Landeshauptmann

A Landeshauptmann (German for "country head man"; plural Landeshauptleute or Landeshauptmänner as in Styria till 1861; Landeshauptfrau is the female form, "country head woman") is an official title in German for certain political offices equivalent to a Governor. It has historical uses, both administrative and colonial, and is presently used in federal Austria and a German-speaking Italian autonomous region.

In Europe

Feudal and later Habsburg era

Several of the constitutive principalities and other territories of the Holy Roman Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, again under the Habsburg dynasty, were at one or more stages of their feudal history governed by a Landeshauptmann. This applies to:

In present Austria

  • Austria proper, i.e. the former Ostmark before it was split in Upper - and Lower Austria:
  • 1686 - 1713 Franz Joseph Fürst von Lamberg
  • 1713 - 1738 Christoph Wilhelm Graf von Thärheim
  • 1739 - 26 September 1748 Ferdinand Bonaventura Graf von Weissenwolff
  • March 1754 - 1782 Franz Reinhold Graf von Andlern und Witten (the former Präsident der Hofdeputation in militari mixta contributionali et camerali 26 September 1748 - 18 May 1749 and Präsident der Repräsentation und Kammer 18 May 1749 - 30 March 1754)
  • 1782 - 1 November 1783 Christian Graf von Thörheim
  • Österreich ob der Enns ('Austria above the river Enns'), present Oberösterreich ('Upper Austria')
  • 31 March 1861 - 15 May 1868 Dominik Lebschy (b. 1799 - d. 1884) Conservative
  • 15 May 1868 - 24 June 1868 Karl Wiser (acting) (b. 1800 - d. 1889) Liberal
  • 24 June 1868 - 13 September 1871 Moritz Eigner (1st time) (b. 1822 - d. 1900) Lib
  • 13 September 1871 - 17 December 1871 Julius Graf von Falkenhayn (b. 1829 - d. 1899) Cons
  • 18 December 1871 - 9 September 1884 Moritz Eigner (2nd time)
  • 9 September 1915 - 14 September 1884 Karl Grienberger (acting) (b. 1824 - d. 1908) Con
  • 14 September 1884 - 26 January 1897 Leonard Achleuthner, Abt des Kremsmünster-stiftes (b. 1826 - d. 1905) Con
  • 26 January 1897 - 6 May 1898 Michael, Freiherr von Kast (b. 1859 - d. 1932) Con
  • 6 May 1898 - 30 December 1907 Alfred Ebenhoch (b. 1855 - d. 1912) Con
  • 30 December 1907 - 4 May 1908 Ernst Jäger (acting) (b. 1847 - d. 1929) Soc
  • 4 May 1908 - 12 November 1918 Johann Nepomuk Hauser (b. 1866 - d. 1927) Soc
  • Carinthia:
  • 1698 - 1712 Siegmund Friedrich Graf von Khevenhüller zu Hohen-Osterwitz (b. 1666 - d. 1742)
  • 1712 - 13 March 1716 Johann Peter Graf Goëss (b. 1667 - d. 1716)
  • 1716 - 1726 Hannibale Alfonso Emmanuele Fürst Porcia e Brugnara (b. 1679 - d. 1738/42)
  • 1726 - 19 September 1734 Siegmund Rudolf Graf von Wagensberg (b. 1674 - d. 1734)
  • 1734 - 1759 Anton Graf von Goëss
  • 1759 - 1763 Felix Graf von Sobeck (d. 1768)
  • 1763 - 1773 Johann Gottfried Graf von Heister
  • 1773 - 1774 Franz Anton Graf von Khevenhüller
  • 1774 - 1782? Vincenz Ferrerio Andreas Graf von Rosenberg (d. 1794)
  • 1782 - 1790 see Styria
  • 1790 - 179. ....
  • 179. - 29 March 1797 Franz Josef Graf von Wurmbrand - then interrupted by two French Commanders
  • 31 March 1797 - 1 June 1797 Graf von Enzensberg (Präsident der Zentralregierung)
  • 1 June 1797 - 1 August 1804 ....
  • 1 August 1804 - 27 November 1805 see Styria
  • 27 November 1805 - 11 February 1806 .... -French commander
  • 27 November 1805 - 11 February 1806 Peter Graf von Goëss (Präsident der Landesadministrationskommission)
  • 11 February 1806 - 20 May 1809 ....
  • 20 May 1809 - 1809 .... -French commander and various otherwise styled officials
  • March 1861 - 7 July 1861 Georg Graf von Thun
  • 7 July 1861 - 1876 Johan Anton Graf von Goëss (b. 1816 - d. 1883)
  • December 1876 - 21 January 1884 Johann Stieger (d. 1884)
  • 1882 - 1884 Gabriel Ritter von Jessernigg (b. 1818 - d. 1887) (acting for Stieger)
  • 1884 - 1897 Joseph Erwein (b. 1818 - d. 1909)
  • 1897 - 1909 Zeno Vinzenz Graf von Goëss (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
  • 1909 - November 1918 Leopold Freiherr von Aichelburg-Labia (b. 1853 - d. 1926)
  • Salzburg
  • 31 March 1861 - 30 September 1872 Josef Freiherr von Weiss
  • 30 September 1872 - 14 June 1880 Hugo Raimund Graf von Lamberg (b. 1833 - d. 1884)
  • 17 June 1880 - 13 October 1890 Carl Graf Choroinsky (b. 1828 - d. 1897)
  • October 1890 - 17 January 1897 Albert Schumacher, Ritter von Tännengau (1st time)
  • 17 January 1897 - 29 December 1902 Alois Winkler (1st time) (b. 1838 - d. 1925)
  • December 1902 - 21 July 1909 Albert Schumacher, Ritter von Tännengau (2nd time)
  • 21 July 1909 - 12 November 1918 Alois Winkler (2nd time)
  • Styria: the long list starts in 1236/37) with Ekbert Bischof von Bamberg and ends on 5 November 1918 with Edmund Graf Attems (2nd time)
  • Tyrol, full style initially Landeshauptleute an der Etsch
  • 1695 - May 1739 Sebastian Johann Georg Graf von Künigl zu Ehrenburg (b. 1663 - d. 1739)
  • May 1739 - 6 February 1774 Paris Kaspar Dominik Graf von Wolkenstein zu Trostburg (b. 1696 - d. 1774)
  • 6 February 1774 - 7 January 1787 Johann Gottfried Graf von Heister (b. 1718 - d. 1800)
  • 7 January 1787 - 17 August 1790 Wenzel Graf Sauer von und zu Ankenstein, Freiherr von Kosiak (b. 1742 - d. 1799)
  • 1790 - 15 March 1791 Franz Josef Graf von Lodron-Laterano (b. 1745 - d. 1791)
  • 19 August 1791 - 23 September 1793 Johann Nepomuk Graf Spaur (b. 1724 - d. 1793)
  • 1793 - 11 February 1806 Paris Graf von Wolkenstein- Rodenegg (b. 1740 - d. 1814)
  • and later, just styled Landeshauptmann: 28 January 1841 - 1860 Clemens von Brandis (s.a.)
  • 27 November 1860 - 28 February 1861 Leopold Graf von Wolkenstein zu Trostburg (b. 1800 - d. 1862)
  • 22 March 1861 - 26 February 1862 Hieronymus Graf von Klebelsberg zu Thumburg (b. 1800 - d. 1862)
  • 26 February 1862 - 22 December 1866 Johann Kiechl (b. 1804 - d. 1893)
  • 15 February 1867 - 15 June 1869 Johann Baptist Hasslwanter (b. 1805 - d. 1869)
  • 29 July 1869 - August 1871 Eduard Grebmer von Wolfsthurn (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
  • 14 September 1871 - 11 April 1877 Franz Xaver Maria Josef Ritter von Rapp-Heidenburg (1st time; b. 1823 - d. 1889)
  • 11 April 1877 - 8 July 1881 Wilhelm von Bossi-Fedrigotti von Belmonte (b. 1823 - d. 1905)
  • 9 July 1881 - 29 July 1881 Artur Graf von Wolkenstein zu Rodenegg (acting)
  • 29 July 1881 - 19 September 1889 Franz Xaver Maria Josef Freiherr von Rapp-Heidenburg (2nd time)
  • 19 September 1889 - 30 September 1889 Freiherr von Hippoliti (acting)
  • 30 September 1889 - 25 April 1904 Anton Graf von Brandis (b. 1832 - d. 1907)
  • 27 August 1904 - 1 October 1916 Theodor Kathrein (from 1910, Theodor Freiherr von Kathrein) (b. 1842 - d. 1916)
  • 4 October 1916 - 2 June 1917 Aemilian Schöpfer (b. 1858 - d. 1928)
  • 2 June 1917 - 12 November 1918 Josef Schraffl (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
  • Vorarlberg
  • 6 April 1861 - 1873 Sebastian Ritter von Froschauer (b. 1801 - d. 1884)
  • 27 June 1873 - 1878 Anton Jussel (b. 1816 - d. 1878)
  • 21 September 1878 - 1890 Carl Graf Belrupt-Tissac (b. 1826 - d. 1903)
  • 21 September 1890 - 1918 Adolf Rhomberg (b. 1851 - d. 1921)

Elsewhere, all under the Austrian crown (Cisleithania)

  • duchy of Krain (Carniola, presently Slovenia):
  • 1270 - 1566 ....
  • 1566 - 22 September 1572 Herbard VIII Freiherr von Auersperg (b. 1528 - d. 1575)
  • 1572 - 1606 ....
  • 1602 - 1615 Johann Ulrich Freiherr Eggenberg Herzog von Krumau (b. 1568 - d. 1634)
  • 1615 - 1693 ....
  • 1693 - 1701 Johann Anton I Joseph Fürst von Eggenberg (b. 1669 - d. 1716)
  • 1701 - 23 May 1809 ....
  • Görz and Gradisca (Görz und Gradiska)
  • 1870 - 1877 Francesco Coronini
  • 1877 - 1883 Luigi Pajer de Monriva (1st time)
  • 1883 - 1899 Franz Graf von Coronini-Cronberg (b. 1833 - d. 1901)
  • 1899 - 1913 Luigi Pajer de Monriva (2nd time)
  • 1913 - 1918 Alojzij (Luigi) Faidutti (b. 1861 - d. 1931) FPP
  • Istria (Istrien)
  • 1849 - 1868 ....
  • 1868 - 23 January 1889 Francesco Vidulich (b. 1819 - d. 1889)
  • 18.. - 1904 W. Campitelli
  • 1904 - 1916 L. Rizzi
  • 1916 - November 1918 ....
  • Moravia (now part of the Czech republic)
  • 1667 - 1700 Franz Karl Graf von Kolowrat- Liebsteinsky (b. 1620 - d. 1700)
  • 1701 - 1704 Karl Maximilian Graf von Thurn- Valsassina (b. 1643 - d. 1716)
  • 1704 - 1714 Franz Josef Graf von Oppersdorff (b. 1660 - d. 1714)
  • 1714 - 1718 Hieronymus Graf Colloredo (b. c.1683 - d. 17..)
  • 1717 - 1719 Franz Josef Graf von Waldstein (b. 1680 - d. 1722)
  • 1720 - 1746 Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz- Rietberg (b. 1679 - d. 1746)
  • 1746 - 1748 Vacant
  • 1748 - 1763? Franz Heisler
  • 1763?- 1772 Heinrich Kajetan Graf von Blömegen (b. 1715 - d. 1788)
  • 1772 - 1782 Christoph Graf von Blömegen
  • 1782 - 1861 Vacant
  • 1861 - 1867 Emmanuel Graf Dubsky von Trebomyslic (1st time) (b. 1806 - d. 18..)
  • 1867 Hugo Karl Furst Fürst zu Salm- Reifferscheid (1st time) (b. 1803 - d. 1888)
  • 1867 - 1870 Emmanuel Graf Dubsky von Trebomyslic (2nd time)
  • 1870 - 1871 Adalbert Freiherr Widmann (1st time)
  • 1871 Hugo Karl Edouard Fürst zu Salm- Reifferscheid (2nd time)
  • 1871 - 1884 Adalbert Freiherr Widmann (2nd time)
  • 1884 - 1906 Felix Graf Vetter von der Lilie (b. 1830 - d. 1913)
  • 1906 - 1918 Otto Graf Serényi von Kis-Serényi (b. 1855 - d. 1927)

Italian Tyrol

In the autonomous province of Bolzano-Bozen (one of the two provinces which make up Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol(South Tyrol), which itself is an autonomous region in post-World war II-Italy), the president is styled Landeshauptmann:
  • 20 December 1948 - 15 December 1955 Karl Erckert (b. 1894 - d. 1955) SVP
  • 7 January 1956 - 31 December 1960 Alois Pupp (b. 1902 - d. 1979) SVP
  • 31 December 1960 - 17 March 1989 Silvius Magnago (b. 1914) SVP
  • 17 March 1989 - 20.. Luis Durnwalder (b. 1941) SVP

Present Austrian sub-federal governors

The style is used in the nine Austrian states and in the autonomous province of South Tyrol. The Landeshauptmann is elected by the "Landtag", the representative assembly of those states to serve there as head of government (of the German: Landesregierung).

The female version of this title would be Landeshauptfrau. Whether female Landeshauptleute are to be called Landeshauptfrau or Landeshauptmann, is still the subject of public debate. This question first arose with the assumption of office by Waltraud Klasnic (from the conservative ÖVP) in Styria on the 23 January 1996, who preferred to be addressed as Frau Klasnic (Mrs. Klasnic) or Frau Landeshauptmann. However, Gabi Burgstaller (from the social democratic SPÖ), the governor of Salzburg since 7 March 2004, prefers the title Frau Landeshauptfrau.

Since 1 July 1988, the Constitution of Austria states that office designations can be used in gender-specific form (Article 7 Paragraph 3 B-VG). The use of the designation Landeshauptfrau is therefore explicitly permitted by the constitution.

For example, the same question also arises for the office designation Bezirkshauptmann (chief administrator of a non-municipal district in Austria), military rank Hauptmann (captain) and Feuerwehrmann (firefighter). Sometimes, according to Austrian custom, the wife of a male incumbent is addressed as Frau Landeshauptmann. The reverse form - Herr Landeshauptfrau - is not common. Additionally the deputies of the Salzburg Landeshauptfrau have so far preferred the designation Landeshauptmannstellvertreter.

Colonial use

The German empire used the style for its governors during certain periods in the history of its rule over the following Schutzgebiete:

In Africa

  • German South West Africa (present Namibia)
  • November 1893 - 15 March 1894 Curt von François (b. 1852 - d. 1931), formerly the last of four Reichskommissare
  • 15 March 1894 - 18 April 1898 Theodor von Leutwein (b. 1849 - d. 1921) (acting to 27 June 1895), who stayed on as first Governor
  • the protectorate of German Togoland
  • November 1893 - 13 August 1895 Jesko von Puttkamer (b. 1843 - d. 1918), formerly the last Reichskommissar
  • 18 November 1895 - 18 April 1898 August Köhler (b. 1858 - d. 1902), who stayed on as first Governor

In the Pacific

  • German (North East) New Guinea (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, over which Germany proclaimed a protectorate on 3 November 1884) during two periods of indirect rule by a chartered company, the Deutsche Neu-Guinea Compagnie ('German New Guinea Company'), preceded by a Commissioner (1885 - January 1887 Gustav von Oertzen) and interrupted by another Commissioner (21 August 1889 - 31 August 1892 Fritz Rose; acting to 30 September 1890) :
  • 10 June 1886 - 1 March 1888 Georg Freiherr von Schleinitz (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
  • 1 March 1888 - 31 October 1889 Reinhold Kraetke (b. 1845 - d. 1934)
  • 1 September 1892 - 3 March 1895 Georg Schmiele (b. 1855 - d. 1895)
  • 3 March 1895 - 17 August 1896 Hugo Rüdiger
  • 22 September 1896 - 13 August 1897 Kurt von Hagen (b. 1859 - d. 1897)
  • 15 August 1897 - 11 September 1897 Albert Hahl (acting) (b. 1868 - d. 1945)
  • 11 September 1897 - 31 March 1899 Hugo Skopnik; after him the colony was under Governors
  • Jaluit (Marshall Islands), since 13 September 1886 a German protectorate, after several Kaiserliche Kommissare :
  • 11 May 1894 - March 1898 Georg Irmer (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
  • 24 March 1898 - 18 January 1906 Eugen Brandeis (b. 1846 - d. 1919) (acting to 22 February 1900)
  • 18 January 1906 - May 1906 Ludwig Kaiser (acting) (b. 1862 - d. 1906)
  • 1 April 1906 - 3 October 1914 the governors of German New Guinea; afterwards the jurisdiction was downgraded to district, under a Bezirksamtmann

See also

Sources and references

(incomplete)
German language (Deutsch, ] ) is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
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A governor or governour (archaic) is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state.
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Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero
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Ancient times
Hallstatt culture
Noricum
March of Austria
Babenberger
Privilegium Minus
Habsburg era
House of Habsburg
Holy Roman Empire
Archduchy of Austria
Habsburg Monarchy
Austrian Empire
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Habsburg (commonly anglicised to "Hapsburg") and the successor family, Habsburg-Lorraine, were important ruling houses of Europe and are best known as the ruling Houses of Austria (and the Austrian Empire) for over six centuries.
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Ostmark is a modern German translation of the term Ostarrîchi, a 10th-century Germanic vernacular for marchia Orientalis ("eastern march") that appears in a single contemporary document.
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Lower Austria (German: Niederösterreich, Czech: Dolní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria.
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Prince. The German word derives from the Latin word princeps, which linguistically translates into English as the first, hence the old Germanic roots of the word.

This translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke.
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Graf is a historical German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title akin to the Viking title Jarl).
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Upper Austria (German: Oberösterreich, Czech: Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz.
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Enns may refer to:
  • Enns River, a river in Austria
  • Enns (city), a city in Upper Austria located at the confluence of the Enns river and the Danube

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ABT is a three-letter acronym that may refer to:
  • The New York Stock Exchange ticker symbol for Abbott Laboratories
  • American Ballet Theatre
  • IATA airport code for Al-Aqiq Airport in Al Bahah, Saudi Arabia

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Kremsmünster is a town in Kirchdorf an der Krems (district), in Upper Austria. Its population is 6,450, as of 2001. Settled in 777, it is home to the Kremsmünster Abbey.


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Freiherr, a German word, is a title of nobility of lower peerage rank in the former Holy Roman Empire (in German Heiliges Römisches Reich, HRR), or in its various German successor states, like Prussia, Bavaria, Württemberg, Hesse and others.
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Carinthia may refer to:
  • Carinthia (state), in Austria
  • Carinthia (province), in Slovenia
  • March of Carinthia, in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Duchy of Carinthia, in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Karantania, a medieval Slavic principality

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Styria (German: Steiermark; Slovenian: Štajerska) is a state or Land, located in the southeast of Austria.
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State Party  Austria
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 784
Region Europe and North America

Inscription History
Inscription 1996  (20th Session)
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Ritter is the second lowest-ranking title of nobility in German-speaking areas, just above an Edler, considered roughly equal to the title Knight or Baronet. It is a hereditary title.
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Styria (German: Steiermark; Slovenian: Štajerska) is a state or Land, located in the southeast of Austria.
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Tyrol, or Tirol, is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian region known as Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
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Vorarlberg is the westernmost state (Land) of Austria. Though it is the second smallest in terms of area (Vienna is the smallest), it borders three countries:
  • Germany (Bavaria)
  • Switzerland (Graubünden and St.

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Krain is either
  • the original German name of Carniola, a historical region and duchy of Austria in today's Slovenia; or
  • a township in Minnesota, USA. See Krain Township, Minnesota

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Country Italy
Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Province Gorizia (GO)
Mayor Vittorio Brancati (since June 10, 2002)

Area km
Population
 - Total (as of December 31, 2004)
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Country Italy
Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Province Gorizia
Mayor

Area km
Population
 - Total
 - Density /km
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates

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Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Bay of Kvarner.
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Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic.
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Motto
"Pravda vítězí"   (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Anthem
Kde domov můj
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Provincia autonoma di Bolzano
Autonome Provinz Bozen
Provinzia autonòma de Balsan


Nation Italy
Region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Capital Bolzano/Bozen
Area 7,400.
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Regione Autonoma Trentino-Alto Adige
Autonome Region Trentino-Südtirol
Region Autonóma Trentin-Sudtirol



Map highlighting the location of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy

Capital Trento
President Lorenzo Dellai
(DL-Union
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Austria

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Austria


  • Constitution of Austria
  • Executive
  • President (Heinz Fischer)

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