Himno Nacional Mexicano



Enlarge picture
Front page of the sheet music to the Mexican anthem
The National Anthem of Mexico (Spanish: Himno Nacional Mexicano) was officially adopted in 1943. The lyrics of the national anthem, which allude to Mexican victories in the heat of battle and cries of defending the homeland, were composed by poet Francisco González Bocanegra in 1853, after his fiancée locked him in a room. In 1854, Jaime Nunó arranged the music which now accompanies González's poem. The anthem, consisting of ten stanzas and a chorus, entered into use on September 16, 1854. From 1854 until its official adoption, the lyrics underwent several modifications due to political changes in the country. Unofficially, the anthem is sometimes called "Mexicanos, al grito de guerra" (Spanish for "Mexicans, at the cry of war") which is also the first line of the chorus.

Composition

Lyrics competition

Enlarge picture
Francisco González Bocanegra
Enlarge picture
Jaime Nunó
On November 12, 1853, President Antonio López de Santa Anna announced a competition to write a national anthem for Mexico. The competition offered a prize for the best poetic composition representing patriotic ideals. Francisco González Bocanegra, a talented poet, was not interested in participating in the competition. He argued that writing love poems involved very different skills from the ones required to write a national anthem. His fiancée, Guadalupe González del Pino (or Pili), had undaunted faith in her fiancé's poetic skills and was displeased with his constant refusal to participate in spite of her constant prodding and requests from their friends. Finally she decided to take matters into her own hands. Under false pretenses, she lured him to a secluded bedroom in her parents' house, locked him into the room, and refused to let him out until he produced an entry for the competition. Inside the room in which he was temporarily imprisoned were pictures depicting various events in Mexican history which helped to inspire his work. After four hours of fluent (albeit forced) inspiration, Francisco regained his freedom by slipping all ten verses of his creation under the door. After Francisco received approval from his fiancée and her father, he submitted the poem and won the competition by unanimous vote.[1] González was announced the winner in the publication Official Journal of the Federation (DOF) on February 3, 1854.

Music competition

At the same time the lyrics were chosen, a set of music was chosen. The winner was Juan Bottesini, but his entry was disliked due to aesthetics. This rejection caused a second national contest to find music for the lyrics.[2] At the end of the second contest, the music that was chosen for González's lyrics was composed by Jaime Nunó, a Spanish-born band leader. At the time of the second anthem competition, Nunó was the leader of several Mexican military bands. He had been invited to direct these bands by President Santa Anna, whom he had met in Cuba. About the time that Nunó first came to Mexico to start performing with the bands, Santa Anna was making his announcement about creating a national anthem for Mexico. Out of the few musical compositions submitted, Nunó's music, titled "God and Freedom" (Dios y libertad), was chosen as the winner on August 12, 1854.[3] The anthem was officially adopted on Independence Day, September 16 of that same year. The inaugural interpretation was directed by Juan Bottesini, sung by soprano Claudia Florenti and tenor Lorenzo Salvi at the Santa Anna Theatre (now known as the National Theatre of Mexico).[4][2]

Lyrics

Officially since 1943, the full national anthem consists of the chorus, 1st stanza, 5th stanza, 6th stanza and 10th stanza. The modification of the lyrics was ordered by President Manuel Ávila Camacho in a decree printed in the Diario Oficial de la Federación.[5] When the anthem is played at sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, the only parts of the anthem that are played are the chorus, 1st stanza and the chorus. When opening and closing television and or radio programming, stations have sometimes played a modified national anthem consisting of the chorus, 1st stanza, chorus, 10th stanza and chorus.

Notes: The word "Patria" in the Spanish language is the form of the English term of 'homeland.'

National Anthem of Mexico

Coro: Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
el acero aprestad y el bridón.
Y retiemble en sus centros la tierra,
al sonoro rugir del cañón.
¡Y retiemble en sus centros la tierra,
al sonoro rugir del cañón!
Chorus:[3]

Mexicans, at the cry of war,
make ready the steel and the steed,
and may the earth tremble its centers
at the resounding roar of the cannon.
And may the earth tremble its centers
at the resounding roar of the cannon.
Estrofa I: Ciña ¡oh Patria! tus sienes de oliva
de la paz el arcángel divino,
que en el cielo tu eterno destino
por el dedo de Dios se escribió.
Mas si osare un extraño enemigo
profanar con su planta tu suelo,
piensa ¡oh Patria querida! que el cielo
un soldado en cada hijo te dio.
First Stanza:

Let gird, oh country, your brow with olive
by the divine archangel of peace,
for in heaven your eternal destiny
was written by the finger of God.
But if some enemy outlander should dare
to profane your ground with his step,
think, oh beloved country, that heaven
has given you a soldier in every son.
Estrofa V: ¡Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intente
De la patria manchar los blasones!
¡Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones
En las olas de sangre empapad.
¡Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle
Los cañones horrísonos truenen,
Y los ecos sonoros resuenen
Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad!
Stanza V:

War, war without quarter to any who dare
to tarnish the country's coat of arms!
War, war! Let the national banners
be soaked in waves of blood.
War, war! In the mountain, in the valley,
let the cannons thunder in horrid unison
and may the sonorous echoes resound
with cries of Union! Liberty!
Estrofa VI: Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos
Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen,
Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen,
Sobre sangre se estampe su pie.
Y tus templos, palacios y torres
Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo,
Y sus ruinas existan diciendo:
De mil héroes la patria aquí fue.
Stanza VI:

Oh country, ere your children, defenseless
bend their neck beneath the yoke,
may your fields be watered with blood,
may they leave their footprints in blood.
And may your temples, palaces and towers
collapse with horrid clamor,
and their ruins continue on, saying:
Of a thousand heroes, this country was.
Estrofa X: ¡Patria! ¡Patria! Tus hijos te juran
Exhalar en tus aras su aliento,
Si el clarín con su bélico acento
los convoca a lidiar con valor.
¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva!
¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria!
¡Un laurel para ti de victoria!
¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!
Stanza X:

Oh, country, country, your children swear to you
to breathe their last for your sake,
if the bugle with its warlike accent
should call them to fight with courage.
For you the olive wreathes!
A memory for them of glory!
For you a laurel of victory!
A tomb for them of honor!

Copyright status

An urban legend about the copyright status of the anthem states that years after its first performance, Nunó's family sold the musical rights to a German music publishing company named Wagner House. Originally, Nunó was supposed to have turned the music rights over to the state in exchange for a prize from the Mexican government. However, according to the myth, the copyright changed hands again, this time to Nunó himself and two Americans, Harry Henneman and Phil Hill.[6]

In reality, however, this is not entirely correct. It is true that Nuno, Henneman and Hill did register the music with the company BMI (BMI Work #568879), with the Edward B. Marks Music Company as the listed publisher of the anthem.[7] This might be the version that some have suggested is copyrighted in the United States.[8] However, United States copyright law declares the Mexican anthem to be in the public domain inside the United States, since both the lyrics and music were published before 1909.[9] Furthermore, under Mexican copyright law, Article 155 states that the government holds moral rights, but not property rights, of the national symbols, including the anthem, coat of arms and the national flag.[10]

National regulations

Enlarge picture
Complete lyrics of the Mexican National Anthem signed by Miguel de la Madrid.
In the second chapter of the Law on the National Arms, Flag, and Anthem (Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales), the national anthem is described in very brief terms. While Articles 2 and 3 discuss in detail the coat of arms and the flag, respectively, Article 4 mentions only that the national anthem will be designated by law. Article 4 also mentions that a copy of the lyrics and the musical notation will be kept at two locations, the General National Archive and at the National Library, located in the National Museum of History (Biblioteca Nacional en el Museo Nacional de Historia).

Chapter 5 of the Law goes into more detail about how to honor, respect and properly perform the national anthem:

Article 38 states that the singing, playing, reproduction and circulation of the national anthem are regulated by law and that any interpretation of the anthem must be performed in a "respectful way and in a scope that allows [one] to observe the due solemnity" of the anthem.

Article 39 prohibits the anthem from being altered in any fashion, prohibits it from being sung for commercial or promotional purposes, and also disallows the singing or playing of national anthems from other nations, unless you have permission from the Secretary of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación) and the diplomatic official from the nation in question.

The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Public Education (Secretaría de Educación Publica), in Article 40, must grant permission for all reproductions of the national anthem to be produced, unless the anthem is being played during official ceremonies carried on the radio or television.

Enlarge picture
Video recording played on Mexican TV, complying with Article 41 of the Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales.
Article 41 states that the national anthem is required to be played at the beginning or end of radio and television programming. The extra requirement for television programming is that photos of the Mexican flag must be displayed at the same time the anthem is playing.

Article 42 states that the anthem may only be used during the following occasions: solemn acts of official, civic, cultural, scholastic or sport character. The anthem can also be played to render honors to the Mexican flag and to the President of Mexico. If the national anthem is being used to honor the national flag or the President, the short version of the anthem is played.

Article 43 says that special musical honors may be paid to the President and the flag, but no more than once during the same ceremony.

Article 44 says that during solemn occasions, if a choir is singing the anthem, the military bands will keep silent.

Article 45 says that those who are watching the national anthem performance must stand at attention (firmes) and remove any headgear.

Article 46 states that the national anthem must be taught to children who are attending primary or secondary school; this article was amended in 2005 to add pre-school to the list. The article also states that each school in the National Education System (Sistema Educativo Nacional) will be asked to sing the national anthem each year.

Article 47 states that in an official ceremony in which is need to play another anthem, the Mexican anthem will be played first, then the guest's anthem.

Article 48 states that at embassies and consulates of Mexico, the national anthem is played at ceremonies of a solemn nature that involves the Mexican people. If the anthem is played outside of Mexico, Article 48 requires that the Secretary of External Relations (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores), through proper channels, must grant permission for the national anthem to be played and will also ensure that the anthem is not sung for commercial purposes.[11]

Cultural significance

Upon the writing of the anthem, Mexico was still facing the effects of a defeat in a war with the United States. The country felt demoralized and also divided, due to the loss of nearly half of its territory to the United States. According to historian Javier Garciadiego, who spoke at a ceremony commemorating the 150th anniversary of the anthem's adoption, the anthem disregards divisions and strife and encourages national unity. Also, during the celebration in 2004, Mexico City and other parts of the country stopped what they were doing and performed a nationwide singing of the anthem. Individuals from other nations participated, mostly at diplomatic offices or at locations where a high concentration of Mexican expatriates are found. The anthem has also been described as one of the symbols of the "Mexican identity".[8]

On the rare occasions when someone performs the anthem incorrectly, the federal government has been known to impose penalties to maintain the "dignity" of the national symbols. One example is when a performer forgot some of the lyrics at a soccer match in Guadalajara, she was fined 40 USD by the Interior Ministry and released an apology letter to the country through the Interior Ministry.[12] In addition, the anthem is sometimes used as a tool against people who might not be "true Mexicans". In one case, minority groups, such as the Black Mexicans, have been stopped by police and forced to sing the anthem to prove their nationality.[13] In a separate incident in Japan, police officers asked four men to sing the Mexican anthem after they were arrested in Tokyo on charges of breaking and entering. However, when the men could not sing the anthem, it was discovered that they were Colombian nationals holding forged Mexican passports. They were later charged with more counts on theft of merchandise and money.[14]

Other languages

The de jure or official language of Mexico is Spanish. Nevertheless there are still people who only speak indigenous languages. On December 8, 2005, Article 39 of the national symbols law was adopted to allow for the translation of the lyrics into the native languages. The official translation is performed by the National Institute of Indigenous Languages (Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas).[15]

Officially, the national anthem has been translated into the following native languages: Chinanteco, Hña Hñu, Mixteco, Maya, Nahuatl and Tenek. Other native groups have translated the anthem into their respective language, but it has not been sanctioned by the Government.[16]

Recordings

    Vocal
    Official Complete Version distributed by the SEGOB (Excecuted by the National Symphonic Orchestra).


    Recording by the Band of the United States Navy


  • Problems playing the files? See .

Sheet music


First page of music and lyrics

Second page of music and lyrics

References

1. ^ David Kendall National Anthems—Mexico
2. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Serbia and Montenegro Mexican Symbols—Himo. Retrieved Mar. 19, 2006.
3. ^ President of the Republic—National Anthem for Kids. Retrieved Mar. 15, 2006.
4. ^ Secretary of External Relations History of the Mexican Anthem. Retrieved Mar. 15, 2006. (Spanish)
5. ^ Administration of Ernesto Zedillo National Symbols of Mexico. Retrieved Mar. 15, 2006.
6. ^ LA Weekly DON'T CRY FOR ME, MEXICO; Article about the copyright situation. Sept. 22, 1999.
7. ^ BMI Repretoire Himno Nacional Mexicano (BMI Work #568879). Retrieved Mar. 16, 2006.
8. ^ San Diego Union Tribune Mexicans celebrate 150 years of national anthem with worldwide sing-along September 15, 2004. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
9. ^ US Copyright Office Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States. Retrieved Mar. 16, 2006
10. ^ Secretary of Education Mexican Copyright Law. Retrieved Mar. 15, 2006 (Spanish)
11. ^ Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales. Retrieved Mar. 15, 2006. (Spanish)
12. ^ Associated Press Woman fined for bungling Mexican anthem. October 2004. Retrieved Mar. 20, 2006.
13. ^ College Street Journal FP Antonieta Gimeno Attends Conference on Black Mexicans. Retrieved Mar. 20, 2006.
14. ^ ABC News Online Japanese police catch Colombian thieves out. Jun 15, 2004. Retrieved Mar. 20, 2006.
15. ^ Diario Oficial de la FederaciónDecree allowing for translation of the anthem into native languages. Dec. 7, 2005. Retrieved Jan. 11, 2006
16. ^ Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas Himno Nacional Mexicano en lenguas indígenas

External links


 Spanish, Castilian
}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: —

Spanish (
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For the Radiohead song, see "The National Anthem".
A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a country's government as the official
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Anthem
Himno Nacional Mexicano


Capital
(and largest city) Mexico City

Official languages Spanish (
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Francisco González Bocanegra (January 8, 1824–April 11, 1861) was a Mexican poet who wrote the lyrics of the Mexican National Anthem in 1853.

He was born in San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí to Spanish soldier José María González Yáñez and Francisca Bocanegra y
..... Click the link for more information.
engagement is an agreement or promise to marry, and also refers to the time between proposal and marriage. During this period, a couple is said to be affianced, engaged to be married, or simply engaged.
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Jaime Nunó Roca (1824-1908) was a Catalan composer who composed music for Mexico's national anthem.

He was born on September 8 1824 in San Juan de las Abadesas, a town in the province of Girona, in Catalonia, Spain.
..... Click the link for more information.
In poetry, a 'stanza' is a unit within a larger poem. (The term means "room" in Italian.) In modern poetry, the term is often equivalent with strophe; in popular vocal music, a stanza is typically referred to as a "verse" (as distinct from the refrain, or "chorus").
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 Spanish, Castilian
}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: —

Spanish (
..... Click the link for more information.
November 12 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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Mexico

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Mexico


  • Constitution
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Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against
..... Click the link for more information.
Francisco González Bocanegra (January 8, 1824–April 11, 1861) was a Mexican poet who wrote the lyrics of the Mexican National Anthem in 1853.

He was born in San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí to Spanish soldier José María González Yáñez and Francisca Bocanegra y
..... Click the link for more information.
A poet is a person who writes poetry. This is usually influenced by a cultural and intellectual tradition. Some consider the best poetry to be, to some extent, and universal, and to address issues common to all humanity; others are more absorbed by its particular, personal and
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Guadalupe González del Pino (Pili) was the wife of Mexican composer Francisco González Bocanegra. While Pili and Gonzalez were still engaged to be married, there was a contest to compose the lyrics to the Mexican national anthem.
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liberales, or Liberals, who favored a democratic Mexico, and conservadores, or Conservatives, who favored Mexico ruled by a Bourbon monarch who would restore the old status quo.
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The Official Journal of the Federation (Spanish: Diario Oficial de la Federación or DOF), published daily by the government of Mexico, is the main official government publisher in Mexico.
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February 3 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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19th century - 20th century
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Juan Bottesini was an Italian-Mexican maestro. He won a competition to compose music to the Mexican national anthem, but it was rejected due to aesthetics. However, he was present in Mexico to perform the first rendition of the anthem on September 15, 1854. [1]
..... Click the link for more information.
Jaime Nunó Roca (1824-1908) was a Catalan composer who composed music for Mexico's national anthem.

He was born on September 8 1824 in San Juan de las Abadesas, a town in the province of Girona, in Catalonia, Spain.
..... Click the link for more information.
Spanish people or more properly Spaniards are a nation native to Spain, in the Iberian Peninsula of southwestern Europe. The Spanish people have varied origins, due to Spaniards long history of invasions and migrations.
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Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Patria y Libertad   (Spanish)
"Patriotism and Liberty" a

Anthem
La Bayamesa  
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Lêre).
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    Grito de Dolores was the call for insurrection against the authorities of Mexico given by Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810, in the town of Dolores, near Guanajuato. The government of the Empire, shattered by Napoleon's invasion of Spain, was succeeded by "juntas" in both Spain
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    September 16 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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