King of the Franks

The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). The SalianMerovingians rose to dominance among the Franks and conquered most of Roman Gaul. They also conquered the Visigoths in 507. The sons of Clovis conquered the Burgundians and Alamanni. They acquired the Provence and made the Bavarii and Thuringii their clients. The Merovingians were later replaced by a new dynasty called the Carolingians in the 8th century. By the end of the 9th century, the Carolingians themselves were replaced throughout much of their realm by other dynasties. The idea of a "King of the Franks" or rex Francorum gradually disappeared over the 10th and 11th centuries.

A timeline of Frankish rulers is difficult since the realm was, according to old Germanic practice, frequently divided among the sons of a leader upon his death and then eventually reunited.

Dukes and reguli

Early rulers

This list of early rulers is incomplete, as our sources leave open many gaps.

Rulers of the Salians

  • Clodio, possible son of Pharamond, King at Dispargum and later Tournai (426–447)
  • Merovech, son of Chlodio, King at Tournai (447–458)
  • Childeric I, son of Merovech, King at Tournai (458–481)
  • Clovis I, son of Childeric I, King at Tournai (481–511), later united most of the Franks and Roman Gaul
All of the following may have been related to Clovis in some degree and eventually removed by before 509:
  • Chararic
  • Ragnachar, probably king at Cambrai from before 486, killed by Clovis
  • Ricchar, brother of Ragnachar, killed by Clovis at Cambrai
  • Rignomer, brother of Ragnachar, killed by Clovis at Mans

Merovingian kings of the Franks

All the Franks



Clovis I united all the Frankish petty kingdoms as well as most of Roman Gaul under his rule, conquering the Domain of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius as well as the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse. He took his seat at Paris, which along with Soissons, Reims, Metz, and Orléans became the chief residences. Upon his death, the kingdom was split among his four sons:

Soissons

Paris

Orléans

Reims



Chlothar I eventually inherited all of the Frankish kingdoms after the deaths of his brothers or their successors. After his own death, the kingdom was once again split among his four sons:

Soissons (eventually Neustria)

Paris

Orléans (eventually Burgundy)

Reims and Metz (eventually Austrasia)



Chlothar II defeated Brunhilda and her grandson, reunifying the kingdom. However, in 623, in order to appease particularistic forces and also to secure the borders, he gave the Austrasians his young son as their own king. His son and successor, Dagobert I, emulated this move by appointing a sub-king for Aquitaine, with a seat at Toulouse, in 629 and Austrasia in 634.

Neustria and Burgundy

Aquitaine

Austrasia



Theuderic III was recognized as king of all the Franks in 679. From then on, the kingdom of the Franks can be treated as a unity again for all but a very brief period of civil war.

Carolingians

Mayors of the palace

The Carolingians were initially mayors of the palace under the Merovingian kings, first in Austrasia and later in Neustria and Burgundy. In 687, Pippin of Heristal took the title Duke and Prince of the Franks (dux et princeps Francorum) after his conquest of Neustria in at the Battle of Tertry. This was cited by contemporary chroniclers as the beginning of Pippin's "reign." Between 715 and 716, the descendants of Pippin disputed the succession.
  • Pippin I (Austrasia: 623–629 and 639–640)
  • Grimoald I (Austrasia: 643–656; died 662)
  • Pippin II (Austrasia: 680–714, Neustria and Burgundy: 687–695)
  • Drogo (Burgundy: 695–708)
  • Grimoald II (Neustria: 695–714, Burgundy: 708–714)
  • Theudoald (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy: 714–716)
  • Charles Martel (Austrasia: 715–741, Neustria and Burgundy: 718–741)
  • Carloman (Austrasia: 741–747; died 754 or 755)
  • Pippin III (Neustria and Burgundy: 741–751, Austrasia: 747–751)
In 751, Pippin III became the King of the Franks and the office of mayor disappeared. The Carolingians displaced the Merovingians as the ruling dynasty.

Kings of the Franks

Louis the Pious made many divisions of his empire during his lifetime. The final division, pronounced at Crémieux in 838, made Charles the Bald heir to the west, including Aqutiaine, and Lothair heir to the east, including Italy and excluding Bavaria, which was left for Louis the German. However, following the emperor's death in 840, the empire was plunged into a civil war that lasted three years. The Frankish kingdom was then divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Lothair was allowed to keep his imperial title and his kingdom of Italy. Charles was confirmed in West Francia and in Aquitaine, where Pepin I's son Pepin II was opposing him, while Louis the German was granted the whole of East Francia save the Low Countries and the Rhineland, Burgundy, and Provence, which corridor from Pavia to Aachen was created into a kingdom of Middle Francia for Lothair.

The following table does not provide a complete listing for some of the various regna of the empire, especially those which were subregna of the Western, Middle, or Eastern kingdom such as Italy, Provence, Neustria, and Aquitaine.

Western Kingdom (eventually France) Middle Kingdom Eastern Kingdom (eventually Germany) Names marked with an asterisk (*) were not Carolingians, but Robertians, still distantly related to the dynasty. After this, the House of Capet ruled France. For the continuation, see the list of French monarchs. After Lothair's death in 855, his realm was divided between his sons:
  • Louis II, 855–875, the eldest son, succeeded his father as Emperor and received Italy. For the continuation, see King of Italy.
  • Lothair II, 855–869, the second son, received the Frankish parts of his father's realm, which after him were called Lotharingia (Lorraine). For the continuation, see the list of rulers of Lorraine.
  • Charles, 855–863, the youngest son, received Provence. For the continuation, see King of Burgundy.
Louis divided his lands between his three sons, but they all ended up in the hands of the youngest by 882:
  • Carloman, 876–880, received Bavaria. King of Italy 877
  • Louis the Younger, 876–882, received Saxony, Franconia, and Thuringia and inherited Bavaria from his brother Carloman in 879
  • Charles the Fat, 876–887, received Alemannia and Rhaetia, inherited Italy from his brother Carloman in 879, and inherited all East Francia from his brother Louis in 882. Emperor 881
On the deposition of Charles the Fat, East Francia went to his nephew: Louis the Child was the last East Frankish Carolingian ruler. He was succeeded by Conrad of Franconia and then the Saxon Ottonian dynasty. For the continuation, see the list of German monarchs.

External links

Further reading

  • The history of France as recounted in the "Grandes Chroniques de France", and particularly in the personal copy produced for King Charles V between 1370 and 1380 that is the saga of the three great dynasties, the Merovingians, Carolingians, and the Capetians, that shaped the institutions and the frontiers of the realm. This document was produced and likely commissioned during the Hundred Years' War, a dynastic struggle between the rulers of France and England with rival claims to the French throne. It should therefore be read and considered carefully as a source, due to the inherent bias in the context of its origins.
  • The Cambridge Illustrated History of France - Cambridge University Press
  • The Origins of France: Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000 by Edward James ISBN 0-333-27052-5
  • Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, 640-720 (Manchester Medieval Sources); Paul Fouracre (Editor), Richard A. Gerberding (Editor) ISBN 0-7190-4791-9
  • Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Merovingian Dynasty: http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=397220.
  • Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, eds. W. Kibler and G. Zinn. New York: Garland Publishing, 1995.
Franks or Frankish people (Latin: Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an ethnic group living north and east of the Lower Rhine.
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The DUX-53 and DUX-59 were submachine guns designed at the Oviedo Arsenal in Spain. They were based directly on the design of the Finnish 9mm Model 44 submachine gun, which in turn was based on the Soviet PPS-43.
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Rex is the Latin name for "king" (see also King of Rome). Rex is an English male given name.

Rex may also refer to:

People

Politics

  • Rex Connor (1907-1977), Australian politician

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Salian Franks or Salii are a subgroup of the early Franks who had been living North of the limes in the coastal area above the Rhine. Today, this region in the northern Netherlands, is called Salland.
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The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the mid fifth to the mid eighth century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare between branches of the family.
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For Gaul before the Roman conquest, see Gaul.
Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. Roman control of the area lasted for 600 years.
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The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). Together these tribes were among the loosely-termed Germanic peoples who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period.
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The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy.

Kings of the Burgundians

The Burgundians had left Bornholm c.300 and settled near the Vistula. Jordanes relates that in this area they were thoroughly defeated by the Gepids in the 4th century and then moved to the
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Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today part of Germany.
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Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. It is part of the administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.
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The Bavarii were a large and powerful tribe which emerged late in Teutonic tribal times, in what is now the Czech Republic (Bohemia). They replaced, or perhaps are simply another phase of, the previous inhabitants - the Rugians.
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The Thuringii or Toringi were a Germanic tribe which appeared late during the Völkerwanderung in the Harz Mountains of central Germania around 280, in a region which still bears their name to this day — Thuringia.
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Carolingian dynasty

Pippinids
  • Pippin the Elder (c. 580–640)
  • Grimoald (616–656)
  • Childebert the Adopted (d. 662)
Arnulfings
  • Arnulf of Metz (582–640)
  • Chlodulf of Metz (d.

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Genobaud was a leader (dux) of the Franks. He invaded the Roman Empire in the year 388.

This invasion is documented by Gregory of Tours, who cited the now lost work of Sulpicius Alexander.
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Sunno was a leader (dux) of the Franks in the late 4th century that invaded the Roman Empire in the year 388 when the usurper and leader of the whole of Roman Gaul, Magnus Maximus was surrounded in Aquileia by Theodosius I
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Marcomer (Marcomeres, Marchomer, Marchomir) was a Frankish leader (dux) in the late 4th century that invaded the Roman Empire in the year 388, when the usurper and leader of the whole of Roman Gaul, Magnus Maximus was surrounded in Aquileia by Theodosius I
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Pharamond or Faramund is a supposed early king of the Salian Franks first referred to in the anonymous 8th century Carolingian text Liber Historiae Francorum, also known as the Gesta regnum Francorum.
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Theudemeres (Theudemer) was a Frankish king. He was the son of the Roman commander Richomeres and his wife Ascyla.

Not much is known of Theudemeres. According to Gregory of Tours a war broke out between the Franks and the Romans some unknown time after the fall of the
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Flavius Richomeres (Richomer) was a Frank who lived in the late 4th century. He took service in the Roman army and made a career as comes, magister militum, and consul. He was married with Ascyla and they had a son Theudemeres, who became king of the Franks.
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Aegidius (unknown - 464) was a Gallo-Roman promoted as magister militum in Gaul under Aëtius around 450. He was an ardent supporter of Majorian, whom he helped to gain power.
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Sigobert the Lame (also Sigibert or Sigebert, d. ca. 509) was a king of the Franks in the area of Zülpich (Latin: Tolbiac) and Cologne.

He was presumably wounded at the knee at the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alamanni.
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Chlodoric (or Chloderic) the Parricide murdered his own father, Sigobert the Lame, in order to take his kingdom. Chlodoric acted upon the instigation of Clovis I a rival king of the Salian Franks.
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Salian Franks or Salii are a subgroup of the early Franks who had been living North of the limes in the coastal area above the Rhine. Today, this region in the northern Netherlands, is called Salland.
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Chlodio[1] was a king of the Salian Franks from the Merovingian dynasty. He was known as a Long-Haired King and lived at an unidentified place called Dispargum.
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Country Belgium
Community French Community
Region
Arrondissement Tournai
Coordinates Coordinates:
Area 213.
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Merovech (Latin: Meroveus or Merovius; ) is the legendary founder of the Merovingian dynasty of the Salian Franks, that later became the dominant Frankish tribe. The name is a latinization of a form close to Old High German proper name Marwig, lit.
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Childeric I (c. 437– c. 481) was the Merovingian king of the Salian Franks from 457 until his death.

He succeeded his father Merovech (Latinised as Meroveus or Merovius) as king, traditionally in 457 or 458.
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Clovis I (c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler. He succeeded his father Childeric I in 481[1]
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Chararic was a Frankish king from sometime before 486 until after 507. He was an adversary of Clovis I of the Salii. The primary source for his career is Gregory of Tours.
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Commune of
Cambrai


Location
Longitude 03°14'08" E
Latitude 50°10'36" N

Administration
Country  France
Arrondissement Cambrai
Canton Cambrai

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