Karapapak

Karapapaks

Karapapak falconers in
Naghadeh (Sulduz), Iran (1913)
Total population
Unknown (estimated to be in the hundred thousands)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Iran and Turkey
Languages
Azerbaijani
Religions
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Azerbaijanis, Meskhetian Turks, Ayrums
The Karapapak, Garapapag or Terekeme are a small ethnic group of Turkic-speaking people who mainly live in the province of West Azerbaijan of northwest Iran, in and around the Sulduz area; and in the northeast of Turkey near the border with Georgia and Armenia, primarily in the provinces of Ardahan (around Lake Çıldır) and Iğdır. The exact number for the Karapapak population worldwide is unknown but is likely to be in the hundred thousands.[1] Karapapaks are not to be confused with Karakalpaks.

Origins and history

Sometimes referred to as Terekeme or Tarakama (a derivation from the words "Turcoman" or "Turkmen", meaning Oghuz Turks), Karapapaks are often identified as a sub-ethnic group of Azeris,[3] even though in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary they are sometimes listed as a separate ethnic group.[4] Theories of Karapapaks descending from Kumyks (a Turkic-speaking ethnic group in Dagestan) have also been brought forward by scholars like Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu and Zeki Velidi Togan.[5] The Terekeme originally populated territories in what is now southern Georgia, northwestern Armenia, southern Dagestan, and central and northwestern Azerbaijan,[6] but almost entirely migrated to the Ottoman Empire or Iran upon Russia's conquest of the South Caucasus between 1813 and 1828. Here they were given the name Karapapak ("black hat") by the Anatolians reflecting the element of the Terekeme ethnic outfit that distinguished them from the local population.[5]

Late in the nineteenth century, they moved again to northern Armenia and southern Georgia. With the Russian Revolution and Soviet expansion south in late 1910s and 1920s, Karapapaks became a new nationality group in Soviet Union. Late in 1930s, the Soviet Union stopped classifying Karapapaks as a separate people and in 1944, they were included in the mass deportation of Meskhetian Turks from Georgia to Central Asia.[7]

Even though the Karapapaks left in the Caucasus had largely assumed Meskhetian Turkish[8] or Azeri identity[1] by the mid-20th century and despite lack of record of Karapapaks in modern censuses of the South Caucasus states, nowadays small groups may still identify themselves as Karapapak or Terekeme in the regions originally inhabited by them. Karapapaks are also found in Central Asia where many of them were deported along with the Meskhetian Turks in 1944 during the Stalinist population transfers.[1] The last census to mention Karapapaks as a separate ethnic group was the 1926 Soviet census, according to which there were 6,311 of them throughout the South Caucasus.[9]

Language

Karapapaks speak a dialect of Azeri,[10] which has undergone significant influence by the Eastern Anatolian dialects of Turkish.[6]

Religion

Most Karapapaks are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school of thought.[11] There are also some Twelver Shias and Alevis. In the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, those identifying with the Alevi strand are listed as Turkmen (Tarakama).[12]

Culture

Karapapaks have developed rich traditions of oral literature comprised largely of ashik songs, legends and folk tales. The main theme is often based on common folkloric images such as Leyli and Majnun, Farhad and Shirin, Shah Abbas, Jahan Shah, Koroglu, Anushirvan, Harun al-Rashid, Rostam, son of Zal, Ashik Garib, Battal Gazi, etc. Karapapak dances are very similar to those of Georgians, Azeris, Turks and Kurds.[6]

References

1. ^ (Turkish) The Great Borchali and the Karapapak by Seyfullah Türksoy
2. ^ (Turkish) The Great Borchali and the Karapapak by Seyfullah Türksoy
3. ^ (Russian) Azeris. Great Soviet Encyclopedia
4. ^ (Russian) Kavkazski Krai. Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
5. ^ (Russian) Kumyk Communities Abroad by Kamil Aliyev
6. ^ (Turkish) Karapapaklar. Karapapak.com
7. ^ Ronald Wixman.(1984).The Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook.
8. ^ (Russian) Selected Parts of the Discussion by Sergei Abashin
9. ^ (Russian) The All-Soviet of 1926: the Transcaucasian SFSR
10. ^ (Turkish) History of the Terekeme. Terekemeler.com
11. ^ Alexandre Bennigsen & Enders Wimbush. (1986). Muslims of the Soviet Empire
12. ^ (Russian) Kars Oblast. Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary

See also

19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1910 1911 1912 - 1913 - 1914 1915 1916

Year 1913 (MCMXIII
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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān Â²


Capital
(and largest city) Tehran

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Motto
Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem
İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
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Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

It is called Azərbaycan dili in Azerbaijani.
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Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Sunnism or as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic:
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20.5 to 33 million
Regions with significant populations
 Iran
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 Turkey
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Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. They were deported to Central Asia in 1944 by Joseph Stalin and settled within Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan.
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Ayrums (Azeri: ayrım; Armenian: այրում) were a Turkic-speaking tribe in the Caucasus. They became assimilated by Azeris and possibly Armenians in the late 19th century.
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Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.
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West Azarbaijan or West Azerbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان غربی Āzarbāijān-e Gharbī; Kurdish: Azerbaycanî Rojawa; Azeri: Qərbi Azərbaycan
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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān Â²


Capital
(and largest city) Tehran

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Naghadeh, (Persian: نقده, Azerbaijani: Nəğədə, Kurdish: Nexede), formerly known as Sulduz
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Motto
Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem
İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
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Motto
ძალა ერთობაშია   (Georgian)
"Strength is in Unity"

Anthem
"Tavisupleba"
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Motto
Մեկ Ազգ, Մեկ Մշակույթ   (Armenian)
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Ardahan Province is a province in the far north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia.

The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan.
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Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea.
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This article has been tagged since January 2007.
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20.5 to 33 million
Regions with significant populations
 Iran
 Azerbaijan
 Turkey
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Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (Russian: Энциклопедический словарь
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Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. They comprise 12% of the population of the Russian republic of Dagestan. They speak the Kumyk language.
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Республика Дагеста?
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Zeki Velidi Togan (Bashkir: Әхмәтзәки Вәлиди, sometimes also Validi
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Motto
none
Anthem
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni
(March of Azerbaijan)
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Ottoman Empire or Ottoman Caliphate (1299 to 1922) (Old Ottoman Turkish: دولت عالیه عثمانیه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish:
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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān Â²


Capital
(and largest city) Tehran

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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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South Caucasus, also referred to as Transcaucasia or Transcaucasus, is the southern portion of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia, extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1780s  1790s  1800s  - 1810s -  1820s  1830s  1840s
1810 1811 1812 - 1813 - 1814 1815 1816

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