Lake Charles, Louisiana

For the lake after which this city was named, see Lake Charles (body of water).


City of Lake Charles
City |
Enlarge picture
Downtown Lake Charles from the west side of Lake Charles
Downtown Lake Charles from the west side of Lake Charles
Nickname|: Festival Capital of Louisiana
Country |United States
State |Louisiana
Parish |Calcasieu
Area |42.5 mi (0 km)
 - land40.2 mi (0 km)
 - water2.4 mi (0 km), 0%
 - metro3,026 mi (0 km)
Location |
 - coordinatesCoordinates:
 - elevation13 ft (0 m)
Population |71,757 (2000)
 - metro193,568 (2000)
Density1,786.6 /mi (0 /km)
 - metro0 /mi (0 /km)
Founded |1852
 - Incorporated |March 7 1861
 - Re-Incorporated |March 16 1867
Mayor |Randy Roach
Time zone |CST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
Area code |337
Enlarge picture
Location of Lake Charles in Louisiana
Location of Lake Charles in Louisiana
Enlarge picture
Location of Louisiana in the United States
Location of Louisiana in the United States
Website: [1]


Lake Charles is the fifth largest incorporated city in the US state of Louisiana. [1] [2] It is the major cultural and educational center in the southwest region of the state and one of the most important in Acadiana. As of the 2000 U.S. census, Lake Charles' population was 71,757. The city serves as the parish seat of Calcasieu Parish.

Lake Charles is the principal city of the Lake Charles Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes the parishes of Calcasieu and Cameron. It is also part of the larger Lake Charles-Jennings Combined Statistical Area.

The city is considered a major petrochemical refining center, gaming center, and home to McNeese State University.

With over 75 festivals held annually, Lake Charles is referred to as the Festival Capital of Louisiana.

History

18th and 19th Centuries

Settlement and Incorporation

While several Indian tribes are known to have lived in the area of modern Lake Charles, the first European settlers arrived in the 1760s.

Martin LeBleu and his wife, Dela Marion, of Bordeaux, France were the first recorded Europeans to settle the area which they did in around 1781. The area they settled is now known as the LeBleu Settlement. Charles Sallier married LeBleu's daughter, Catherine LeBleu. The Salliers built their home on the beach where Lake Charles now stands. By 1860 the area become known as Charles Town in Sallier's honor.

The Rio Hondo, which flowed through Lake Charles, was later called Quelqueshue, a Native American term meaning "Crying Eagle." This term would later lend itself to the name of the parish, Calcasieu. On March 7, 1861, Lake Charles was officially incorporated as the town of Charleston, Louisiana.

Industrial Growth and the Civil War

Enlarge picture
Lake Charles [lower left] is west of Lafayette or Baton Rouge, southwest of Alexandria and south of Natchitoches. Roads also lead to De Ridder, Kinder, Eunice, Jennings, Crowley and Sulphur to Orange, Texas.


The city's growth was fairly slow until Captain Daniel Goos, a Frisian by birth, came to the city in 1855. Goos established a lumber mill and schooner dock, now called Goosport. He promoted a profitable trade with Texas and Mexican ports by sending his schooner down river into the Gulf of Mexico. Until the arrival of Goos, a man named Jacob Ryan dominated the lumber industry. Between 1817 and 1855, the timber from longleaf pine and bald cypress remained the city's primary economic industry.

Jacob Ryan convinced the state government to move the parish seat to Lake Charles from its former location at Marion, a settlement about eight miles upriver. Later that year, Ryan and Samuel Kirby transferred the parish courthouse and jail by barge to Lake Charles, which was at that time still named Charleston. Six years after the city was incorporated, dissatisfaction over the name Charleston arose; on March 16, 1867, Charleston, Louisiana, was incorporated into the town of Lake Charles.

By the time of the U.S. Civil War, many Americans from the North, along with a large influx of continental Europeans and Jews, had come to settle the area. Attitudes toward slavery in Lake Charles were mixed as slavery was secondary to business interests. In fact, fewer than 5% of the population were slaves. Many citizens became involved in the war, and young men from some local families served on the Confederate army. It is also known that some local families supported the cause of the Union.

After the Civil War

In the years following the Civil War, Lake Charles regained its status as a major lumber community. Especially in the 1880s, the city saw an increase in population and economic demand due largely due to an innovative advertising campaign by J.B. Watkins. With his astounding $200,000 campaign, the town grew 400% during this decade.

Using the pine wood from the city's mills, construction of large Victorian mansions overwhelmed Lake Charles in the 1890s; carpenters struggled to outbuild each other with their use of elaborate fretwork and decoration, including spindles, newel posts, soldiers and paneled doors. The area of present-day Lake Charles located just east of downtown is known as the Charpentier District due to architecture during this period; charpentier means carpenter in French.

Twentieth Century

The courthouse donated by Ryan and Kirby was replaced many times, including a two-story cypress wood one in 1872, then a brick one in 1890. The 1890 courthouse was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1910. The historic Calcasieu Courthouse was completed in 1912, two months after the Louisiana legislature divided the former Imperial Calcasieu parish into the current parishes of Allen, Beauregard, Cameron, Jefferson Davis and Calcasieu.

After World War II Lake Charles experienced industrial growth with the onset of the petrochemical refining industries. The city grew to a height of 80,000 people in the early 1980s, but with economic recession, the population declined. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 71,757.

Present Day

Enlarge picture
The destructive force of Hurricane Rita. Looking down the remains of the lakefront boardwalk toward the damaged Harrah's Lake Charles Casino property.
Pinnacle Entertainment opened their first riverboat casino in the Lake Charles area in May 2005. The name of the resort, L'Auberge du Lac, comes from the French for "The Inn on the Lake." The casino includes an 18-hole, championship golf course designed by Tom Fazio, several dining venues, a spa and salon, a pool area complete with lazy river, and several retail stores. It employs over 2000 citizens.

Lake Charles suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Rita, which struck the city as a Category 2 hurricane early on September 24, 2005. On September 22, Mayor Randy Roach ordered a mandatory evacuation of Lake Charles, and approximately 90% of the residents evacuated prior to the storm. Evacuees were asked not to return for 48 hours, due to the wind damage and flooding. There was extensive damage to the city's electrical grid as some areas took as long as three weeks to restore power. Many apartment residents had to be evicted because of the mold caused by the hurricane.

The Lake Charles American Press newspaper has a hurricane blog posted on the internet which captures the essence of the events that occurred in this significant event which impacted the City's history and residents forever: [2]

As part of the city's recovery from Hurricane Rita, elected officials proposed a plan to renovate the downtown area to make it more pedestrian-friendly, and aesthetically pleasing. Charrettes were held presenting architectural concept drawings and ideas of what downtown Lake Charles could look like in future years. Of primary concern was quality and affordable housing to help revitalize the area, and at the same time provide more housing for the housing shortage in the last few years. A parish-wide ballot initiative to increase sales and property taxes for 20 years to fund this proposal and numerous local road projects was rejected by taxpayers on July 15, 2006.

On June 20, 2006 a Citgo Petroleum Plant located in Westlake released between 15,000 and 18,000 barrels of oil into the Calcasieu Ship Channel. The United States Coast Guard was called in to contain the spilled oil which flowed down the Calcasieu River; closures of many waterways included the Calcasieu River Channel and one mile of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Port of Lake Charles remained closed for some time after the disaster due to contamination.[3]

Oil prices surged to over $74 per barrel in part due to the Citgo spillage. The Calcasieu Refining Co., which normally processes 76,500 barrels a day, was at low levels weeks after the accident.[4]
Enlarge picture
One idea for the revitalization of downtown Lake Charles circa March 2007.

Geography and Climate

The city is located on the banks of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana, and borders both Lake Charles and Prien Lake. It is a port on a deep-water channel to the Gulf of Mexico, and was first settled in 1852.

Lake Charles is located at (30.214656, -93.208537)GR1 and has an elevation of GR3.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 110.2 km² (42.5 mi²). 104.0 km² (40.2 mi²) of it is land and 6.1 km² (2.4 mi²) of it (5.57%) is water.

Primarily the city is located on a plain about 30 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. Many pine trees used to grow around the waterways, and some still do. Few hills are to be seen, except when one is near the water, or in Moss Bluff.

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 878794951001061031071051039389
Norm High °F 60.664.571.377.484.188.991.091.387.780.570.663.3
Norm Low °F 41.244.350.857.265.772.174.373.669.158.649.743.3
Rec Low °F 12321304051605945302011
Precip (in) 5.523.283.543.646.066.075.134.855.953.944.614.60
Source: National Weather Service Lake Charles Office [3]

Nearby Cities

The following is a list of Lake Charles' nearby cities:
Enlarge picture
Capital One Tower in downtown Lake Charles after Hurricane Rita

Neighborhoods/Districts

List of relatively large or established neighborhoods and districts in Lake Charles:

Central Business District

Downtown

North Lake Charles

Central Lake Charles
  • Historic Charpentier District
  • Historic Margaret Place District
  • Oak Park
South Lake Charles
  • Barbe Court
  • Graywood Estates
  • The Oaks
  • University
  • Gulfgate
  • Heyd Park
Sunset Acres Brentwood It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome.

Demographics

As of the census GR2 of 2000, there were 71,757 people,[2] 27,974 households, and 18,015 families residing in the city. The population density was 689.7/km² (1,786.6/mi²). There were 31,429 housing units[2] at an average density of 302.1/km² (782.5/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was: There were 27,974 households, out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 18.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.6% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the city of Lake Charles, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,774, and the median income for a family was $37,774. Males had a median income of $33,005 versus $21,041 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,922. About 16.3% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.6% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.

Education



Lake Charles' public schools are operated by the Calcasieu Parish Public School System, although there are a number of private schools located in the city.

See also:  and

Colleges and universities



Lake Charles is home to McNeese State University, a public university in the Louisiana School System. McNeese offers a variety of courses, including well-respected schools of education, engineering, nursing, and biology. Over 8,000 students attend the university. The motto is "Excellence, with a Personal Touch."

Also located in Lake Charles are Delta School of Business and Technology [4] and Sowela Technical Community College [5] which offer vocational courses.

Libraries

In March 1904 the Carnegie Memorial Library [6], the modern Calcasieu Parish Library, opened, having been partly financed by Andrew Carnegie and built on land donated by W. S. B. McLaren, President of the North American Land and Timber Company of London, England.

The Calcasieu Parish Public Library [7] has several locations throughout Calcasieu Parish.

Culture

Lake Charles has several small museums and other cultural facilities such as the Central School Arts and Humanities Center, the Children's Museum of Lake Charles, the Imperial Calcasieu Museum, and the Mardi Gras Museum. The Old City Hall has been renovated for exhibition space and many moving art exhibits are displayed at the locale every year.

McNeese State University puts on The Banners Series, a series of various musical and theatrical performances, throughout the year. In addition, The Lake Charles Little Theatre, The Artists Civic Theatre Studios (ACTS) Theatre and The Children's Theatre Company provide theatrical shows using local talent.

The city boasts its own symphony orchestra, the Lake Charles Symphony.

Religion

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Lake Charles area. Roman Catholicism is the largest individual denomination of which, claiming a Diocese of 82,414 parishioners, or about 33% of the general population, according to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Lake Charles is currently led by Bishop Glen Provost.

Lake Charles is home to several Protestant Christian denominations as well, which when combined, comprise the majority of the population.

Transportation

Interstate 10 passes through Lake Charles, connecting the city with Sulphur, Vinton, and eventually the Louisiana-Texas state border to the west; to the east lies Iowa and Jennings. Interstate 210 loops through the southern half of Lake Charles. U.S. Highway 90 runs parallel with Interstate 10, and U.S. Highway 171 connects the city with De Ridder. The main commercial road through the city is Ryan Street, which leads to downtown.

Lake Charles Regional Airport, located south of the city, is the Lake Charles's only airport which provides commercial services. Chennault International Airport, while a fully operational airport, is strictly an industrial and maintenance center. The latter airport is named for Maj. Gen. Claire Chennault, the aviator famous for commanding the Flying Tigers fighter group during World War II.

The Port of Lake Charles is the sixteenth-largest seaport in the United States, the fourth-largest liner service seaport in the U.S. Gulf, and a major West Gulf container load center. The Calcasieu Ship Channel provides direct access to the Gulf of Mexico 34-miles downstream. The ship channel, which has a projected depth of 40 feet and a bottom width of 400 feet, intersects the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway just north of Calcasieu Lake.

The City of Lake Charles has an operating bus system throughout the city and surrounding suburbs. On July 7, 2006, The U.S. Dept. of Transportation and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) awarded a $290,142 grant to the Lake Charles Bus Terminal and Support Facilities Transit System. The City will use these funds towards their bus terminal and support facility, which adds more federal funds for engineering and design, as well as rehabilitation and renovation of the bus terminal and support facility.

A Greyhound Bus Station is located in Lake Charles.

Amtrak has a station located in Lake Charles.

Industry

Many area residents are employed by the petro-chemical refineries in nearby Westlake; some of the corporations with facilities in or around the city include PPG Industries, ConocoPhillips, and Citgo Petroleum Corporation.

The Trunkline LNG terminal, immediately southwest of Lake Charles, is one of the United States' few LNG terminals. It has facilities for LNG receipt, storage and regassification.

Manufacturing has been periodically struggling to achieve economic success in the area in order to diversify the economic base of the city. Chennault International Airport hosts Aeroframe (formerly EADS Aeroframe Services), which services airplanes, and a Northrop Grumman facility.

On May 26, 2006, nearly 900 members of the Local 470 at PPG Industries went on strike due to issues of pensions, healthcare, and a 2-tier, hire-in wage rate. PPG proposed that newly hired employees would no longer receive retirement medical benefits or a defined-benefit pension. On August 31, 2006, striking members voted to ratify a new contract with PPG. PPG officials had threatened to permanently replace them and prolonged the strike by refusing to negotiate key issues, which left many members and community leaders bitter.

Holidays and Festivitals

Lake Charles plays host to over one hundred festivals and carnivals which give the city its nickname, "The Festival Capital of Louisiana."

Contraband Days

Main article: Contraband Days


Contraband Days is a 12-day, annual festival in early May filled with savory cajun food, family fun and festivities, including entertainment with live bands, and is attended by more than 200,000 people. It is one of the largest celebrations in Louisiana. The festival begins when pirate Jean Lafitte captures the port and throws the mayor of the city of Lake Charles into Lake Charles; i.e. the lake itself. It takes place the first two weekends in May ending on Mothers Day.

Mardi Gras

Mardi Gras in Southwest Louisiana has a colorful history dating back to 1882, when Momus, King of Mardi Gras, landed his royal yacht at the foot of Pujo Street in downtown Lake Charles.

Throughout the two World Wars, Mardi Gras was downsized which lead to a lack of participation by the area's youth. However, an interest to redevelop the festivities arose, and the first Mardi Gras Ball in the Lake Charles area was staged in 1964.

The full revival of Mardi Gras in Lake Charles was not realized until 1979, when several Krewe captains formed the "Krewe of Krewes" with the prime purpose of parading and promoting Mardi Gras for local residents. In 1985, Mardi Gras of Imperial Calcasieu, Inc. was formed by a group of civic-minded volunteers to further aid in the preservation of this festival.[5]

Other Festivals

Media

Print

Lake Charles has many publications in circulation. The most-widely distributed, daily newspaper is The American Press. Other popular periodicals include Lagniappe Magazine,''The Times of Southwest Louisiana, and Thrive magazine; however, the latter three are non-daily.

Television

Major television network affiliates serving the area include:

Radio

Call Letters Frequency City of License Format
KYLC90.3Lake CharlesReligious
KTSR92.1De QuincyMainstream Top-40
KHLA92.9JenningsOldies
KYKZ96.1Lake CharlesCountry
KQLK97.9Lake CharlesRhythmic Top-40
KNGT99.5Lake CharlesCountry
KELB (LP)100.5Lake CharlesReligious
KKGB101.3SulphurRock
KAJN102.9CrowleyContemporary Christian
KBIU103.3Lake CharlesAC
KZWA104.9Moss BluffUrban Contemporary
KJMH107.5Lake ArthurUrban
KEZM1310 AMSulphurSports
KAOK1400 AMLake CharlesNews & Sports Talk

Famous residents (Past & Present)

Cultural references

Music:
  • Subject and title of the song Lake Charles by Lucinda Williams.
  • Mentioned in the lyrics of the song Continental Trailways Blues by Steve Earle.
  • Mentioned in the lyrics of the song Up on Cripple Creek by The Band:
When I get off of this mountain, you know where I want to go? Straight down the Mississippi river, to the Gulf of Mexico. To Lake Charles, Louisiana, little Bessie, girl that I once knew.
 
— The Band
  • Mentioned in the lyrics of the song Stet Troop '88! by Stetsasonic:
I eat at BBQ; meat-eatin days are through. I like it in Lake Charles; I like Miami too.
 
— Stetsasonic
Literature: -Mentioned in Jack Kerouac's "On The Road"- After leaving Sal Paradise in Mexico, the famous Dean Moriarty's car breaks down in Lake Charles.

Sister Cities

Lake Charles is the proud sister city of:

Films

  • 2002 - Blue Vinyl (dir. Daniel B. Gold and Judith Helfand)

External links and References

References

1. ^ "Lake Charles, Louisiana (LA) Detailed Profile" (notes), City Data, 2007, webpage: C-LCh.
2. ^ "Census 2000 Data for the State of Louisiana" (town list), US Census Bureau, May 2003, webpage: C2000-LA.
3. ^ Atkinson, Vince. "Lake Charles Port All But Shuts Down", KPLC-TV, 2006-06-20. Retrieved on 2007-02-07. 
4. ^ Shevory, Kristina. "Oil Holds Above $74 a Barrel", TheStreet.com, 2006-07-12. Retrieved on 2007-02-07. 
5. ^ "History of Mardi Gras in Southwest Louisiana."
6. ^ Andre Dubus (web) (English). Rea Award 1. Rea Award. (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
7. ^ "Dumars Says His Parents Are To Thank", mlive.com, 2006-04-04. Retrieved on 2007-02-07. 
8. ^
9. ^ [9]
10. ^ [10]
11. ^ [11]
12. ^ [12]
13. ^ (French) [13]
14. ^ [14]


Halifax Regional Municipality
(HRM)

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Coat of arms
Logo
Motto: "E Mari Merces"   (Latin)
"From the Sea, Wealth"
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Nova Scotia
Nouvelle-Écosse, Alba Nuadh


Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit   (Latin)
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List of incorporated cities, towns, and villages in Louisiana, arranged in alphabetical order.

Cities

  • Abbeville
  • Alexandria
  • Baker
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  • Baton Rouge
  • Bogalusa
  • Bossier City
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Location Louisiana, United States

Lake type Brackish

Basin countries United States

Average depth 5 ft

Lake Charles
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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Calcasieu Parish (French: Paroisse de Calcasieu) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The parish seat is Lake Charles. As of 2000, the population was 183,577. The Lake Charles Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Calcasieu and Cameron parishes.
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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
..... Click the link for more information.
Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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1 foot =
SI units
0 m 0 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 yd 0 in
A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
..... Click the link for more information.
Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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March 7 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1830s  1840s  1850s  - 1860s -  1870s  1880s  1890s
1858 1859 1860 - 1861 - 1862 1863 1864

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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March 16 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king

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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1830s  1840s  1850s  - 1860s -  1870s  1880s  1890s
1864 1865 1866 - 1867 - 1868 1869 1870

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Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC−6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC−5). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 90th degree meridian west of the Greenwich
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Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC−6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC−5). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 90th degree meridian west of the Greenwich
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UTC−5 is the time offset used in the North American Central Time Zone during Daylight Saving Time.

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