History of the Gambia

Modern-day The Gambia was once part of the Ghana and Songhai Empires. The first written accounts of the region come from records of Arab traders in the 9th and 10th centuries AD, who established the trans-Saharan trade route for slaves, gold, and ivory. In the 15th century, the Portuguese took over this trade using maritime routes. At that time, The Gambia was part of the Mali Empire.

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A map of James Island and Fort Gambia
In 1588, the claimant to the Portuguese throne, Antonio, Prior of Crato, sold exclusive trade rights on The Gambia River to English merchants; this grant was confirmed by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I. In 1618, King James I granted a charter to a British company for trade with The Gambia and the Gold Coast (now Ghana). Between 1651 and 1661 part of Gambia was (indirectly) a colony of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; it was purchased by the Courlandish prince Jakub Kettler. At that time Courland, in modern-day Latvia, was a fiefdom of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Courlanders settled on James Island, which they called St. Andrews Island and used as a trade base from 1651 until its capture by the English in 1661.

During the late 17th and throughout the 18th century, England and France constantly struggled for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal and Gambia Rivers. The 1783 Treaty of Paris gave Great Britain possession of The Gambia, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the north bank of the river, which was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1857.

As many as 3 million slaves may have been taken from the region during the three centuries that the transatlantic slave trade operated. It is not known how many slaves were taken by Arab traders prior to and simultaneous with the transatlantic slave trade. Most of those taken were sold to Europeans by other Africans; some were prisoners of intertribal wars; some were sold because of unpaid debts, while others were kidnapped. Slaves were initially sent to Europe to work as servants until the market for labor expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. In 1807, slave trading was abolished throughout the British Empire, and the British tried unsuccessfully to end the slave trade in The Gambia. They established the military post of Bathurst (now Banjul) in 1816. In the ensuing years, Banjul was at times under the jurisdiction of the British Governor General in Sierra Leone. In 1888, The Gambia became a separate colonial entity.

An 1889 agreement with France established the present boundaries, and The Gambia became a British Crown Colony, divided for administrative purposes into the colony (city of Banjul and the surrounding area) and the protectorate (remainder of the territory). The Gambia received its own executive and legislative councils in 1901 and gradually progressed toward self-government. A 1906 ordinance abolished slavery.

During World War II, Gambian troops fought with the Allies in Burma. Banjul served as an air stop for the U.S. Army Air Corps and a port of call for Allied naval convoys. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt stopped overnight in Banjul en route to and from the Casablanca Conference in 1943, marking the first visit to the African Continent by an American president while in office.



After WWII, the pace of constitutional reform increased. Following general elections in 1962, full internal self-governance was granted in the following year. The Gambia achieved independence on February 18, 1965 as a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth. Shortly thereafter, the government held a referendum proposing that an elected president replace the British monarch as head of state. The referendum failed to receive the two-thirds majority required to amend the constitution, but the results won widespread attention abroad as testimony to The Gambia's observance of secret balloting, honest elections, and civil rights and liberties. On April 24, 1970, The Gambia became a republic within the Commonwealth, following a second referendum, with Prime Minister Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, as head of state.

Until a military coup in July 1994, The Gambia was led by President Jawara, who was re-elected five times. The relative stability of the Jawara era was shattered first by a coup attempt in 1981. The coup was led by Kukoi Samba Sanyang, who, on two occasions, had unsuccessfully sought election to Parliament. After a week of violence which left several hundred people dead, Jawara, in London when the attack began, appealed to Senegal for help. Senegalese troops defeated the rebel force.

In the aftermath of the attempted coup, Senegal and The Gambia signed the 1982 Treaty of Confederation. The Senegambia Confederation came into existence; it aimed eventually to combine the armed forces of the two states and to unify their economies and currencies. The Gambia withdrew from the confederation in 1989.

In July 1994, Yahya A.J.J. Jammeh led a coup d'état that deposed the Jawara government. Between 1994 and 1996, Jammeh ruled as head of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC) and banned opposition political activity. The AFPRC announced a transition plan for a return to democratic civilian rule, establishing the Provisional Independent Electoral Commission (PIEC) in 1996 to conduct national elections. After a constitutional referendum (in August), presidential and parliamentary elections were held. Jammeh was sworn into office as president on November 6, 1996. The following year, the PIEC transformed into the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) on April 17.

Jammeh has won both the 2001 and 2006 elections. He is up for re-election in 2011.

China cut ties with The Gambia in 1995 after the latter recognized Taiwan as an independent state.

The Gambia accepted a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council from 1998 to 1999.

External links

See also

Motto
"Progress, Peace, Prosperity"
Anthem
For The Gambia Our Homeland


Capital Banjul

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Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire (existed c. 750-1076) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, Western Mali, and Eastern Senegal.

Etymology

The empire was known to its own citizens, a Mande subgroup known as the Soninke, as Wagadou.
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The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state centered in eastern Mali. From the early 15th to the late 16th Century, Songhai was one of the largest African empires in history.
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As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900.

Western European

"Dark Ages" applied later to this period


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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000.

Overview

The tenth century is usually regarded as a low point in European history. In China it was also a period of political upheaval.
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Part of a on Trade routes

Major Routes
Amber Road Hrvejen . Incense Route
Kamboja-Dvaravati Route . King's Highway
Roman-India routes . Royal Road
Silk Road Spice Route .
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Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services.
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GOLD refers to one of the following:
  • GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade).
  • GOLD (parser) is an open source BNF parser.

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Ivory is a hard, white, opaque substance that is the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth and narwhal.

The word "ivory" was traditionally applied to the tusks of elephants; the word is ultimately from Ancient Egyptian
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15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500.

Events

  • 1402: Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid I.
  • 1402: The conquest of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire.

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Anthem
"A Portuguesa"


Capital
(and largest city) Lisbon5

Official languages Portuguese1
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The Mali Empire or Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa was a medieval West African state of the Mandinka from 1235 to 1645. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I.
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15th century - 16th century - 17th century
1550s  1560s  1570s  - 1580s -  1590s  1600s  1610s
1585 1586 1587 - 1588 - 1589 1590 1591

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Anthony I, King of Portugal (Portuguese: António, pron. IPA [ɐ̃'tɔniu]) (Lisbon, 1531 – Paris, August 26, 1595), known by The Prior of Crato (and, rarely, as The Determined,
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Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, France (in name only), and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. She is sometimes referred to as The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I.

He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots.
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Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa that became the independent nation of Ghana in 1957.

The first Europeans to arrive at the coast were the Portuguese, in 1471.
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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16th century - 17th century - 18th century
1630s  1640s  1650s  - 1660s -  1670s  1680s  1690s
1658 1659 1660 - 1661 - 1662 1663 1664

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, also known as the First Polish Republic or Republic (Commonwealth) of the Two (Both) Nations (Peoples), (Polish: Pierwsza Rzeczpospolita or Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów
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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Latin: Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Polish: Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii ,German:
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Jacob Kettler (German: Jakob von Kettler; 28 October 1610 – 1 January 1682) was a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1641–1682).
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Courland (Latvian: Kurzeme; German: Kurland; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: Kuršas
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Motto
"Tēvzemei un Brīvībai"   ( Latvian)
"For Fatherland and Freedom"
Anthem
Dievs, svētī Latviju!   (Latvian)
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James Island may refer to:
  • James Island (The Gambia), a World Heritage island in The Gambia
  • James Island (British Columbia), an island in Haro Strait off of Sidney, BC near Vancouver Island
  • James Island (Galápagos), another name for Santiago Island (Galápagos)

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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th Century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar.

The 17th Century falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement and the beginning of
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The 18th Century lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

Historians sometimes specifically define the 18th Century otherwise for the purposes of their work.
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Motto
Dieu et mon droit   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen".
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