Laghman Province

This article is about the province in Afghanistan. For the Central Asian soup dish of the same name, please see Lamian.

Laghman
لغما?
Enlarge picture
Map of Afghanistan with Laghman
لغما? highlighted.

Capital
 • Coordinates
Mihtarlam District
 • 
Population (~)
 • Density
285,680
 • /km²
Area
~ km²
Time zone
Main language(s)Pashto,
Pashai,
Persian (Dari dialect)
Laghman (Persian: لغمان, Pashto: لغمان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. Located in the eastern portion of Afghanistan, the capital is Mihtarlam. The province is composed of several districts including: Alingar, Alishing, Dawlat Shah, Mihtarlam, and Qarghayi. It is estimated that the population is approximately 285,680. [1]

History

Enlarge picture
Illustration of Hsuan Tsang who traveled to Laghman.


During the invasions of Alexander the Great, the area was formerly known as Lampaka.[2] In the seventh century, the famous Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang, visited the area and reported that "very few" of the inhabitants of Laghman followed Buddhism, [3] while some followed Hinduism. [4]

After the introduction of Islam into the region, the Ghaznavids, led by Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin, won one of their greatest battles in Laghman against the Hindu Shahis whose ruler, Jayapala, had amassed an army for the battle that numbered 100,000. [5] Later, during the Mughal period, Laghman was recognized as a dependent district of Kabul province. [6]

Located currently at the Kabul Museum, are Aramaic inscriptions that were found in Laghman which indicated an ancient trade route from India to Palmyra. [7] Aramaic was the bureacratic script language of the Achaemenids whose influence had extended toward Laghman. [8]

During the Soviet-Afghan war and the battles that followed between the rivaling warlords, many homes and business establishments in the province were destroyed. In addition, the Soviets employed a "barbarism" strategy that targeted and destroyed the agricultural infrastructure of Laghman. [9]

At the moment, 2007, there is a ISAF Provincial Reconstruction Team based at Mehtar Lam which is led by the US.

Politics and Recent Events

The governor of Laghman was Shah Mahmood Safi, until he was replaced by Gulab Mangal. The Taliban narrowly missed killing Mangal in a bomb attack in late 2006 [1].

On June 20, 2005, three Pakistanis were arrested in Laghman for plotting to kill the U.S. Ambassador, Zalmay Khalilzad while he was visiting the province for reconstruction efforts. The three men were found with various armaments. [2]

In February of 2006, demonstrations were held in Mihtarlam District against the editors of a Danish newspaper who published caricatures depicting Muhammad. Laghman was the first area of Afghanistan to protest the cartoons. [10]

On April 20, 2007, coalition forces killed Gul Haqparast, a top Taliban commander in Laghman who had strong ties with Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Governor Gulab Mangal stated that Haqparast's death was "very good for the people of Laghman and for progress in our province."[11]

On April 24, 2007, six Afghan intelligence officers were killed after a roadside bomb destroyed their vehicle in Laghman. It was also reported that one of the intelligence officers was beheaded.[12]

Economy

Enlarge picture
Spodumene gemstones like these are often found in various areas within Laghman
The Alingar and Alinshing rivers pass through Laghman, as the province is known for its lushness. Laghman has sizable amounts of irrigated land as one can find scores of fruits and vegetables from Laghman in Kabul, notably cucumbers. Other main crops in Laghman include rice, wheat and cotton as many people living in the area are involved in agricultural trade and business.

Laghman also has an array of precious stones and minerals,[13] as it is well known for being a relatively untapped source of the Tourmaline and Spodumene gemstones which are reported to be in abundance at the northern portions of the province.[14]

Demographics

Pashtuns constitute the main strata of the ethnic groups of Laghman, however Laghman is quite diverse. There are other groups as well, including the Nuristani and a Dardic group known as the Pashai. There are also sizeable numbers of Tajiks as the province is home to a mosaic of Afghanistan's ethnic groups.[3]

In her book, State and Tribe in Nineteenth Century Afghanistan Christine Noelle writes:
The southern portion of the Laghman valley was inhabited by Pashtuns and Tajiks, the Pashtuns holding villages on both sides of the Kabul river, whereas the Tajiks were concentrated in the villages of Char Bagh, Haidar Khani, Mandrawar, and Tighari.[15]


Noelle also specifies that Laghman was once dominated by Tajiks,[16] however during the 15th and 16th century, larger migrations of the Ghilzai Pashtuns into the region increased the diversity of Laghman.

As with the case in many other parts of Afghanistan, the people of Laghman are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim with fluency in Persian (Dari) and Pashto being quite common.

Districts

Notable people

References

1. ^ [4]
2. ^ [5]
3. ^ On Yuan Chwang's Travels, Watters, pg. 181
4. ^ The Afghans, Vogelsang, pg. 172-173
5. ^ The History of India: The Hindu and Mahometan Periods, Elphinstone, pg 321
6. ^ The Garden of Eight Paradises: Babur and the Culture of Central Asia, Afghanistan
7. ^ [6]
8. ^ [7]
9. ^ How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict, Arreguin-Toft, pg. 186
10. ^ [8]
11. ^ [9]
12. ^ [10]
13. ^ [11]
14. ^ Gemstones of Afghanistan, Chamberline, pg. 146
15. ^ State and Tribe in Nineteenth Cwentury Afghanistan, Noelle page 199
16. ^ State and Tribe in Nineteenth Century Afghanistan, Noelle page 161

See also

Lamian is the name of hand-made or hand-pulled Chinese noodle. It is also the name of the dishes that use these noodles.

Etymology and preparation

Dishes using lamian are usually served in a beef or mutton-flavored soup (湯麵; pinyin: tāngmiàn), but
..... Click the link for more information.
Administrative division (also known as "Subnational entities") is a generic term for an administrative region within a country or Political division — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government
..... Click the link for more information.
geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
..... Click the link for more information.
Mehterlam district is located in the center of Laghman Province and consists of the urban centre and provincial capital Mihtarlam and 24 major villages and 269 sub-villages. Mihtarlam derives its name from Mihtarlam baba (Lamech), who was purported to be the father of the prophet Noah.
..... Click the link for more information.
population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the
..... Click the link for more information.
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


..... Click the link for more information.
Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

..... Click the link for more information.
time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
..... Click the link for more information.
There are two official languages of Afghanistan, in addition to other languages that are spoken. The two official languages are also the most commonly spoken; Dari, a form of the Persian language, is spoken by half of the population, though this percentage also includes speakers of
..... Click the link for more information.
Pashto (پښتو‎, IPA: [pəʂ'to] also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto
..... Click the link for more information.
Pashai often synonymous with Kohistani, are a Dardic ethno-linguistic group living primarily in the eastern and north-eastern portions of Afghanistan.

They are concentrated in Nuristan, Kabul, Badakhshan, Kunar and Laghman.
..... Click the link for more information.
History]]
Dialects
  • Dialects and varieties
*Persian language
**Grammar
***Phonology
***Nouns
***Verbs
**Vocabulary
**Pronunciation

..... Click the link for more information.
fɒːɾˈsiː in Perso-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style):  
Pronunciation: [fɒːɾˈsiː]
Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and areas of Uzbekistan and Pakistan.
..... Click the link for more information.
Pashto (پښتو‎, IPA: [pəʂ'to] also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto
..... Click the link for more information.
Afghanistan

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Afghanistan


  • Constitution
  • Loya jirga
  • President
  • Vice President
  • Cabinet of Ministers

..... Click the link for more information.
Alexander III, the Great
Basileus of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt

Alexander fighting Persian king Darius III. From Alexander Mosaic, from Pompeii, Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale.
..... Click the link for more information.
This page contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
See also: Xuanzang (fictional character)

..... Click the link for more information.
Buddhism is often described as a religion[1] and a collection of various philosophies, based initially on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as Gautama Buddha.
..... Click the link for more information.
Hinduism (known as Hindū Dharma in modern Indian languages[1]
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now. A how-to guide is available, as is general .
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.
Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (Persian: ابو منصور سبکتگین
..... Click the link for more information.
Laghman (Persian: لغمان, Pashto: لغمان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. Located in the eastern portion of Afghanistan, the capital is Mihtarlam.
..... Click the link for more information.
Hindu ( pronunciation  , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the
..... Click the link for more information.
Obv: Recumbent bull facing left ,trishula on bulls rump,Devnagari Legends : Sri Spalapati Deva. Rev: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.]] The Shahi (Devanagari शाही) also called Shahiya,[1][2]
..... Click the link for more information.
Jayapala Shahi, the son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasty. The son of Jayapala is Anandapal.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Mughal Empire (Persian: سلطنت مغولی هند,
..... Click the link for more information.
Kabul

Coordinates:
Province Kabul
Coordinates
Population (2005)[1]
2994000 (1st)
UN estimate of city proper
City Districts
..... Click the link for more information.
Afghan National Museum (also called Kabul Museum) is a place for storage and appreciation of old Afghan items of interest. It is a two-story building located in the historic city of Kabul, Afghanistan.
..... Click the link for more information.
Aramaic}}} 
Writing system: Aramaic abjad, Syriac abjad, Hebrew abjad, Mandaic alphabet with a handfull of inscriptions found in Demotic[2] and Chinese[3] characters.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.