Hutterite

Enlarge picture
Hutterite women at work
Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.

History

Originating in the Austrian province of Tyrol in the 16th century, the forerunners of the Hutterites migrated to Moravia to escape persecution. There, under the leadership of Jakob Hutter, they developed the communal form of living based on the New Testament books of the Acts of the Apostles (Chapters 2 (especially Verse 44), 4, and 5) and 2 Corinthians—which distinguishes them from other Anabaptists such as the Amish and Mennonites.

Enlarge picture
Bill of impeachment
A basic tenet of Hutterian society has always been absolute Pacifism, forbidding its members from taking part in military activities, taking orders, wearing a formal uniform (such as a soldier's or a police officer's) or contributing war taxes. This has led to expulsion or persecution in the several lands in which they have lived. In Moravia, the Hutterites flourished for over a century, until renewed persecution caused by the Austrian takeover of the Czech lands forced them once again to migrate, first to Transylvania, and, then, in the early 18th century, to the Ukraine, in the Russian Empire. Some Hutterites converted to Catholicism and retained a separate ethnic identity in Slovakia as the Habans until the 19th century (by the end of World War II, the Haban group had become essentially extinct). In Ukraine, the Hutterites enjoyed relative prosperity, although their distinctive communal life was suppressed by the influence of the neighboring Mennonites. In time, though, Russia had installed a new compulsory military service law, and the pressure was on again.

After sending scouts to North America in 1873 in tandem with a Mennonite delegation, another mass migration occurred from 1874 to 1879 as three waves of 18,000 Hutterites left for the New World in response to the new Russian military service law. Named for the leaders of each wave, all three of the three groupings (the Schmiedeleut, Dariusleut, and Lehrerleut, leut being based on the German word for people) settled initially in the Dakota Territory; later, Dariusleut colonies were established in central Montana. Here, each group reestablished the traditional Hutterite communal lifestyle.




During World War I, the pacifist Hutterites also suffered persecution in the United States. In the most famous case, four Hutterite men subjected to military draft who refused to comply were imprisoned and tortured. Ultimately, two died at Leavenworth Military Prison from mistreatment, after the Armistice had been signed ending the war.[1]



The Hutterite community responded by abandoning Dakota and moving 17 of the 18 existing American colonies to the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. With the passage of laws protecting conscientious objectors, however, some of the Schmiedeleut ultimately returned to the Dakotas, beginning in the 1930s, where they built and inhabited new colonies (some of the abandoned structures from the first wave still stand in South Dakota).






In 1942, alarmed at the influx of Dakota Hutterites buying copious tracts of land, the province of Alberta passed the Communal Properties Act, severely restricting the expansion of the Dariusleut and Lehrerleut colonies (the act was repealed in 1973, allowing Hutterites to purchase land). This act resulted in the establishment of a number of new colonies in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, at the same time expansion was seen into Montana and eastern Washington, in the 1940s and 1950s. Today, approximately three of every four Hutterite colonies are in Canada (mostly in Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan), with almost all of the remainder in the United States (primarily South Dakota and Montana). The total Hutterite population in both countries is generally estimated between forty and fifty thousand.

For a few years in the early 1950s, and in 1974–1990, the Arnoldleut (or Bruderhof Communities) were recognized as Hutterites. Although most Hutterites live in the Midwestern United States and in Western Canada, Hutterite colonies have been established in Australia, Nigeria and Japan.

Society

Hutterite communities, called "colonies", are all rural; many depend largely on farming or ranching, depending on their locale, for their income. More and more colonies are getting into manufacturing as its gets harder to make a living on farming alone. The colony is virtually or literally self-sufficient, constructing its own buildings, doing its own maintenance and repair on equipment, making its own clothes, etc.

Governance

Hutterite colonies are male-managed with women participating in stereotypically feminine roles such as cooking, medical decisions and selection and purchase of fabric for clothing. The colony's manager is the Minister, and most times his wife holding the title of Schneider (from German "tailor"), thus she is in charge of clothing making or purchasing.

Community ownership

Hutterites practice a near-total community of goods: all property is owned by the colony, and provisions for individual members and their families come from the common resources. This practice is based largely on Hutterite interpretation of passages in chapters 2, 4, and 5 of Acts, which speak of the believers "having all things in common". Thus the colony owns and operates its buildings and equipment like a corporation. Housing units are built and assigned to individual families but belong to the colony and there is very little personal property. Meals are taken by the entire colony in a dining or fellowship room.

Hutterites say that in their entire five-century history there have been two murders and one suicide. Young Hutterite men often leave their colony upon reaching adulthood to try life in the outside world. The vast majority (according to one Minister, 80 percent) return disillusioned by the harsh, cold speed of the modern world and are welcomed back to the colony.

Daughter colonies

Each colony consists of about 10 to 20 families, with a population of around 60 to 150. When the colony's population grows near the upper figure and its leadership determines that branching off is economically and spiritually necessary, they locate, purchase land for, and build a "daughter" colony. When the new colony is complete and ready for habitation, half of the old colony's members are chosen (usually by lot) to depart for the new colony, which they often do the very next day. When an intercolony marriage occurs, the bride goes to live in the groom's colony, where she will be treated to a wedding celebration. Usually the members from the bride and the grooms colony attend.

Agriculture and manufacturing

Often, colonies own large tracts of land and, since they function as a collective unit, can afford top-of-the-line farm implements. Some also run state-of-the-art hog, chicken or turkey barns. An increasing number of Hutterite colonies are again venturing into the manufacturing sector. Before the Hutterites emigrated to North America, they relied on manufacturing to sustain their communities. It was only in Russia that the Hutterites learned to farm from the Mennonites. Largely due to the increasing automation of farming (GPS controlled seeding, spraying, etc), Hutterites are again looking to manufacturing to provide work for their people. Many of the colonies, who have gone into manufacturing, have realized that they need to provide their members with a higher level of education.

Use of technology

Although Hutterites attempt to remove themselves from the outside world (televisions are forbidden, though tapes, CDs and radios are not), and many of the Lehrerleut and Dariusleut (Alberta) colonies still only have one central phone, the majority of the Schmiedeleut already have phones in each household and place of business. Phones are used for both business and for social purposes. Cell phones are also very common among the Schmied groups. Text messaging has made cell phones particularly useful for Hutterian young people wishing to keep in touch with their peers. Some Hutterite homes have computers and radios; a minority of communities (mostly, liberal Schmiedleut colonies) have some filtered Internet access.

Education

Rather than send their children to an outside school, Hutterites build a schoolhouse onsite at the colony to fulfill a minimum educational agreement with the State, which is typically run by an outside hired educator who teaches the basics including English. Traditionally, Hutterite children have left school at 15 years of age to fulfill their adult roles in the colony. This practice is still strictly maintained by the Lehrerleut and most of the Dariusleut colonies. However, an increasing number of Hutterites, especially among the Schmiedeleut, have graduated from high school. In addition, some of these young people have then gone on to attend university; many become teachers for their colonies. Brandon University in Brandon, Manitoba, offers a Hutterite Education Program (BUHEP) to Hutterites that are willing to teach on Hutterite colonies. This program is only available to the Hutterite colonies on the less conservative side of the Schmiedleut split.

Types of Hutterites

Differences among the leut

Three different branches of Hutterites live in the prairies of North America, the Schmiedeleut, the Dariusleut and the Lehrerleut. Even though all three "leut" are Hutterites, there are some distinctive differences. However, it should be noted, that the original doctrine of all three groups is identical. The differences are mostly traditional and geographical.

1. Schmiedeleut:

Hutterian Brethren (Group 1) (Elder Jacob Kleinsasser, Crystal Spring, MB) Group 2 Hutterites (Gibbs) (No Elder)

2. Dariusleut: (Elder Martin Walter, Spring Point Colony, AB)

3. Lehrerleut: (Elder John Wipf, Rose Town Colony, SK).

Photography

Alberta Hutterites won the right to avoid having their photograph taken for their drivers' licenses. In May 2007, the Alberta Court of Appeal ruled that the photograph requirement violates their religious rights and that driving was essential to their way of life. The Wilson Springs colony based their belief on the second commandment ("Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image").[2] About 80 of the photo-less licenses were in use at the time of the decision. [3]

Clothing

In contrast to the plain look of the Amish and Old Order Mennonites, Hutterite clothing can be vividly coloured, especially on children.

Dialect

Just as the Amish and Old Order Mennonites often use Pennsylvania German, the Hutterites have preserved and use among themselves a distinct dialect of German known as Hutterite German or Hutterisch. Originally based on a Tyrolean dialect from the south-central German-speaking Europe from which they sprang in the 16th century, Hutterisch has taken on a Carinthian base due to their migratory history. In the years 1760 -1763, the Hutterites were joined by a large group of Lutherans who spoke a Carinthian dialect. Eventually, this lead to the replacement of the Hutterite's Tyrolean dialect with the Carinthian dialect. Partly as a result of this, the Amish and Hutterite German dialects are not generally mutually intelligible. In their religious exercises Hutterites use a classic Lutheran German.

Colonies

The mid-2004 location and number of the world's 472 Hutterite colonies:[4]
  • Canada (347)
  • Dariusleut (142): Alberta (109); Saskatchewan (31); British Columbia (2)
  • Schmiedeleut (106): Manitoba (105); Alberta (1)
  • Lehrerleut (99): Alberta (69); Saskatchewan (30)
  • United States (124)
  • Schmiedeleut (69): South Dakota (53); Minnesota (9); North Dakota (7)
  • Lehrerleut (34): Montana (34)
  • Dariusleut (21): Montana (15); Washington (5); Oregon (1)
  • Japan (1)
  • Dariusleut (1)
  • Nigeria (1)
  • Schmiedeleut (1)
The Japanese Hutterite community does not consist of Hutterites of European descent, but ethnic Japanese who have adopted the same way of life and are recognized as an official colony. The inhabitants of this colony speak neither English nor German.

In similar fashion, a "neo-" Hutterite group was founded in Germany in 1920, called the Bruderhof, by Eberhard Arnold. Arnold had forged links with the North American Hutterites in the 1930s, continuing until 1990 when the Bruderhof were excommunicated due to a number of religious and social differences.[5]

Current challenges

Lately, the Hutterites have been faced with some daunting challenges. Prices for many of the farm commodities that had sustained them for many years are near or below the cost of production . The advantage they once held over other farms of economies of scale due to their large size, is no longer true in many cases. Many private farms are now as large or larger than Hutterite farms. Some colonies are suffering near mass-desertions of the younger people, who have been lured away by high-paying jobs, particularly in the oilfields .

See also

References

1. ^ Hallock, Dan The Martyrs of Alcatraz; Religious Persecution in the Land of the Free, Bruderhoff Communities, retrieved 2006-01-05.
2. ^ Hutterites exempt from driver's licence photos: Appeal Court, CBC News, www.cbc.ca, May 17, 2007
3. ^ Alta. Hutterites win right to driver’s license without pic, Edmonton Sun, May 17, 2007
4. ^ The 2004 Hutterite Phone Book, Canadian Edition, James Valley Colony of Hutterian Brethren: Elie, Manitoba.
5. ^ Hutterian Church Excommunicates The Bruderhof, 1990

Further reading

External links

Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: [ˈɑːmɪʃ]) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) known for their plain dress and avoidance of
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther.
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Land der Berge, Land am Strome   (German)
Land of Mountains, Land on the River
..... Click the link for more information.
Tyrol, or Tirol, is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian region known as Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
..... Click the link for more information.
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 through 1600.

See also: 16th century in literature

Events

1500s

  • 1500s: Mississippian culture disappears.

..... Click the link for more information.
Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic.
..... Click the link for more information.
Jacob Hutter (or Jakob Hutter) (born 1500, died February 25 1536), was a Tyrolean Anabaptist leader and founder of the Hutterites.

Jacob Hutter was a hat maker from South Tirol (northern Italy today).
..... Click the link for more information.
New Testament (Greek: Καινή Διαθήκη, Kainē Diathēkē) is the name given to the final portion of the Christian Bible, written after the Old Testament.
..... Click the link for more information.
Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. It is commonly referred to as simply Acts. The title "Acts of the Apostles" (Greek Praxeis Apostolon
..... Click the link for more information.
The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book in the New Testament, written by Paul the Apostle.

Textual issues

While there is little doubt among scholars that Paul is the author, there is discussion over whether the letter was originally one letter or a
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: [ˈɑːmɪʃ]) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) known for their plain dress and avoidance of
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
Anti-War topics

Opposition to...
War against Iran
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan
War on Terrorism
Landmines
Vietnam War

World War II
World War I
Second Boer War
American Civil War
War of 1812
American
Revolutionary War
..... Click the link for more information.
Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic.
..... Click the link for more information.
Transylvania (Romanian: Ardeal or Transilvania; Hungarian: Erdély; German:
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля  
..... Click the link for more information.
Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian: Pоссiйская Имперiя, Modern Russian: Российская империя,
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Nad Tatrou sa blýska
"Lightning over the Tatras"


..... Click the link for more information.
The 19th Century (also written XIX century) lasted from 1801 through 1900 in the Gregorian calendar. It is often referred to as the "1800s.
..... Click the link for more information.
Allied powers:
 Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 France
...et al. Axis powers:
 Germany
 Japan
 Italy
...et al.
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.


North America is a continent [1] in the Earth's northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west
..... Click the link for more information.
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
German language (Deutsch, ] ) is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
..... Click the link for more information.
Dakota Territory was the name of an organized territory of the United States that existed from 1861 to 1889. The territory consisted of the northernmost part of the land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
State of Montana

Flag of Montana Seal
Nickname(s): Treasure State, Big Sky Country
Motto(s): Oro y plata (Gold and silver)

Official language(s) English

Capital Helena
Largest city
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.