Hindko language

Hindko
هندکو 
Pronunciation:[Hindkoŭ]
Spoken in:Pakistan, India 
Region:South Asia (Indian subcontinent)
Total speakers:approx. 2.2 - 4 million[1][2]
Language family: 
Writing system:Nasta'liq script
Language codes
ISO 639-1:none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3:hnd
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Hindko (هندکو /Hindkoŭ/), Hindku, or Peshawari (پشاوری) is an ancient Indo-Aryan language spoken by Hindkowans (Punjabi Pathans) in Pakistan.[3] The literal meaning of the word "Hindko" is "Indian Mountains", or more specifically as "Mountains of the Indus country". The word "Hind" is the Persianised reference to the regions associated with the Indus River immediately to the east of Persia and "Ko" means mountains[4]. The word Hindko has also been interpreted to mean the language of India.[5] The term is also found in Greek references to the mountainous region in eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan as Καύκασος Ινδικός (Caucasus Indicus). The language is spoken in the areas of the North West Frontier Province (including Hazara), Punjab and Kashmir by an estimated 2.2 to 4 million people.[1][2]

There is no generic name for these people because they belong to diverse ethnicities and tend to identify themselves by the larger families or castes. However the people of the largest group in the districts of Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra are sometimes recognised collectively as Hazarawal, named after the defunct Hazara Division that comprised of these districts. In Peshawar city they are referred to as "Kharay" meaning City-dwellers or Hindkowans.

History and Origin

During the pre-Buddhist era in present day Pakistan, the language of the masses was refined by the ancient grammarian Pāṇini, who set the rules of a structurally rigorous language called Sanskrit which was used principally for scriptures (analogous to Latin in the Western world). Meanwhile, the vernacular language of the masses, Prakrit developed into many tongues and dialects which spread over the northern parts of South Asia. Hindko is believed to be closely related to Prakrit. Due to the geographic isolation of the regions, it has undergone very little grammatical corruption, but has borrowed considerable vocabulary from its neighbours, in particular Pashto. It shows close affinity to Punjabi and the Lahnda sub-group of Indo-Aryan tongues and can be sub-divided into a northern and southern dialect (the southern dialect spoken in Pakistani Punjab shows some similarity with Siraiki as opposed to Punjabi). This language is very similar to the Mirpuri dialect of Potohari and Hindko and Mirpuri speakers can understand each other very well.

Speakers

The largest geographically contiguous group of Hindko speakers is concentrated in the districts of state People here tend to associate themselves with the larger families instead of a language (or caste as it used to be called). The Qureshi(Arabians), for example, have a great history of bravery and are known as lords of the Hazara Division. Other tribes are Awan, Tanoli, Tareen, Jadoon, Abbasi, Karlal, Tahirkheli etc. People who speak Hindko are referred to by some academics as Punjabi Pathans probably because of the many Pashtun tribes, for example Jadoons,Tanolis and Tahirkhelis, who settled in places like Hazara, adopted Hindko as their first language and gained political power in these areas during the British rule, and also because of many ethnic Pushtun people who speak Hinkdo as their first language in Peshawar and Kohat. The Hindko speaking people living in major cities Peshawar, Kohat, Mardan are bilingual in Pashto and Hindko. Similarly many Pashto speaking people in districts like Abbottabad and Mansehra (especially in Agror Valley and northern Tanawal) have become bilingual in Pashto and Hindko.

The NWFP Imperial Gazetteer (1905) refers to the language as Hindko. More than one interpretation has been offered for the term Hindko. Some associate it with Hindustan (as the word may have been used during the medieval Muslim period in the Indian subcontinent), others with the Indus River which is of course the etymological source of all these terms. Farigh Bukhari and South Asian language expert and historian Christopher Shackle believe that Hindko was a generic term applied to the Indo-Aryan dialect continuum in the northwest frontier territories and adjacent district of Attock in the Punjab province to differentiate it from Pashto.

Linguists classify the language into the Indic subgroup of Indo-European languages and consider it to be one of the Indo-Iranian languages of the area. An estimated 2.4 per cent of the total population of Pakistan speak Hindko as their mother tongue, with more rural than urban households reporting Hindko as their household language.

Demographics

The speakers of Hindko live primarily in six districts: Mansehra, Abbottabad, Haripur, Peshawar, Nowshera and Kohat in NWFP, Attock and Rawalpindi in Punjab and parts of Kashmir; Jonathan Addleton states that "Hindko is the linguistic majority in the NWFP, represented in nearly one-fifth of the province's total households." In Abbottabad District 92 per cent of households reported speaking Hindko, in Mansehra District 47 per cent, in Peshawar District 7 per cent, and in Kohat District 10 per cent (1986). Testing of inherent intelligibility among Hindko dialects through the use of recorded tests has shown that there is a northern (Hazara) dialect group and a southern group. The southern dialects are more widely understood throughout the dialect network than are the northern dialects. The dialects of rural Peshawar and Talagang are the most widely understood of the dialects tested. The dialect of Balakot is the least widely understood.

In most Hindko-speaking areas, speakers of Pashto live in the same or neighbouring communities (although this is less true in Abbottabad and Kaghan Valley than elsewhere). In the mixed areas, many people speak both languages. The relationship between Hindko and Pashto is not one of stable bilingualism. In the northeast, Hindko is the dominant language both in terms of domain of usage and in terms of the number of speakers, whereas in the southwest, Pashto seems to be advancing in those same areas.

Hindko is also spoken by some Pathans who moved to northern India after the partition. Some of the most famous of these Indian Hindko speakers include Bollywood actors, Dilip Kumar and Prithviraj Kapoor[6].

The Gandhara Hindko Board has published the first dictionary of the language and its launching ceremony was held on March 16, 2003. According to a press release, Sultan Sakoon, a prominent Hindku poet, has compiled the dictionary.

References

1974: Phonlogy of Verbal Phrase in Hindko,Dr Elahi Bkahsh Akhtar Awan published by Idara-e-Farogh-e-Hindko Peshawar in 1992. 2004: Hindko Sautiyat,Dr E.B.A. Awan, published by Gandhara Hindko Board Peshawar in 2004. 2005: Hindko Land a thesis presented by Dr E.B.A. Awan at the World Hindko Conference at Peshawar in 2005.
  • 1980: "Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar." Bulletin of SOAS, 1980, 482-510
  • 1978: "Rival linguistic identities in Pakistan Panjab." Rule, protest, identity: aspects of modern South Asia (ed. P. Robb & D. Taylor), 213-34. London: Curzon
  • 1986: Addleton, Jonathan S., "The Importance of Regional Languages in Pakistan," al'Mushir, Vol. 28, No. 2 (1986), pp. 55-80.

See also

External links

International Phonetic Alphabet

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The International
Phonetic Alphabet
History
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English The
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Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
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South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. It is surrounded by (from west to east) Western Asia, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, and Southeastern Asia.
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Indian subcontinent is a large section of the Asian continent consisting of countries lying substantially on the Indian tectonic plate. These include countries on the continental crust— India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and parts of Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan, island countries
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A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. As with biological families, the evidence of relationship is observable shared characteristics.
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writing system is a type of symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language.

General properties

Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that one must usually understand something of the
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Nasta`līq (also anglicized as Nastaleeq;
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ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. It consists of 136 two-letter codes used to identify the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international shorthand for indicating languages.
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ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 language codes in the list.
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ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. It extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages. The standard was published by ISO on 5 February 2007[1].
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History of the alphabet
Middle Bronze Age 18–15th c. BC
  • Ugaritic 15th c. BC
  • Proto-Canaanite 14th c. BC
  • Phoenician 11th c. BC
  • Paleo-Hebrew 10th c.

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Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. The term "Indic" refers to the same group without what some see as the negative connotations of "Aryan".
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Hindkowans (Hindko/Pashto: ہِندکُون) or Punjabi Pathans (Urdu: پنجاب پٹھان) are an ethno-linguistic group native to the North-West Frontier Province, Punjab province
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Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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BCE Zayandeh River Civilization Sialk civilization 7500–1000 Jiroft civilization (Aratta) Proto-Elamite civilization Bactria-Margiana Complex Elamite dynasties 2800–550 Kingdom of Mannai Median Empire 728–550 Achaemenid Empire Seleucid Empire Greco-Bactrian
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For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier


The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی
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The Hazara region is located in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

This region was formerly called Hazara Division until as part of administrative shake up the division was abolished .
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Punjab or Panjab (Urdu: پنجاب  ) province of Pakistan is the country's most populous region and is home to the Punjabis and various other
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Kashmir (Urdu: کشمیر) is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Historically the term Kashmir was used to refer to the valley lying between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range.
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Hazara Division was one of the administrative subdivisions of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, forming part of the third tier of government, below the federal and provincial levels.
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Sanskrit}}}  | style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Writing system: | colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Devanāgarī and several other Brāhmī-based scripts  ! colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"|Official
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Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
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Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: prākṛta प्राकृत (from pra-kṛti प्रकृति)
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South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. It is surrounded by (from west to east) Western Asia, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, and Southeastern Asia.
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Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: prākṛta प्राकृत (from pra-kṛti प्रकृति)
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Pashto (پښتو‎, IPA: [pəʂ'to] also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto
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