King of England



This is a list of the monarchs of England. Traditionally, the first monarch of England is listed as Egbert, Bretwalda from 829, though the kingdom was not permanently unified until 927, under Athelstan. Union with Wales was enacted in 1536, and with Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Since that date the title King (or Queen) of England has been technically incorrect, though has remained in wide usage to the present day. The subsequent union with Ireland in 1801 was amended in 1922, and the current full name of the state is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

English monarchs

House of Wessex

The following list starts with Egbert, King of Wessex from 802, the first King of Wessex to have overlordship over much of England.[1] He defeated the Mercians and became Bretwalda in 829. Permanent unity was not achieved until 927, under Athelstan.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Egbert
(Ecgberht)
802-839
c.775
son of Ealhmund of Kent
Redburga
800
3 children
4 February 839
aged about 64[2]
Ethelwulf
(Æşelwulf)
5 February
839-855
Aachen
son of Egbert and Redburga
(1) Osburga
6 children

(2) Judith of Flanders
1 October 853
no children
13 January 855
age unknown[3]
Ethelbald
(Æşelbald)
14 January
855-860
c.831
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga
Judith of Flanders
no children
20 December 860
aged about 29[4]
Ethelbert
(Æşelberht)
21 December
860-866
c.835
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga
unknown
2 children
866
aged about 31[5]
Ethelred
(Æşelræd)
866-871
c.837
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga
Wulfrida
868
2 children
23 April 871
aged about 34[6]
Alfred the Great
(Ælfræd)
24 April
871899[7]
c.849
Wantage
son of Ethelwulf and Osburga[8]
Ealhswith
Winchester
868
6 children[9]
26 October 899
aged about 50[9]
Edward the Elder
(Eadweard)
27 October
899924[10]
c.871-877
son of Alfred the Great and Ealhswith[11]
(1) Ecgwynn
893
3 children

(2) Aelffaed
c.902
10 children

(3) Edgiva of Kent
905
4 children[12]
17 July 924
Farndon, Cheshire
aged about 50[12]
Elfward
(Ælfweard)
18 July -
2 August 924
No image or coin of Elfward existsc.902
son of Edward the Elder and Aelffaed
unmarried2 August 924
aged about 22
Athelstan
(Æşelstan)
3 August
924939[13]
895
son of Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn[14]
unmarried[14]27 October 939
aged about 44[14]
Edmund the Magnificent
(Eadmund)
28 October
939946[15]
c.921
son of Edward the Elder and Edgiva of Kent[15]
(1) Elgiva
3 children

(2) Ethelfleda
946
no children[16]
26 May 946
Pucklechurch
aged about 25 (murdered)[15]
Edred
(Eadred)
27 May
946955[17]
c.923
son of Edward the Elder and Edgiva of Kent[18]
unmarried[18]23 November 955
Frome
aged about 32[19]
Edwy the Fair
(Eadwig)
24 November
955959[20]
c.940
son of Edmund the Magnificent and Elgiva[21]
Elgiva[21]1 October 959
aged about 19[21]
Edgar the Peaceable
(Eadgar)
2 October
959975[22]
c.943
Wessex
son of Edmund the Magnificent and Elgiva[23]
(1) Ethelflaed
c.960
1 son

(2) Wulfthryh
1 daughter
(3) Elfrida
c.964[23]
2 sons
8 July 975
Winchester
aged about 32[24]
St. Edward the Martyr
(Eadweard)
9 July
975978[25]
c.962
son of Edgar the Peaceable and Ethelflaed[26]
unmarried18 March 978
Corfe Castle
aged about 16 (assassinated)[26]
Ethelred the Unready
(Æşelræd Unræd)
19 March
9781016[27]
c.968
son of Edgar the Peaceable and Elfrida[28]
(1) Ælflaed of Northumbria
4 children

(2) Aelgifu
991
6 children

(3) Emma of Normandy
1002
3 children[29]
23 April 1016
London
aged about 48[29]
Edmund Ironside
(Eadmund)
24 April
30 November 1016[30]
c.993
son of Ethelred the Unready and Ælflaed of Northumbria[30]
Edith of East Anglia
2 children[31]
30 November 1016
Glastonbury
aged about 23[30][30]

House of Denmark

England came under the rule of Danish kings following the disastrous reign of Ethelred the Unready. Some, though not all, of these were also kings of Denmark.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Sweyn Forkbeard
(Svend Tjugeskæg)
25 December 10131014[32]
c.960
son of Harald Bluetooth and Gunild[33]
(1) Gunhilda

(2) Sigrid[33]
3 February 1014
aged about 54[33]
Canute
(Knud)
1 December
10161035[34]
c.995
son of Sweyn Forkbeard[34]
(1) Aelgifu of Northampton
2 children

(2) Emma of Normandy
1017[34]
12 November 1035
Shaftesbury
aged about 40[34]
Harold Harefoot
(Harald)
25 November
10351040[35]
c.1015
son of Canute and Aelgifu of Northampton[35]
unknown17 March 1040
Oxford
aged about 25[35]
Harthacanute
(Hardeknud)
18 June
10401042[36]
1018
son of Canute and Emma of Normandy[37]
unknown8 June 1042
Lambeth
aged about 24[37]

House of Wessex (restored)

''The old West Saxon line was restored, but Edward the Confessor, who was later canonised, was more Norman than English in his sympathies.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
St. Edward the Confessor
(Eadweard)
9 June
10421066[38]
c.1002
Islip, Oxfordshire
son of Ethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy[38]
Edith of Wessex
23 January 1045
no children[39]
4 January 1066
aged about 63[38]
Harold Godwinson
(Harold Godwinesson)
5 January
14 October 1066[40]
c.1020
son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir[41]
(1) Ealdgyth Swan-neck

(2) Aldgyth[42]
14 October 1066
Senlac Hill (Now known as Battle, East Sussex)
aged about 46[42]
Edgar the Atheling
(Eadgar Æşeling)
15 October
10 December 1066[43]
No image or coin of Edgar existsc.1054
Hungary[43]
son of Edward the Exile[43]
unknownc.1125
aged about 71[43]

House of Normandy

It was only after the Norman Conquest of 1066 that monarchs took regnal numbers in the French fashion, though the earlier custom of distinguishing monarchs by nicknames did not die out immediately.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
William I, the Conqueror
(Guillaume le Bâtard)
25 December
10661087[44]
c.1027
Falaise
illegitimate son of Robert II, Duke of Normandy and Herleva[44]
Matilda of Flanders
Cathedral of Notre Dame
c.1053
9 children[45]
9 September 1087
Rouen
aged about 60[44]
William II, Rufus
(Guillaume le Roux)
26 September
10871100[46]
c.1060
son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders[47]
unmarried[48]2 August 1100
New Forest
aged about 40[48]
Henry I
(Henri Beauclerc)
5 August
11001135[49]
September 1068
Selby
son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders[50]
(1) Edith of Scotland
11 November 1100

(2) Adeliza of Louvain
29 January 1121
no children[51]
1 December 1135
Normandy
aged about 67[51]
Stephen
(Étienne de Blois)
22 December
11351154[52]
c.1096
Blois
son of Stephen, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy[52]
Matilda of Boulogne
1125[52]
3 children[53]
25 October 1154
Dover
aged about 58[52]
Matilda
(Mathilde l'Emperesse)
8 April1 November 1141[54]
7 February 1102
Sutton Courtenay
only legitimate daughter of Henry I and Edith of Scotland[54]
(1) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Worms
6 January 1114
no children

(2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
Le Mans
8 June 1129[54]
10 September 1167
Rouen
aged 65[54]

House of Plantagenet

The early Plantagenets ruled many territories in France, and did not regard England as their primary home until after most of their French possessions were lost by King John. This long-lived dynasty is usually divided into three houses.

Angevins

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry II
(Henri Court-manteau)
19 December
11541189[55]
5 March 1133
Le Mans
son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda[55]
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Bordeaux
18 May 1152
8 children[56]
6 July 1189
Château Chinon
aged 56[55]
Richard I, the Lionheart
(Richard Cœur de Lion)
3 September
11891199[57]
8 September 1157
Oxford
son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine[57]
Berengaria of Navarre
Limassol
no children[58]
6 April 1199
Chalus
aged 41[57]
John, Lackland
(Jean Sans Terre)
27 May
11991216[59]
24 December 1167
Oxford
son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine[59]
(1) Isabel of Gloucester
Marlborough
29 August 1189
no children

(2) Isabella of Angoulême
24 August 1200
5 children[59]
19 October 1216
Newark Castle
aged 48[59]
Henry III
28 October
12161272[60]
1 October 1207
Winchester
son of John and Isabella of Angoulême[60]
Eleanor of Provence
Canterbury
14 January 1236[60]
5 children[61]
16 November 1272
Westminster
aged 65[60]
Edward I, Longshanks
20 November
12721307[62]
17 June 1239
Westminster
son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence[62]
(1) Eleanor of Castile
October 1254[62]
16 children[63]

(2) Marguerite of France
8 September 1299[62]
7 July 1307
Burgh by Sands
aged 68[62]
Edward II
7 July 1307
20 January 1327[64]
25 April 1284
Caernarfon Castle
son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile[64]
Isabella of France
25 January 1308
4 children[65]
21 September 1327
Berkeley Castle
aged 43 (murdered)[64]
Edward III
24 January
13271377[66]
13 November 1312
Windsor Castle
son of Edward II and Isabella of France[66]
Philippa of Hainault
York
24 January 1328[67]
11 children[68]
21 June 1377
Surrey
aged 64[66]
Richard II
21 June 1377
30 September 1399[69][70]
6 January 1367
Bordeaux
son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan of Kent[70]
(1) Anne of Bohemia
14 January 1382[71]
no children[72]

(2) Isabella of Valois
Calais
4 November 1396
no children[72]
6 January 1400
Pontefract Castle
aged 33[72]

Lancastrians

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry IV, Bolingbroke
30 September
13991413[73]
3 April 1367
Bolingbroke Castle
son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster[74]
(1) Mary de Bohun
1380[75]
6 children[75]

(2) Joanna of Navarre
7 February 1403
no children[76]
20 March 1413
Westminster
aged 45[76]
Henry V
20 March
14131422[77]
9 August 1387
Monmouth
son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun[78]
Catherine of Valois
2 June 1420
1 son[78]
31 August 1422
Vincennes
aged 35[78]
Henry VI
31 August 1422
4 March 1461

5 October 1470
11 April 1471[79]
6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois[79]
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
23 April 1445
1 son[80]
22 May 1471
Tower of London
aged 49 (murdered)[79]

Yorkists

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edward IV
4 March 1461
2 October 1470

11 April
14711483[81]
28 April 1442
Rouen
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[82]
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children[83]
9 April 1483
Westminster
aged 40[83]
Edward V
9 April25 June 1483[84]
2 November 1470
Westminster
son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville[84]
unmarried?September 1483
?Tower of London
aged ?12 (traditionally murdered)[84]
Richard III
26 June
14831485[85]
2 October 1452
Fotheringhay Castle
fourth son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[86]
Anne Neville
12 July 1472
1 son[87]
22 August 1485
Bosworth Field
aged 32 (killed in battle)[87]

House of Tudor

''The Tudors were of partial Welsh ancestry, and in 1536 Wales was fully incorporated into the English state (having been under English control since 1284). With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry VII
22 August
14851509[88]
28 January 1457
Pembroke Castle
son of Edmund Tudor and Lady Margaret Beaufort[88]
Elizabeth of York
18 January 1486[88]
7 children[89]
21 April 1509
Richmond Palace
aged 52[88]
Henry VIII
21 April
15091547[90]
28 June 1491
Greenwich
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York[90]
(1) Catherine of Aragon
Greenwich
11 June 1509
1 child

(2) Anne Boleyn
Westminster
25 January 1533
1 child

(3) Jane Seymour
York Place
20 May 1536
1 son

(4) Anne of Cleves
Greenwich
6 January 1540

(5) Catherine Howard
Hampton Court Palace
28 July 1540

(6) Catherine Parr
Hampton Court Palace
12 July 1543[91]
28 January 1547
London
aged 55[90]
Edward VI
28 January
15471553[92]
12 October 1537
London
son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour[92]
unmarried6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
aged 15[92]
Jane
6 July19 July 1553[93]
October 1537
Bradgate Park
daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon[93]
Lord Guildford Dudley
London
21 May 1553
no children[94]
12 February 1554
Tower of London
aged 16 (beheaded)[93]
Mary I
19 July
15531558[95]
18 February 1516
Greenwich
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon[95]
Philip II of Spain
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
no children[95]
17 November 1558
London
aged 42[95]
Elizabeth I
17 November
15581603[96]
7 September 1533
Greenwich
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn[96]
unmarried[97]24 March 1603
London
aged 69[96]

House of Stuart

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, the Scottish king, James VI, succeeded to the English throne as James I in what became known as the Union of the Crowns. In 1604 he adopted the title King of Great Britain'', although the two kingdoms remained separate.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James I
24 March
16031625[98]
19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen of Scots[98]
Anne of Denmark
Oslo
23 November 1589
8 children[99]
27 March 1625
Theobalds House
aged 58[98]
Charles I
27 March
16251649[100]
19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace
son of James I and Anne of Denmark[100]
Henrietta Maria of France
Canterbury
13 June 1625
9 children[101]
30 January 1649
London
aged 48 (executed)[100]

Commonwealth

There was no reigning monarch between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Despite this, from 1653 the following individuals held power as Lords Protector, during the period known as the Protectorate.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Oliver Cromwell
16 December
16531658[102]
25 April 1599
Huntingdon
son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Stewart[103]
Elizabeth Bourchier
London
22 August 1620[103]
9 children[104]
3 September 1658
Whitehall
aged 59[103]
Richard Cromwell
3 September 1658
7 May 1659[105]
4 October 1626
son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier[103]
Dorothy Maijor
1649
9 children
12 July 1712
Cheshunt
aged 85[103]

House of Stuart (restored)

Although the monarchy was restored in 1660, no stable settlement proved possible until the Glorious Revolution of 1688, when parliament finally asserted the right to choose whomsoever it pleased as monarch.

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II
8 May
16601685[106]
29 May 1630
London
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[106]
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth
21 May 1662
no children
6 February 1685
Westminster
aged 55
James II
6 February 1685
23 December 1688[107]
14 October 1633
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
(1) Anne Hyde
London
3 September 1660
8 children

(2) Mary of Modena
Dover
1673
7 children
5 September 1701
France
aged 67
William III
13 February
16891702[108]
4 November 1650
The Hague
son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
no children[108]
8 March 1702
Kensington
aged 51
Mary II
13 February
16891694[108]
30 April 1662
St James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde
28 December 1694
Kensington
aged 32
Anne
8 March
1702-1707
Great Britain
1 May 1707-1714
6 February 1665
St James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children
1 August 1714
Kensington
aged 49


Go to List of British monarchs for the continuation of this list.

England and Scotland entered into legislative and governmental union on 1 May 1707 under the Acts of Union 1707, though retained separate legal systems and other trappings of statehood.

Titles

The standard title for all monarchs from Alfred the Great until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows:
  • Alfred the Great: Rex Angulsaxonum and Rex Anglorum et Saxonum
  • Athelstan: Rex Anglorum per omnipatrantis dexteram totius Bryttaniæ regni solio sublimatus
  • Edmund the Magnificent: Rex Britanniae and Rex Anglorum caeterarumque gentium gobernator et rector
  • Edred: Regis qui regimina regnorum Angulsaxna, Norşhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque
  • Edwy the Fair: Rex nutu Dei Angulsæxna et Northanhumbrorum imperator paganorum gubernator Breotonumque propugnator
  • Edgar the Peaceable: Totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus
  • Canute: Rex Anglorum totiusque Brittannice orbis gubernator et rector and Brytannie totius Anglorum monarchus
In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). From the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex Anglie, or Regina Anglie ("Queen of England") if female. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. The English and Scottish Parliaments, did not recognize this title [109]

Notes and references

1. ^ Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
2. ^ Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
3. ^ Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
4. ^ Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
5. ^ Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
6. ^ Burke's Peerage & Gentry URL last accessed 7 September 2007.
7. ^ Alfred (the Great) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 15 March 2007.
8. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Alfred the Great. URL last accessed 14 March 2007.
9. ^ Alfred the Great. URL last accessed 14 March 2007.
10. ^ EADWEARD (Edward the Elder) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed on 15 March 2007.
11. ^ There are various references listing Edward the Elder's birth as sometime in the 870s, being the second child of a marriage of 868. There are no sources listing his birth as after 877. Anglo-Saxons.net : Edward the Elder. URL last accessed on 15 March 2007.
12. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edward the Elder. URL last accessed on 21 January 2007.
13. ^ Aethelstan @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 15 March 2007.
14. ^ EBK: Aethelstan, King of the English. URL last accessed 15 March 2007.
15. ^ EADMUND (Edmund) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
16. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edmund the Elder. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
17. ^ EADRED (Edred) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
18. ^ EBK: Edred, King of England. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
19. ^ BritRoyals - King Edred. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
20. ^ EADWIG (Edwy) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
21. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Edwy. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
22. ^ EADGAR (Edgar the Peacemaker) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
23. ^ EBK: Edgar the Peacemaker, King of England. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
24. ^ The Atheling. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
25. ^ EADWEARD (Edward the Martyr) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
26. ^ EBK: Edward the Martyr, King of England. URL last accessed 17 March 2007.
27. ^ Ethelred the Unready was forced to go into exile in the summer of 1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death. AETHELRED (the Unready) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007
28. ^ Schoolnet Spartacus: Ethelred. URL last accessed 17 March 2007
29. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Ethelred II, the Redeless. URL last accessed 17 March 2007
30. ^ EADMUND (Edmund the Ironside) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 17 March 2007
31. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edmund Ironside. URL last accessed 17 March 2007
32. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Sweyn Forkbeard. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
33. ^ SWEYN (Forkbeard) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
34. ^ CNUT (Canute) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
35. ^ Harold was only recognised as king north of the River Thames until 1037, after which he was recognised as king of all England. HAROLD (Harefoot) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
36. ^ HARTHACNUT @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
37. ^ BritRoyals - King Harthacnut. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
38. ^ EADWEARD (Edward the Confessor) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
39. ^ Channel 4: Monarchy - Edith. URL last accessed 21 March 2007.
40. ^ HAROLD (Godwinesson) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 22 March 2007.
41. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Harold II Godwineson. URL last accessed 22 March 2007.
42. ^ BritRoyals - King Harold II. URL last accessed 22 March 2007.
43. ^ After ruling for approximately 8 weeks, Edgar the Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the country. EADGAR (Edgar the Ætheling) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 22 March 2007
44. ^ WILLIAM I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 26 March 2007.
45. ^ William the Conqueror. URL last accessed 26 March 2007.
46. ^ WILLIAM II @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 26 March 2007.
47. ^ William II. URL last accessed 26 March 2007.
48. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - William II Rufus. URL last accessed 26 March 2007.
49. ^ HENRY I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 27 March 2007.
50. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Henry I Beauclerc. URL last accessed 27 March 2007.
51. ^ Timeline of King Henry I. URL last accessed 27 March 2007.
52. ^ STEPHEN (of Blois) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 27 March 2007.
53. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Stephen and Matilda. URL last accessed 27 March 2007.
54. ^ Matilda ruled at the same time as Stephen, but her reign was disputed. MATILDA (the Empress) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 27 March 2007.
55. ^ HENRY II @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
56. ^ BBC - History - The Character and Legacy of Henry II. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
57. ^ Richard I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
58. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Richard the Lionheart. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
59. ^ JOHN (Lackland) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
60. ^ Henry III @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
61. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Henry III. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
62. ^ Edward I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
63. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edward I Longshanks. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
64. ^ Edward II was deposed by Parliament on 20 January 1327, having been imprisoned on 16 November 1326. EDWARD II @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
65. ^ Timeline of King Edward II. URL last accessed 31 March 2007.
66. ^ EDWARD III @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
67. ^ TimeRef - History Timelines. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
68. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edward III. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
69. ^ Richard II @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
70. ^ Richard II was deposed, and became a prisoner of Henry Bolingbroke, who usurped the throne from the prior claims of the issue of his father John of Gaunt. English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Richard II. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
71. ^ thePeerage.com - Lennart Gustaf Nicholas Paul Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg and others. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
72. ^ TimeRef - History Timelines - Medieval People Starting With A. URL last accessed 19 April 2007.
73. ^ HENRY IV @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 20 April 2007.
74. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Henry IV. URL last accessed 20 April 2007.
75. ^ Spartacus Schoolnet: Henry IV. URL last accessed 20 April 2007.
76. ^ Timeline of King HenryIV. URL last accessed 20 April 2007.
77. ^ HENRY V @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 20 April 2007.
78. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Henry V. URL last accessed 20 April 2007.
79. ^ Edward IV usurped the throne in 1461 after years of civil war. Henry VI was restored for about five months in 1470 before being deposed again permanently. HENRY VI @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
80. ^ Timeline of King HenryVI. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
81. ^ Edward was briefly deposed during his reign by Henry VI. EDWARD IV @ Archontology. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
82. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edward IV. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
83. ^ royal Genealogies Part 22. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
84. ^ Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. EDWARD V @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
85. ^ RICHARD III @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
86. ^ English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Richard III. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
87. ^ Timeline of King Richard III. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
88. ^ HENRY VII @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
89. ^ Henry VII. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
90. ^ HENRY VIII @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
91. ^ After Jane Seymour, Henry VIII had no more children. The Six Wives of Henry VIII. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
92. ^ EDWARD VI @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
93. ^ Jane was deposed in favour of Mary Tudor. JANE (Jane Grey) @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
94. ^ Lady Jane Grey: Marriage. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
95. ^ Mary I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
96. ^ ELIZABETH I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
97. ^ History of the Monarchy > The Tudors > Elizabeth I. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
98. ^ James I @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
99. ^ Royal Genealogies Part 17. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
100. ^ Charles I. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
101. ^ Royal Genealogies Part 17. URL last accessed 21 April 2007.
102. ^ CROMWELL, Oliver [1653-1658 @ Archontology.org]. URL last accessed 22 April 2007.
103. ^ CROMWELL. URL last accessed 22 April 2007.
104. ^ British Civil Wars: Oliver Cromwell bio. URL last accessed 25 January 2007.
105. ^ Richard Cromwell was deposed as Lord Protector. CROMWELL, Richard @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 22 April 2007.
106. ^ Charles II @ Archontology.org. URL last accessed 24 April 2007.
107. ^ James II fled on 11 December, and was officially deposed on 23 December 1688
108. ^ William III and Mary II were married and ruled together. After Mary died in 1694, William ruled on his own
109. ^ After the personal union of the three crowns, James was the first to style himself King of Great Britain, but the title was rejected by the English Parliament and had no basis in law. The Parliament of Scotland also opposed it. Croft, p67; Wilson, pp249-252. See also the early history of the Union Flag.

See also

External links

Heptarchy (Greek: ἑπτά + ἀρχή seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon ancient kingdoms of south, east, and central Great Britain during late antiquity
..... Click the link for more information.
Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is applied in that chronicle to some of the rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms from the fifth century onwards who had achieved overlordship over some or all
..... Click the link for more information.
This is a list of the monarchs of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed in the British Isles, namely:

..... Click the link for more information.
British monarchy is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and holds the now constitutional position of head of state.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kingdom of England was a state located in western Europe, in the southern part of the island of Great Britain, consisting of the modern day constituent countries of England and Wales and the modern legal entity of England and Wales.
..... Click the link for more information.
Egbert
King of Wessex

Egbert's name, spelled Ecgbriht, from the 827 entry in the C manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Reign 802 — 839
Died 839
Buried Winchester
Predecessor Beorhtric
Successor
..... Click the link for more information.
Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is applied in that chronicle to some of the rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms from the fifth century onwards who had achieved overlordship over some or all
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
790s  800s  810s  - 820s -  830s  840s  850s
826 827 828 - 829 - 830 831 832
..... Click the link for more information.
9th century - 10th century - 11st century
890s  900s  910s  - 920s -  930s  940s  950s
924 925 926 - 927 - 928 929 930
..... Click the link for more information.
Athelstan
King of the English
Reign August 2,924 – October 27,939
Born 895
Wessex, England
Died September 27 939
Buried Malmesbury Abbey
Predecessor Ælfweard
Successor Edmund
Father
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Cymru am byth   (Welsh)
"Wales forever"
Anthem
"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau"
..... Click the link for more information.
Scotland.


The Kingdom of Scotland (Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a state located in Western Europe, in the northern third of the island of Great Britain - modern day Scotland.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a state in Western Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800. It was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England, under the Acts of Union 1707, to create a single
..... Click the link for more information.
Ireland
Éire
Airlann
<nowiki />

Northwest of continental Europe with Great Britain to the east.

Geography <nowiki/>
Location Western Europe <nowiki />
Archipelago
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Dieu et mon droit" [2]   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen" [3]
..... Click the link for more information.
The House of Wessex, also known as the House of Cerdic or the Saxon royal house, refers to the family that ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex.
..... Click the link for more information.
This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 924. For later monarchs, see the List of monarchs in the British Isles. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a number of sources, the earlier ones are in many cases obscure.
..... Click the link for more information.
9th century - 10th century
770s  780s  790s  - 800s -  810s  820s  830s
799 800 801 - 802 - 803 804 805
..... Click the link for more information.
Mercia (IPA: /ˈmɝsiə/) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. It was centred on the valley of the River Trent and its tributaries in the region now known as the English Midlands.
..... Click the link for more information.
Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is applied in that chronicle to some of the rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms from the fifth century onwards who had achieved overlordship over some or all
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
790s  800s  810s  - 820s -  830s  840s  850s
826 827 828 - 829 - 830 831 832
..... Click the link for more information.
9th century - 10th century - 11st century
890s  900s  910s  - 920s -  930s  940s  950s
924 925 926 - 927 - 928 929 930
..... Click the link for more information.
Egbert
King of Wessex

Egbert's name, spelled Ecgbriht, from the 827 entry in the C manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Reign 802 — 839
Died 839
Buried Winchester
Predecessor Beorhtric
Successor
..... Click the link for more information.
9th century - 10th century
770s  780s  790s  - 800s -  810s  820s  830s
799 800 801 - 802 - 803 804 805
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
800s  810s  820s  - 830s -  840s  850s  860s
836 837 838 - 839 - 840 841 842
..... Click the link for more information.
7th century - 8th century - 9th century
740s  750s  760s  - 770s -  780s  790s  800s
772 773 774 - 775 - 776 777 778
..... Click the link for more information.
Ealhmund, was King of Kent in 784. His father was Eoffa de Wessex.

There is little historical evidence for his reign. An abstract of a charter dated 784 survives [1] , in which Ealhmund granted land to the Abbot of Reculver.
..... Click the link for more information.
Redburga or Raedburh was the wife of king Egbert of Wessex and may have been the sister-in-law of Charlemagne as the sister of his fourth wife, Luitgard; other sources describe her as his sister (although Charlemagne's only sister was named Gisela) or his great-granddaughter
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century
770s  780s  790s  - 800s -  810s  820s  830s
797 798 799 - 800 - 801 802 803
..... Click the link for more information.
February 4 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.