King Seong of Baekje

Seong of Baekje
Hangul성왕, 명왕, 성명?
Hanja聖王, 明王, 聖明?
Revised RomanizationSeong-wang, Myeong-wang, Seongmyeong-wang
McCune-ReischauerSŏng-wang, Myŏng-wang, Sŏngmyŏng-wang
Birth name
Hangul명?
Hanja明?
Revised RomanizationMyeongnong
McCune-ReischauerMyŏngnong
Monarchs of Korea
Baekje
  1. Onjo 18 BCE–29 CE
  2. Daru 29–77
  3. Giru 77–128
  4. Gaeru 128–166
  5. Chogo 166–214
  6. Gusu 214–234
  7. Saban 234
  8. Goi 234–286
  9. Chaekgye 286–298
  10. Bunseo 298–304
  11. Biryu 304–344
  12. Gye 344–346
  13. Geunchogo 346–375
  14. Geungusu 375–384
  15. Chimnyu 384–385
  16. Jinsa 385–392
  17. Asin 392–405
  18. Jeonji 405–420
  19. Guisin 420–427
  20. Biyu 427–455
  21. Gaero 455–475
  22. Munju 475–477
  23. Samgeun 477–479
  24. Dongseong 479–501
  25. Muryeong 501–523
  26. Seong 523–554
  27. Wideok 554–598
  28. Hye 598–599
  29. Beop 599–600
  30. Mu 600–641
  31. Uija 641–660
Seong of Baekje (?-554, r. 523-554) was the 26th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was a son of Muryeong of Baekje. He made Buddhism the state religion, moved the national capital, and succeeded in reclaiming the center of the Korean Peninsula, only to be betrayed by an ally.

Foreign relations and Buddhism

Seong was known as a great patron of Buddhism, and built many temples and welcomed priests bringing Buddhist texts directly from India. In 528 Baekje officially adopted Buddhism as its state religion. He maintained his country's diplomatic ties with Liang Dynasty China as well as Japan.

He sent tribute missions to Liang in 534 and 541, on the second occasion requesting artisans as well as various Buddhist works and a teacher. According to Chinese records, all these requests were granted. A subsequent mission was sent in 549, only to find the Liang capital in the hands of the rebel Hou Jing, who threw them in prison for lamenting the fall of the capital.

He is credited with having sent a mission in 538 to Japan that brought an image of Shakyamuni and several sutras to the Japanese court. This has traditionally been considered the official introduction of Buddhism to Japan.

Move of the capital

In 538, he moved the capital from Ungjin (present-day Gongju) further south to Sabi (present-day Buyeo County), on the Geum River. Unlike the earlier move of the capital from the present-day Seoul region to Ungjin, forced by the military pressure of Goguryeo, the move to Sabi was directed by the king to strengthen royal power, aided by the political support of the Sa clan based in Sabi.[1]

He completely reorganized the administration of the country to strengthen central control, to counteract the political power of the noble clans. He changed the name of the country to Nambuyeo, to emphasize the ancient connection to Buyeo.

Battle among the Three Kingdoms

Baekje had maintained a century-long alliance with its neighbor Silla, to balance the threat of the northern kingdom Goguryeo. With the aid of Silla and the Gaya confederacy, Seong led a long campaign to regain the Han River valley, the former heartland of Baekje which had been lost to Goguryeo in 475. Baekje regained its original capital in 551. The campaign culminated in 553 with victories in a series of costly assaults on Goguryeo fortifications.

However, under a secret agreement with Goguryeo, Silla troops, arriving on the pretense of offering assistance, attacked the exhausted Baekje army and took possession of the entire Han River valley. Incensed by this betrayal, the following year Seong launched a retaliatory strike against Silla's western border. This attack was led by the crown prince (subsequent king Wideok and joined by the Gaya, but Seong and 30,000 Baekje men were killed in the disastrous battle. This defeat led to significant erosion of royal power.

See also

Hangul (한글) or Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) [2]

ISO 15924 Hang

Note
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Origins
Traditional Chinese
Variant characters
Simplified Chinese
Simplified Chinese (2nd-round)
Traditional/Simplified (debate)
Kanji
- Man'yōgana
Hanja
- Idu
Han Tu
- Chữ Nm

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The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. It is the official South Korean replacement for the 1984 McCune-Reischauer–based romanization system.
..... Click the link for more information.
McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000.
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The name at birth is the name a child is given by his or her parents, according to an apparently universal custom. What happens subsequently about this name has a substantial cultural component.
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Hangul (한글) or Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) [2]

ISO 15924 Hang

Note
..... Click the link for more information.
Origins
Traditional Chinese
Variant characters
Simplified Chinese
Simplified Chinese (2nd-round)
Traditional/Simplified (debate)
Kanji
- Man'yōgana
Hanja
- Idu
Han Tu
- Chữ Nm

..... Click the link for more information.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. It is the official South Korean replacement for the 1984 McCune-Reischauer–based romanization system.
..... Click the link for more information.
McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000.
..... Click the link for more information.
History of Korea
Jeulmun Period
Mumun Period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
   Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
   Sui wars
 Baekje
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History of Korea
Jeulmun Period
Mumun Period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
   Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
   Sui wars
 Baekje
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Onjo (?-28, r. 18 BC–AD 28) was the founding monarch of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi, he was the ancestor of all Baekje kings.
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Daru of Baekje (?-77, r. 28–77) was the second king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background

He was the eldest son of the founding monarch Onjo and became the heir of throne in the year 10. He became king upon Onjo's death.
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Giru of Baekje (?-128, r. 77–128) was the third king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background

He was the eldest son of King Daru and became the heir to the throne in the year 33.

Reign

Little is known about the details of his reign.
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Gaeru of Baekje (?-166, r. 128-166) was the fourth king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the history compilation Samguk Sagi, he was the son of the previous king Giru.
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Chogo of Baekje (?-214, r. 166-214) was the fifth king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background

He was the son of King Gaeru.

Relations between Baekje and the rival kingdom Silla became hostile after Gaeru had given refuge to a Sillan traitor
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Gusu of Baekje (?-234, r. 214-234) was the 6th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi, he was descended from the founding king Onjo and the eldest son of the 5th king Chogo.
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Saban of Baekje (?–?, r. 234) was the 7th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of the 6th king Gusu.

According to the Samguk Sagi, Saban was found too young to rule and quickly succeeded (the Samguk Yusa says deposed) by King Goi,
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Goi of Baekje (?-286, r. 234-286) was the 8th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the second son of the 4th king Gaeru and younger brother of the 5th king Chogo.
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Chaekgye of Baekje (?-298, r. 286-298) was the ninth king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of King Goi.

His wife, whose name is recorded as Bogwa (보과, 寶菓), was a daughter of the governor of Daifang commandery.
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Bunseo of Baekje (?-304, r. 298-304) was the tenth king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of the ninth king Chaekgye. He continued to wage war against the Chinese Lelang commandery whose forces had killed his father.
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Biryu of Baekje (?-304, r. 304-344) was the 11th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi, he was second son of the 6th king Gusu and the younger brother of the 7th king Saban.
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Gye of Baekje (?-346, r. 344-346) was the 12th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

He was the eldest son of the 10th king Bunseo, who was assassinated.
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Geunchogo of Baekje (?-375, r. 346-375) was the 13th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He reigned over the apex of Baekje's powers.

Background

He was the second son of the 11th king Biryu and became king upon the death of the 12th king Gye.
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Geungusu of Baekje (r. 375-384) was the 14th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Geungusu was the eldest son of the 13th king Geunchogo, and father to the 15th king Chimnyu and the 16th king Jinsa.
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Chimnyu of Baekje (?-385, r. 384-385) was the 15th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of Geungusu of Baekje and Lady Ai. He was the first Baekje king to officially recognize Buddhism.
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Jinsa of Baekje (?-392, 385-392) was the 16th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

He was the younger brother of the previous ruler, King Chimnyu. According to the Samguk Sagi, he ascended to the throne because the heir, later King Asin, was too young.
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Asin of Baekje (?-405, r. 392-405) was the 17th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background

Buyeo Abang was the eldest son of Baekje's 15th ruler Chimnyu, and ascended to the throne after the death of Chimnyu’s brother, the 16th king Jinsa, of whom
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Jeonji of Baekje (?-420, r. 405-420) was the 18th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

As the eldest son, he was confirmed as successor to King Asin, in 394. His queen was Lady Palsu of the Hae clan.
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Guisin of Baekje (?–427, r. 420–427) was the 19th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of King Jeonji and Lady Palsu.

The traditional dates of Guisin's rule are based on the Samguk Sagi.
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