Lady-in-Waiting

A lady-in-waiting is a female personal assistant at a noble court, attending to a queen, a princess or other noblewoman. A lady-in-waiting is often a noblewoman of lower rank (i.e., a lesser noble) than the one she attends to, and is not considered a servant or other commoner. Their duties varied from monarchy to monarchy.

Old England

In Tudor England they were divided into four separate caste systems - great ladies, ladies of the privy chamber, Maids of Honour and chamberers. The ladies of the privy chamber were the ones who were closest to the queen, but most of the other women were the maids of honour. Female relatives were often appointed because they could be trusted confidantes to the queen; Lady Margaret Lee was a Lady of the Privy Chamber to Queen Anne Boleyn, just as Lady Elizabeth Seymour-Cromwell was to Queen Jane Seymour. The duties of ladies-in-waiting at the Tudor court were to act as royal companions, and to accompany the Queen wherever she went. Tudor queens often had a large degree of say in who became their ladies-in-waiting. Sometimes Ladies-in-Waiting would be a lady's older sister who never got married and came to keep her sister company.

France

This attitude was very different to ladies-in-waiting to French queens under the later Bourbon dynasty. Ladies-in-waiting often acted as glorified but distant companions to the Spanish and Polish wives of Louis XIV and Louis XV. Under France's last Bourbon queen, Marie-Antoinette several of her favourite ladies-in-waiting - namely Yolande, duchesse de Polignac acquired huge influence and wealth for themselves. In later years, the ladies-in-waiting became discreet companions to the royal ladies of Europe, a practice which continues in contemporary practices.

Modern England

In the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the term Lady-in-Waiting is used to describe a woman attending a female member of the Royal Family other than the Queen Regnant or Queen Consort. An attendant upon one of the latter is styled Lady of the Bedchamber or Woman of the Bedchamber, and the senior Lady in Waiting is the Mistress of the Robes. The Women are in regular attendance, but the Mistress of the Robes and the Ladies of the Bedchamber are normally only required for ceremonial occasions. There were formerly other offices, including Maids of Honour.

Japan

In Imperial Japan before World War II, official ladies-in-waiting traditionally could serve as concubines (additional wives or consorts) for the Emperor. If the Empress failed to produce a male heir that survived long enough to succeed the Emperor, then the Emperor’s son by one of the official ladies-in-waiting could be named his heir and would be adopted by his wife. In 1901, when then-Crown Princess Sadako gave birth to a son, the future Emperor Hirohito, she was the first official wife of a Crown Prince or Emperor to do so since 1720.

Other

The term is also used in film and stage, to describe an actress whose role consists of very little action or involvement.

Notable ladies-in-waiting

See also

royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. A Royal Household is the highest ranking example of this.
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monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. Monarchs almost always inherit their titles and are rulers for life; that is, they have no term limit. Historically monarchs have been more or less absolute rulers.
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Princess is the feminine form of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning citizen). Most often, the term has been used for the consort of a prince, or her daughters, women whose station in life depended on their relationship to a prince and who could be disowned and stripped
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List of forms of government
  • Anarchism
  • Aristocracy
  • Authoritarianism
  • Autocracy

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Motto
Dieu et mon droit   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen".
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In the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the Maids of Honour were the junior attendants upon a Queen Regnant (8) or Queen Consort (4). The last Maid of Honour was retired in 1936.
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Margaret Lee (nee Wyatt) (1506(?)–1543(?)) was a sister of poet Thomas Wyatt, and favourite of Queen Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII of England.

Margaret is best remembered for having been a companion of Anne Boleyn, whose family estates lay near the
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Anne Boleyn
Queen Consort of England

Anne Boleyn
Born ca. 1501/1507 (see The birth controversy)
Died 19 May 1536
Tower of London
Consort 28 May 1533 - 19 May 1536
Consort to Henry VIII
Issue
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Elizabeth Seymour (1513? – 1563) was one of the many children and the second daughter of Sir John Seymour and Margaret Wentworth, her sisters being Jane Seymour, later Jane, Queen Consort of King Henry VIII of England; Margery (who died in 1520) and Dorothy.
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Jane Seymour
Queen Consort of England

Jane Seymour
Born 1508/1509
Died September 24 1537

Consort May 30, 1536 - October 24, 1537
Consort to Henry VIII
Issue Edward VI
Father John Seymour

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Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


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Also see:  Early Modern France


The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century.
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Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
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Motto
none1
Anthem
Mazurek Dąbrowskiego   (Polish)
Dąbrowski's Mazurek
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Louis XIV (baptised as Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre.

He acceded to the throne on May 14 1643, a few months before his fifth birthday, but did not assume actual personal control of the
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Louis XV
King of France and Navarre

Louis XV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1730)
Reign 1 September 1715 – 10 May 1774
Coronation 25 October 1722, Reims
Full name Known as The Beloved
Titles
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Marie Antoinette
Queen of France and Navarre

Born November 2 1755(1755--)
Hofburg Palace,Vienna, Austria
Died September 16 1793 (aged 39)
Paris, France
Consort
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Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac (8 September 1749–9 December 1793) was a French aristocrat and friend of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met when she was presented at Versailles in 1775.
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worldwide view of the subject.
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The royal household in all the early medieval monarchies of Western Europe formed the basis for the general government of the country.
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Motto
"Dieu et mon droit" [2]   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen" [3]
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The Royal Family. Although there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family [1] , and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style His or Her Majesty (HM), His or Her Royal Highness (HRH) or Their
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queen regnant (plural "queens regnant") is a female monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen 'consort', who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of herself has no official powers of state.
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A queen consort is the title given to the wife of a reigning king. Queens consort usually share their husbands' rank (in salic or semi-salic law monarchies) and hold the feminine equivalent of their husbands' monarchical titles. Most of the time, however, they have no real power.
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This is an incomplete list of those who have served as Lady of the Bedchamber in the British Royal Household. See also Ladies-in-Waiting, Women of the Bedchamber and Mistress of the Robes.
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In the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the term 'Woman of the Bedchamber' is used to describe a woman attending either a Queen Regnant or Queen Consort, in the role of Lady-in-Waiting.
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The Mistress of the Robes is the senior lady of the British Royal Household. Formerly (as the name implies) responsible for the Queen's clothes and jewellery, the post now has the responsibility for arranging the rota of attendance of the Ladies in Waiting on the Queen, along with
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In the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the Maids of Honour were the junior attendants upon a Queen Regnant (8) or Queen Consort (4). The last Maid of Honour was retired in 1936.
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Japan

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Japan


  • Politics of Japan
  • Constitution

  • Emperor (list)
  • Akihito
  • Imperial Household Agency

  • Government

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Allied powers:
 Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 France
...et al. Axis powers:
 Germany
 Japan
 Italy
...et al.
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