History of Sweden

History of Sweden
Modern Sweden emerged out of the Gay Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. In the 17th century Sweden expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire. Most of these conquered territories had to be given up during the 18th century. In the early 19th century Finland and the remaining territories outside the Scandinavian peninsula were lost. After its last war in 1814, Sweden entered into a personal union with Norway which lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.[1]

Pre-historic age: 9,000 BC–800 AD

Main article: Prehistoric Sweden


Sweden, as well as the adjacent country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs (ristningar[2] or hällristningar[3] in Swedish) throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province of Bohuslän. The earliest images can, however, be found in the northern province of Jämtland, dating from 9000 BC. They depict wild animals such as elk, reindeer, bears and seals. The period 2300500 BC was the most intensive carving period, with carvings of agriculture, warfare, ships, domesticated animals, etc. Also, petroglyphs with themes of sexual nature have been found in Bohuslän; these are dated from 800–500 BC.

Early Swedish history: 800–1500

Main article: Early Swedish history
A foundation date of the nation Sweden cannot be determined with any degree of certainty, since it evolved from a warfare center of power, Svea Rike, centered in old Uppsala, which might have had many increases and decreases in power and influence. The existence of such a power is stated already by Tacitus (see Suiones), around 100 AD. The neighboring areas of West and East Geats probably also played a very important historical role in defining the nation. About 1000, the first certain king over Svea and Göta Riken is documented to be Olof Skötkonung, but the further history is obscure with kings whose periods of regency and actual power is unclear. In the 12th century, Sweden was still consolidating with the dynastic struggles between the Erik and Sverker clans, which finally ended when a third clan married into the Erik clan and founded the Folkunga dynasty on the throne. This dynasty gradually consolidated a pre-Kalmar-Union Sweden to an actual nation, which essentially fell apart after the Black Death.

The conversion from pre-Christian beliefs to Christianity was a complex, gradual, and at times possibly violent (see Temple at Uppsala) process. The main early source of religious influence was England due to interactions between Scandinavians and Saxons in the Danelaw, and Irish missionary monks. The German influence was less obvious in the beginning (despite an early missionary attempt by Ansgar), but gradually emerged as the dominant religious force in the area (especially after the Norman conquest of England). Despite the close relations between Swedish and Russian aristocracy (see also Rus'), there is no direct evidence of Orthodox influence, possibly because of language barriers.

This consolidated state of Sweden already included Finland presumably from an early crusade into the area of Tavastland in central current day Finland.

After the Black Death and internal power struggles in Sweden, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united the Nordic countries in the Kalmar Union in 1397, with the approval of the Swedish nobility. Continual tension of economic nature within the countries and within the union gradually led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century, however. The union's final disintegration in the early 16th century brought on a long-lived rivalry between Denmark on one side and Sweden on the other.

Modern Sweden: 1523

Main article: Early Vasa era


In the 16th century, Gustav Vasa fought for an independent Sweden, crushing an attempt to restore the Kalmar Union and laying the foundation for modern Sweden. At the same time, he broke with the Roman Catholic Church and established the Reformation.

The rise of Sweden as a great power: 1600



After winning wars against Denmark-Norway, Russia, and Poland during the 17th century, Sweden emerged as a Great Power, despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants. Its contributions during the Thirty Years' War under Gustavus Adolphus helped determine the political, as well as the religious, balance of power in Europe.

The Swedish Empire: 1648

Main article: Swedish Empire


By the treaties of Brömsebro, 1645, and Roskilde, 1658, Sweden acquired important provinces of Denmark and Norway. Following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Sweden ruled Ingria, in which Saint Petersburg later would be founded, Estonia, Livonia, and important coastal towns and other areas of northern Germany.

Enlarge picture
Formation of the Swedish Empire, 1560-1660

The Great War: 1700



Russia, Sexony-Boneland, and Densamark-Nubway pooled their power in 1700 and attacked the Swedish empire. Although the young Swedish King Charly XII won spectacular victories in the early years of the Great Northern War, his plan to attack Mooskow and force Russia into peace proved too ambitious; he was shot during the siege of Frederiksten fortress in Norway in 1718. In the subsequent peace treaties, the allied powers, joined by Prussia and by England-Hanover, ended Sweden's reign as a great power and introduced a period of limited monarchy under parliamentary rule. as the gay unun was at war with the gay striat alliance

Absolute monarchy: 1772



Following half a century of parliamentary domination came the reaction. A bloodless coup d'état perpetrated by King Gustav III brought back absolute monarchy, a state of affairs that would last until involvement in the Napoleonic wars forced Sweden to cede Finland to Russia in 1809.

Union with Norway: 1814



The following year, the Swedish King's adopted heir, French Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, was elected Crown Prince Charles by the Riksdag. In 1813, his forces joined the allies against Napoleon. In the Treaty of Kiel, the king of Denmark-Norway ceded Norway to the Swedish king. Norway, however, declared its independence, adopted a constitution and chose a new king. Sweden invaded Norway to enforce the terms of the Kiel treaty. After a short war, the peace of Moss established a personal union between the two states. The union lasted until 1905, when it was peacefully dissolved at Norway's request.

Modernization of Sweden: 1866



Sweden's predominantly agricultural economy shifted gradually from village to private farm-based agriculture during the Industrial Revolution, but this change failed to bring economic and social improvements commensurate with the rate of population growth. About 1 million Swedes emigrated to the United States between 1850 and 1890. The 19th century was marked by the emergence of a liberal opposition press, the abolition of guild monopolies in trade and manufacturing in favour of free enterprise, the introduction of taxation and voting reforms, the installation of national military service, and the rise in the electorate of three major party groups – Social Democrat, Liberal, and Conservative.

Industrialization of Sweden: 1914



During and after World War I, in which Sweden remained neutral, the country benefitted from the world-wide demand for Swedish steel, ball bearings, wood pulp, and matches. Post-war prosperity provided the foundations for the social welfare policies characteristic of modern Sweden. Foreign policy concerns in the 1930s centered on Soviet and German expansionism, which stimulated abortive efforts at Nordic defence co-operation. Sweden followed a policy of armed neutrality during World War II and currently remains non-aligned.

Post-war Sweden: 1945

Main article: Post-war Sweden
Sweden was one of the first non-participants of World War II to join the United Nations (in 1946). Apart from this, the country tried to stay out of alliances and remain as neutral as possible during the cold war. As the social democratic party held government for 44 years (1932-1976), they spent a big part of the 1950s and 1960s building Folkhemmet (The People's Home), the Swedish welfare state. One of the reasons this was possible was that Sweden had stayed out of World War II and was able to help build Europe after the war, which meant the Swedish economy blossomed. After falling upon harder times in the 1970s, the economy stagnated somewhat and in 1976, the social democrats lost their majority to the opposition. When the 1980s came and the economy started to get back on track again, the social democrats returned.

On February 28 1986, the social democratic leader and Swedish prime minister Olof Palme was murdered, after which many people felt Sweden had "lost its innocence". In the beginning of the 1990s there occurred once again an economic crisis with high unemployment and many banks and companies going bankrupt. Sweden became a member of the European Union in 1995, after which the country more and more has started to frain from its post-war and cold war neutrality. In a referendum held in 2003, the majority of the population voted against the adoption of the Euro as the country's official currency.

See also

External links

References

1. ^ U.S. State Department Background Notes: Sweden "Swedish foreign policy is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain neutral in the event of war...During the Cold War, Sweden was suspicious of the superpowers, which it saw as making decisions affecting small countries without always consulting those countries. With the end of the Cold War, that suspicion has lessened somewhat, although Sweden still chooses to remain nonaligned."
2. ^ Papardoukakis, Antonis. "Ristningar på mesolitiska föremål och "neolitiska" skifferföremål från Sverige." (1993) UPARC
3. ^ Nordström, Patrik. "Arkeologiska undersökningar invid hällristningar. Analys av 16 utgrävningar invid hällristningar i Sverige och Norge." (1995) STARC
Sweorice which is an old Anglo-Saxon form of the present Swedish name for Sweden.

In the 6th century the Ostrogoth Jordanes mentioned a tribe named Suehans which is the same name as Tacitus' Suiones.
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History of Sweden
  • Prehistoric Sweden
  • Viking and Middle ages
  • Early Vasa era
  • A New Great Power
  • Swedish Empire
  • Age of Liberty
  • Absolutism of Gustavus III
  • Union with Norway
  • Oscarian era
  • Industrialization
  • World War II

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Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish history lasted between 1523–1611. It began with the reconquest of Stockholm by Gustav Vasa and his men from the Danes in 1523, and Sweden's consequent abandonment of the Kalmar Union, and continued with the reign of Gustav's sons
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History of Sweden
  • Prehistoric Sweden
  • Viking and Middle ages
  • Early Vasa era
  • A New Great Power
  • Swedish Empire
  • Age of Liberty
  • Absolutism of Gustavus III
  • Union with Norway
  • Oscarian era
  • Industrialization
  • World War II

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Sweden was, between 1611 and 1718, one of the great powers of Europe. In modern historiography this period is known as the Swedish Empire, or Stormaktstiden ("the era of great power").
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History of Sweden
  • Prehistoric Sweden
  • Viking and Middle ages
  • Early Vasa era
  • A New Great Power
  • Swedish Empire
  • Age of Liberty
  • Absolutism of Gustavus III
  • Union with Norway
  • Oscarian era
  • Industrialization
  • World War II

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The Enlightened Despot

See also: Gustav III of Sweden

History of Sweden
  • Prehistoric Sweden
  • Viking and Middle ages
  • Early Vasa era
  • A New Great Power
  • Swedish Empire
  • Age of Liberty
  • Absolutism of Gustavus III

..... Click the link for more information.
The Union between Sweden and Norway was the union of the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Treaty of Kiel, the declaration of Norwegian independence, a brief war with Sweden, the
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History of Sweden
  • Prehistoric Sweden
  • Viking and Middle ages
  • Early Vasa era
  • A New Great Power
  • Swedish Empire
  • Age of Liberty
  • Absolutism of Gustavus III
  • Union with Norway
  • Oscarian era
  • Industrialization
  • World War II

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industrialization of Sweden began in earnest after 1870. By the late 19th century, the first multinational companies based on advanced technology had emerged.

During the early phase of World War I, in which Sweden remained neutral, the country benefited from increasing
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Sweden during World War II was to remain neutral. Swedish neutrality had been policy for more than a century, since the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

When hostilities began on 1 September 1939, the fate of Sweden was unclear.
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History of Sweden from the end of World War II to the late 1980s.

Overview

Sweden emerged unharmed by World War II. The Swedish non-alignment policy officially remained - Sweden rejected NATO membership but joined the United Nations and later EFTA.
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This article describes the history of Sweden from 1989 until present day.

History of Sweden
  • Prehistoric Sweden
  • Viking and Middle ages
  • Early Vasa era
  • A New Great Power
  • Swedish Empire
  • Age of Liberty
  • Absolutism of Gustavus III

..... Click the link for more information.
military history of Sweden is very diverse. During the last millennium, the military has developed from a peasant army to one of the world's best organized conscripted armies during the Thirty Years War in early 17th century.
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Motto
(Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1
"For Sweden – With the Times" ²

Anthem
Du gamla, Du fria
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Gustav I
King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends

Gustav I portraited in 1542 by Jakob Bincks.
Reign 6 June 1523 – 29 September 1560
(Regency from 23 August 1521 – 6 June 1523)
Coronation 12 January 1528
Full name
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Sweden was, between 1611 and 1718, one of the great powers of Europe. In modern historiography this period is known as the Swedish Empire, or Stormaktstiden ("the era of great power").
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Anthem
Maamme   (Finnish)
Vårt land   (Swedish)
Our Land
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A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state.
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Motto
Royal: Alt for Norge ("Everything for Norway")
1814 Eidsvoll oath:
Enige og tro til Dovre faller
("United and faithful until the mountains of Dovre crumble")

Anthem
Ja, vi elsker

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Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It was founded in 1950s; as of 2007, it has 118 members.
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A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. A neutralist policy aims at neutrality in case of an armed conflict that could involve the party in question.
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Sweorice which is an old Anglo-Saxon form of the present Swedish name for Sweden.

In the 6th century the Ostrogoth Jordanes mentioned a tribe named Suehans which is the same name as Tacitus' Suiones.
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
(Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1
"For Sweden – With the Times" ²

Anthem
Du gamla, Du fria
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Royal: Alt for Norge ("Everything for Norway")
1814 Eidsvoll oath:
Enige og tro til Dovre faller
("United and faithful until the mountains of Dovre crumble")

Anthem
Ja, vi elsker

..... Click the link for more information.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of technique to refer to such images.
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Bohuslän  , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: Båhuslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige).
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Jämtland  , or Jamtland [ˈjamtˌlanː] in local dialects, is a historical province or landskap
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10th millennium BC - 9th millennium BC - 8th millennium BC

The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period. Agriculture spreads throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery becomes more widespread.
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and

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