General election the seat changed from Labour to Conservative. Mike Penning, (Conservative), was elected with a majority of 499, just over 1%.

The previous MP was Tony McWalter, (Labour Co-operative), first elected 1997.

Twinned towns

Hemel Hempstead, as part of the Borough of Dacorum, is twinned with:

Commerce, industry and agriculture

Historical

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Hemel Hempstead Old Town, with the spire of the St Mary's Church, founded in 1140.
Historically, the area was agricultural and was noted for its rich cereal production. The agricultural journalist William Cobbett noted of Hemel Hempstead in 1822 that "..the land along here is very fine: a red tenacious flinty loam upon a bed of chalk at a yard or two beneath, which, in my opinion, is the very best corn land that we have in England." [1]. By the eighteenth century the grain market in Hemel was one of the largest in the country. In 1797 there were 11 watermills working in the vicinity of the town. [2].

In the nineteenth century, Hemel was a noted brickmaking, paper manufacturing and straw-plaiting centre.

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Hemel was also a noted watercress growing area, supplying 1/16th of the country's national demand - following development of the New Town, the watercress growing moved to nearby Berkhamsted and Tring. The cress beds were redeveloped as the modern day Water Gardens.

Joseph Cranstone's engineering company was founded in 1798, and was responsible for much of the early street lighting in the town as well as it first gas works. It became the Hemel Hempstead Engineering Company and stayed in business until World War Two. In 1867 Cranstone's son built a steam powered coach which he drove to London, but which was destroyed in a crash on the return journey. A local Boxmoor pub commemorates the event.

In 1803 the first automatic papermaking machinery was developed in Hemel by the Fourdrinier brothers at Frogmore. Paper making expanded in the vicinity in the early nineteenth century and grew into the huge John Dickinson mills in the twentieth.

A traditional employer in the area was also Brock's, manufacturer of fireworks. The factory was a significant employer since well before World War II, and remained in production until the mid 1970s. The present-day neighbourhood of Woodhall farm was subsequently built on the site.

Significant historic local firms:
  • Addressograph, address labels & labelling systems
  • Apple Computer's UK operations were originally based in Hemel, though they moved to much larger premises in Uxbridge during the late 1980s.
  • Brocks Fireworks, Firework manufacturer
  • Crosfield Electronics - digital imaging systems, now part of Fujifilm
  • John Dickinson and Sons, paper manufacturing
  • Lucas Aerospace

Present day

Hemel Hempstead has a mixture of heavy and light engineering companies and has attracted a significant number of information and telecommunications sector companies helped by its proximity to London and the UK motorway network. However (and again in common with many new towns) it has a much narrower business base than established centres, particularly Watford and St Albans.

Significant firms with a local presence include: Just east of the town is the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal (HOST), known locally as the Buncefield complex. This was a major hub on the UK oil pipeline network (UKOP) with pipelines to Humberside, Merseyside, and Heathrow and Gatwick airports radiating from here. This was destroyed by a huge explosion on 11 December 2005.

See 2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire.

Hemel's notable features

Hemel is famous (or perhaps notorious) for its "Magic Roundabout" (officially called the Moor End roundabout, or "The Plough Roundabout" from a former adjacent public house), an interchange at the end of the new town (Moor End), where traffic from six routes meet. Traffic is able to circulate in both directions around what appears to be a main central roundabout (and formerly was such), with the normal rules applying at each of the six mini-roundabouts encircling this central reservation. It is a misconception that the traffic flows the 'wrong' way around the inner roundabout; as it is not in fact a roundabout at all, and as such no roundabout rules apply to it. It was the first such circulation system in Britain.

Hemel claims to have the first purpose built multi-storey car park in Britain. Built in 1960 into the side of a hill in the Marlowes shopping district, it features a giant humorous mosaic map of the area by the artist Rowland Emett.

The new town centre is laid out alongside landscaped gardens and water features formed from the River Gade known as the Watergardens designed by G.A. Jellicoe. The main shopping street, Marlowes, was pedestrianised in the early 1990s.

Hemel also was home of one of the first community based television stations West Herts TV which later became Channel 10

For many years the lower end of Marlowes featured a distinctive office building built as a bridge-like structure straddling the main road. This building was erected on the site of an earlier railway viaduct carrying the Hemel to Harpenden railway, known as The Nicky Line. When the new town was constructed, this part of the railway was no longer in use and the viaduct demolished. The office building, occupied by BP, was designed to create a similar skyline and effect as the viaduct. In the early 1980s it was discovered that the building was subsiding dangerously and it was subsequently vacated and demolished. Adjacent to BP buildings was a unique double-helix public car park. The lower end of Marlowes was redeveloped into the Riverside shopping complex, which opened on 27 October 2005. Retailers taking residence at the Riverside complex, include Debenhams and HMV.

A few hundred metres away, overlooking the 'Magic Roundabout', is Hemel's tallest building; the 19-storey Kodak building. Built as the Kodak company's UK HQ the tower was vacated in 2005. It was then temporarily reoccupied in 2006 after the Buncefield explosion destroyed Kodaks other Hemel offices. It is now being converted into 434 apartment homes . [5]

The Heathrow airport holding area known as the Bovingdon stack lies just west of the town . On a clear day at peak times the sky above can be seen to be filled with circling aircraft.

The national headquarters of the Boys' Brigade is located at Felden Lodge, near Hemel.

A series of 10m high blue steel arches called the Phoenix Gateway is being built near the roundabout closest to the Hemel Hempstead junction of the M1. The aim is to regenerate the town after the Buncefield explosion with a striking piece of commercial art. It is Funded by the East of England Development Agency. [6]

Notable people

Notable people associated with the town in order of birth date:
  • Sir Francis Bacon - (1561 - 1626) was lord of the manor of Gorehambury which included Hemel Hempstead from 1601.
  • Nicholas Breakspear (c. 1100 - 1159), the only English Pope (Adrian IV 1154-1159) was born in nearby Bedmond, a village between Hemel and Abbots Langley.
  • Robert Snooks (c. 1761-1802) Englands last highwayman was executed and buried here.
  • Astley Cooper (1768-1841) English surgeon and anatomist. Lived at Gadebridge House, the grounds of which are now a public park.
  • Joseph Cranstone, set up an engineering works in Hemel Hempstead in 1798. His son, also Joseph, built a steam coach in 1867 which he drove to London but which went disastrously out of control on Stanmore Hill on the return journey.
  • John Dickinson 1782 - 1869, inventor and founder of the paper mills at Apsley & Nash Mills which evolved into John Dickenson plc, built and lived at Abbots Wood, Nash Mills.
  • Sir Arthur Evans, , (1851 - 1941) archaeologist, was born at "The Red House", Nash Mills.
  • Lyn Harding (1867 - 1952) actor and film star lived at a house called Logandene in Tile Kiln Lane, Leverstock Green, Hemel Hempstead.
  • Charles Longman, heir to the publisher Longmans and partner to John Dickinson, bought the Shendish estate in 1853 and built an impressive manor house there.
  • Roger Moore, actor, famous for his roles as The Saint and James Bond, lived in Tile Kiln Close, Leverstock Green, Hemel Hempstead in the 1960s.
  • Bill Morris OJ (born 1938), former leader of the TGWU, lived in Hemel Hempstead and still lives within the Borough of Dacorum.
  • Salem Hanna Khamis (1919 – 2005) was a Palestinian economic statistician for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization who helped formalise the Geary-Khamis method of computing purchasing power parity of currencies. In later life lived in Hemel Hempstead and died there.
  • Christopher Trace (1933 - 1992) first presenter of BBC TV's Blue Peter children's show lived for a time in Blacksmiths Row, Leverstock Green.
  • Michael Bradshaw (1933-2001) English / Canadian actor Grew up in Boxmoor from 1938 until the mid 50's
  • Paul Boateng, (born 1951) Britain's first black Cabinet minister and Ambassador to South Africa, attended Apsley Grammar School (now part of Longdean School).
  • Dave Vanian (born 1956)(real name David Letts), the lead singer of The Damned, was born and lived in Chaulden.
  • Ian Lygo, famous for his record-breaking 75 consecutive wins on UK Quiz show 100%, lives in Hemel Hempstead.
  • Alison Wheeler (born 1956) is a British political activist and was born in Hemel Hempstead.
  • Vinnie Jones, (born 1965) footballer and actor, is a local resident.
  • Steven Wilson, (born 1967) multi-instrumental musician, singer, songwriter and producer was born here. His band Porcupine Tree was also formed in Hemel Hempstead around the year 1987. His home studio "No-Mans Land" is also located here.
  • Claire Skinner (born 1965)the distinguished actress was born (1965) and raised in Hemel Hempstead.
  • Oliver Low (born 1970) in Hemel Hempstead a poet, software engineer, composer, games designer and author.
  • Luke Donald, (born 1977) was born in Hemel Hempstead. He is a golfer who plays mainly on the US based PGA Tour.
  • Marc Bircham, (born 1978) currently lives in Hemel Hempstead near the Shendish estate. He is a Canadian footballer who currently plays for Queens Park Rangers in The Championship. He has also figured in the Canada men's national soccer team.
  • Anthony Davidson, (born 1979) Formula 1 driver was born here. Formula 1 drivers Christian Klien and Vitantonio Liuzzi live in Apsley.
  • Tommy W. Smith, (born 1980) was born in Hemel Hempstead. He is a footballer who currently plays for Watford FC in the FA Premiership.
  • Chris Eagles, (born 1985) footballer for Manchester United in the FA Premier League is from Hemel Hempstead.
  • Jordan Parkes,(born 1989), an English footballer, currently playing for Watford, is from Leverstock Green.
  • Theo Walcott, ((born 1989),an English footballer, currently lives with his family in the Hemel Hempstead area.

Notable Trivia

Pie in the Sky (a BBC police drama) was filmed here. The site for the restaurant is now a real restaurant with the same name.

Nearby places

To the north To the south To the east To the west

See also

Photo Gallery


Apsley Lock Marina, Hemel Hempstead

The Church of St. Mary's (1871) stands above the modern Sainsburys supermarket in Apsley.


References

1. ^ [3] Origin of the name at hertfordshire genealogy Accessed June 2006
2. ^ [4] Newsdat - Town of Hempstead, New York and Haamstede, Schouwen, Netherlands Accessed June 2006
3. ^ Dacorum Heritage Trust [5]
4. ^ The Chiltern Canal Corridor Castle Wharf project Berkhampstead. Accessed April 2007
5. ^ Council go-ahead for former Kodak site after cut in number of homes Hemel Hempstead Gazette, 04 April 2007 . Accessed August 2007
6. ^ Name for new Maylands sculpture Hemel Hempstead Gazette, 30 may2007 . Accessed August 2007


[1] Edwards, Dennis F.(1994) Hemel Hempstead in old picture postcards European Library , ISBN 90-288-5797-4

[2] Hemel Hempstead Directory of 1797 [6] - Early description of the town.

[3] Description of Hemel Hempstead (1870-72), John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales.[7]

[4] Yaxley, Susan; and others (1973, reprinted 1981). History of Hemel Hempstead. Amplion Press: Hemel Hempstead Local History and Records Society. ISBN 0-9502743-0-5. 

[5] Buteux, Elizabeth (2005). Hemel Hempstead - A History and Celebration. Salisbury, Wiltshire: The Francis Frith Collection. ISBN 1-84589-206-2. 

Footnotes

"How historic treasures have devalued a house", Sunday Times, Nov 12, 2000 by Chris Partridge; p. 15

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A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system.[1] Including the correct post town in the address increases the chances of a letter or parcel being delivered on time.
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The London postal district is the area in England, currently of 241 square miles,[1] to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered. The area was initially devised in 1856[2]
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UK postal codes are known as postcodes.

UK postcodes are alphanumeric. These codes were introduced by the Royal Mail over a 15-year period from 1959 to 1974 — the full list is now available electronically from the Royal Mail as the Postcode Address File.
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Hemel Hempstead postcode area


Postcode area HP
Postcode area name Hemel Hempstead
Post towns 11
Postcode districts 24
Postcode sectors 69
Postcodes (live) 14,109
Postcodes (total) 19,402
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UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003.
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    Royal Botanic Gardens Constabulary)
  • Royal Parks Constabulary
On 1 April 2004, following a review of the Royal Parks Constabulary by Anthony Speed, the Metropolitan Police took on the responsibility of policing the Royal Parks in Greater London and the RPC was

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Hertfordshire Constabulary

Hertfordshire Constabulary area
Coverage
Area Hertfordshire
Size 1,643
Population 1.5 million
Operations
Formed 1947 (merger)
HQ Welwyn Garden City
Budget
Officers
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fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and
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Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service

Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service area
Coverage
Area Hertfordshire
Size 634 miles² (1,643 km²)
Population 1.
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Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom are almost all provided by one of the four National Health Services through local ambulance services, known in England and Wales as trusts.
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East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing NHS ambulance services in Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Luton, Norfolk, Peterborough, Southend-on-Sea, Suffolk and Thurrock, in the East of England region.
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England]]
1.1 East Midlands Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire
1.2 East of England Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk, Suffolk
1.3 Greater London North East, North West, South East, South West
1.
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Hemel Hempstead is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.
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This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name.

See European Parliament Election, 2004 (UK) for a list ordered by constituency.
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East of England is a constituency of the European Parliament. It currently elects 7 MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.

Boundaries

The constituency corresponds to the East of England region of the United Kingdom.
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  • List of cities in the United Kingdom
  • List of towns in England

Lists of places within counties

This is a list of pages listing places in each ceremonial county of England; with the exception of the ceremonial counties of the East Riding of Yorkshire, North
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