House of Stuart

House of Stuart
Scotland, England and Great Britain
Country:Scotland
Parent House:Clan Stuart
Titles:High Steward of Scotland, Earl of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, Earl of Moray, Marquess of Bute, King of Scots, King of England, King of Great Britain
Founder:Robert II of Scotland
Final Ruler:Anne of Great Britain
Current Head:None agnatically. The current Jacobite claimant is Franz, Duke of Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach. The cadet branches of Bute, Moray and Appin are headed by the Earl of Dumfries, the Earl of Moray and the 17th Chief of Appin respectively.
Founding Year:1371
Dissolution:1714
Nationality:Scottish
Cadet Branches: Stuarts of Appin
Stuarts of Bute
Stuarts of Moray
Stewart of Darnley


Enlarge picture
The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart
The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Mary Queen of Scots adopted the French spelling Stuart while in France to ensure that the Scots Stewart was pronounced correctly. The name itself originates from the ancient hereditary Scottish title High Steward of Scotland.

The House of Stuart ruled the Kingdom of Scotland for 336 years, between 1371 and 1707. Queen Elizabeth I of England's closest heir was King James VI of Scotland via her grandfather King Henry VII of England, who was founder of the Tudor dynasty. James Stuart also ascended the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland, providing the head of all three Home Nations (inheriting English claims to the French throne) between 1603 and 1707. During this latter period, the Stuarts styled themselves "Kings/Queens of Great Britain", though there was no parliamentary union until the reign of Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart. The Stuarts were followed by the House of Hanover, who were dynastically important from a Protestant point of view, especially in the cause of uniting Ireland under the London government. Members of various cadet and illegitimate branches still survive today, the original Clan Stuart still extant.

History

The earliest known member of the House of Stewart was Flaald I (Flaald the Seneschal), an 11th century Breton follower of the Lord of Dol and Combourg. Flaald and his immediate descendants held the hereditary and honorary post of Dapifer (food bearer) in the Lord of Dol's household. His grandson Flaald II was a supporter of Henry I of England and made the crucial move from Brittany to Britain, which was where the future fortunes of the Stewarts lay (including an evolving, longstanding tradition of intermarriage with the (de) Ferrer noble family, originally from Normandy). Walter the Steward (died 1177), the grandson of Flaald II, was born in Oswestry (Shropshire). Along with his brother William, ancestor of the Fitzalan family (the Earls of Arundel), he supported Empress Matilda during the period known as the Anarchy. Matilda was aided by her uncle, David I of Scotland, and Walter followed David north in 1141, after Matilda had been usurped by King Stephen. Walter was granted land in Renfrewshire and the position of Lord High Steward. Malcolm IV made the position hereditary and it was inherited by Walter's son, who took the surname Stewart. The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293-1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn currying further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371.

In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, later James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, a member of the Stewart of Darnley branch of the House. Lennox was a direct descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, also descended from James II, being Mary's heir presumptive. Therefore Darnley was also related to Mary on his father's side and at the time of their marriage was himself second in line to the Scottish throne. Because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stewart. Because of the long French residence at Aubigny, held by Darnley's branch in the Auld Alliance, the surname was altered to Stuart. In feudal and dynastic terms, the Scottish reliance on French support was revived during the reign of Charles II, who had an illegitimate son by Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. This descent received the main Stuart appanages of Lennox and Aubigny, as well as the main Tudor appanage of Richmond. In such a way, the Treaty of Perpetual Peace in addition to the Auld Alliance, was symbolically represented among the nobility as it had been in the British Royal Family itself.

French connections were notoriously unpopular and resulted in the downfall of the Stuarts, whose mutual enemies identified with the emergent Protestant Germanic nationalism and urban mercantilism as opposed to Catholic Romance feudalism and rural manorialism. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms and War of the Grand Alliance eventually drove the family into the heart of the British Isles underground, becoming ironic symbols of conservative rebellion and Romanticism. Prominent Stuart descendents continued to oppose the new order, but only succeeded so long as they did it on the terms of their new masters and were not in succession to the throne. Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond and Charles James Fox subverted the will of the reigning monarch George III of the United Kingdom in favor of the American Whigs. In this fashion, the old Stuart Tories became liberal and identified with the spirit of tolerance which James II had proposed in religious and social terms. Due to the identification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Stuarts, Catholic Emancipation was not passed until Jacobitism (as represented by direct Stuart heirs) was extinguished and King George IV would represent its legacy, for his own dynasty's success throughout Great Britain. Despite the Whig intentions of tolerance to be extended for Irish subjects, this was not the Germanic preference of Georgian Tories and their failure at compromise played a subsequent role in the present division of Ireland. Problems in Northern Ireland dating back to the Stuart Plantation of Ulster, involved a switch to the less Teutonic House of Windsor which included the Edward VIII abdication crisis and proved influential in rejecting the Imperial Federation for a decolonised Commonwealth of Nations.

Heads of the House of Stewart

Dapifers of Dol

  • Flaithri I (died c.1080)
  • Alan I (died ?)
  • Alan II (died 1095)
  • Flaithri II (died c.1101-1102)
  • Alan III (died c.1121)

High Stewards of Scotland

Rulers of the Scots

Rulers of Great Britain, France and Ireland

see complication over official titles

Jacobite Claimants

See also

Further reading

  • Addington, Arthur C. The Royal House of Stuart: The Descendants of King James VI of Scotland (James I of England). 3v. Charles Skilton, 1969-76.
  • Cassavetti, Eileen. The Lion & the Lilies: The Stuarts and France. Macdonald & Jane’s, 1977.

External links

House of Stuart
Preceded by
House of Bruce
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Scotland
13711649 , 16601707
Titles Merged
See Act of Union 1707
'''
Preceded by
House of Tudor
Ruling House of the Kingdom of England
16031649 , 16601707
Preceded by
New Creation
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Great Britain
17071714
Succeeded by
House of Hanover
Motto
Nemo me impune lacessit   (Latin)
"No one provokes me with impunity"
"Cha togar m'fhearg gun dioladh"   
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Clan Stewart or Clan Stuart is a Highland Scottish clan. The main branch is known as the Stuarts of Bute. The chiefs of this clan would eventually become the Kings of Scotland and the Royal House of Stuart.
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High Steward or Great Steward was given in the 12th century to Walter Fitzalan, whose descendants became the Stewart family. In 1371, the last High Steward inherited the throne, and thereafter the title of High Steward of Scotland has been held as a subsidiary title to that
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Mormaer of Lennox or Earl of Lennox was the ruler of the long-lasting provincial Mormaerdom/Earldom of Lennox in the Medieval Kingdom of the Scots. The first Mormaer is usually regarded as Ailin I (also Alpin, Alun or Alwin
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The Scottish Dukes of Aubigny (French: Ducs d'Aubigny) had their origins in Aubigny-sur-Nère, France, from the 15th century, which was an important honour throughout the Auld Alliance and Ancien Régime.
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The title Earl of Moray (pronounced "Murry") has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland. Prior to the formal establishment of the peerage, numerous individuals ruled over Moray with the title of mormaer or earl.
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The title Marquess of the County of Bute was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1796 for the 4th Earl of Bute, along with the subsidiary titles Earl of Windsor and Viscount Mountjoy, of the Isle of Wight.
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monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín), who founded the state in 843, although this is no longer taken seriously by historians.
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monarchs of England. Traditionally, the first monarch of England is listed as Egbert, Bretwalda from 829, though the kingdom was not permanently unified until 927, under Athelstan. Union with Wales was enacted in 1536, and with Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
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This is a list of the monarchs of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed in the British Isles, namely:

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Robert II of Scotland
King of Scots

Reign 1371 – April 19, 1390
Coronation March 1371
Titles Earl of Strathearn (1357-1390)
Born March 2 1316(1316--)

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Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III and II. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as
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Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. The movement took its name from the Latin form Jacobus of the name of King James II and VII.
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The Jacobite Stuarts who claimed the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland and France after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 were:
  • James II and VII (February 6, 1685 – 16 September 1701).

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Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern (born July 14 1933), styled as His Royal Highness The Duke of Bavaria, is head of the Wittelsbach family, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
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Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.

Origin

Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria (died 980), was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern (died 1072), whose 3rd son Otto II, Count of Dachau acquired the castle of Wittelsbach (near
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The title Marquess of the County of Bute was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1796 for the 4th Earl of Bute, along with the subsidiary titles Earl of Windsor and Viscount Mountjoy, of the Isle of Wight.
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The title Earl of Moray (pronounced "Murry") has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland. Prior to the formal establishment of the peerage, numerous individuals ruled over Moray with the title of mormaer or earl.
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Clan Stewart of Appin

Crest of Clan Stewart of Appin
Chief's Arms
A unicorn's head, crined and armed
Chief's Motto
Quhidder Well Zie (Wither Will Ye)
Clan Plant Badge
Oak
Clan War Cry
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John Colum Crichton-Stuart, 7th Marquess of Bute (born 26 April 1958, Rothesay, Isle of Bute), styled Earl of Dumfries before 1993 and from this courtesy title usually known as Johnny Dumfries, is a Scottish peer and a former racing driver.
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The title Earl of Moray (pronounced "Murry") has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland. Prior to the formal establishment of the peerage, numerous individuals ruled over Moray with the title of mormaer or earl.
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1371 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1371
MCCCLXXI
Ab urbe condita 2124
Armenian calendar 820
ԹՎ ՊԻ
Bah' calendar -473 – -472
Buddhist calendar 1915
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17th century - 18th century - 19th century
1680s  1690s  1700s  - 1710s -  1720s  1730s  1740s
1711 1712 1713 - 1714 - 1715 1716 1717

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Scottish people (Scottish Gaelic: Albannach) are a nation[6] and an ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. As an ethnic group, Scots are a composition of groups such as Picts, Gaels, Brythons, Angles, and Norse.
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Clan Stewart of Appin

Crest of Clan Stewart of Appin
Chief's Arms
A unicorn's head, crined and armed
Chief's Motto
Quhidder Well Zie (Wither Will Ye)
Clan Plant Badge
Oak
Clan War Cry
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The title Marquess of the County of Bute was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1796 for the 4th Earl of Bute, along with the subsidiary titles Earl of Windsor and Viscount Mountjoy, of the Isle of Wight.
..... Click the link for more information.
The title Earl of Moray (pronounced "Murry") has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland. Prior to the formal establishment of the peerage, numerous individuals ruled over Moray with the title of mormaer or earl.
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Stewart of Darnley was a notable Scots family, a branch of the House of Stewart, whose claim to the throne of England provided the dynastic basis for the ultimate union of the two main kingdoms of Great Britain: England and Scotland.
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Royal House or royal dynasty is a familial designation, or family name of sorts, used by royalty. It generally represents the members of a family in various senior and junior or cadet branches, who are loosely related but not necessarily of the same immediate kin.
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Scotland.


The Kingdom of Scotland (Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a state located in Western Europe, in the northern third of the island of Great Britain - modern day Scotland.
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