lettuce

This article is about the plant. For the Tokyo Mew Mew character, see Lettuce Midorikawa.


Lettuce
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Iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County

Iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Genus:Lactuca
Species:L. sativa
Binomial name
Lactuca sativa
L.
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Lettuce (butterhead)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 0 kcal   0 kJ
Carbohydrates     2.2 g
- Dietary fibre  1.1 g  
Fat0.2 g
Protein 1.4 g
Water96 g
Vitamin A equiv.  166 μg 0%
Folate (Vit. B9)  73 μg 0%
Vitamin C  4 mg0%
Iron  1.2 mg0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
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Lettuce and chicory output in 2005
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''Template {{}} needs its first parameter as beg[in], mid[dle], or end. Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant most often grown as a leaf vegetable. In some countries, it is typically eaten cold and raw, in salads, hamburgers, tacos, and many other dishes. In some places, including China, lettuce is typically eaten cooked and use of the stem is as important as use of the leaf. Both the English name and the Latin name of the genus are derived from lactis, the Latin word for “milk”, referring to the plant’s milky juice.

The lettuce plant has a short stem initially (a rosette growth habit), but when it blooms the stem lengthens and branches, and it produces many flower heads that look like those of dandelions, but smaller. This is called . When grown to eat, lettuce is harvested before it bolts. Lettuce is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera.

Cultivars

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Some lettuce cultivars
There are six commonly recognised Cultivar Groups of lettuce which are ordered here by head formation and leaf structure; there are hundreds of cultivars of lettuce selected for leaf shape and colour, as well as extended field and shelf life, within each of these Cultivar Groups:
  • Butterhead, also called Boston or Bibb, forms loose heads; it has a buttery texture. Butterhead cultivars are most popular in Europe.
  • Chinese lettuce types generally have long, sword-shaped, non-head-forming leaves, with a bitter and robust flavour unlike Western types, appropriate for use in stir-fried dishes and stews. Chinese lettuce cultivars are divided into “stem-use” types (called celtuce in English), and “leaf-use” types such as youmaicai (Chinese: 油麦菜; Pinyin: yóumàicài) or shengcai (生菜).
  • Crisphead, also called Iceberg, which form tight, dense heads that resemble cabbage. They are generally the mildest of the lettuces, valued more for their crunchy texture than for flavour. Cultivars of iceberg lettuce are the most familiar lettuces in the USA. The name Iceberg comes from the way the lettuce was transported in the US starting in the 1920s on train-wagons covered in crushed ice, making them look like icebergs.
  • Looseleaf, with tender, delicate, and mildly flavoured leaves. This group comprises oak leaf and lollo rosso lettuces.
  • Romaine, also called Cos, is a head-forming type with elongated leaves.
  • Summer Crisp, also called Batavian, which form moderately dense heads with a crunchy texture; this type is intermediate between iceberg and looseleaf types.
Some lettuces (especially iceberg) have been specifically bred to remove the bitterness from their leaves. These lettuces have a high water content with very little nutrient value. The more bitter lettuces and the ones with pigmented leaves contain antioxidants.

Facts and figures

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More lettuce cultivars
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  • Lactucarium (or “Lettuce Opium”) is a mild opiate-like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce and both the Romans, and Egyptians took advantage of this property eating lettuce at the end of a meal to induce sleep.[1]
  • The largest lettuce head weighed 11 kg (25 lb), of the Salad Bowl cultivar, grown by Colin Bowcock of Willaston, England, in 1974.
  • In the United States, 95% of all head lettuce is grown in California and Arizona.
  • Yazidis consider eating lettuce taboo. See Taboo food and drink.

History

The lettuce that we see today, actually started out as a weed around the Mediterranean basin. Served in dishes for more than 4500 years, lettuce has certainly made its mark in history with tomb painting in Egypt and identification of different types of lettuces by various Greek scholars. Christopher Columbus introduced lettuce to the new world and from there, lettuce in the United States began cultivating.([1]

Diseases

Main article: List of lettuce diseases

Notes

1. ^ "Lettuce - Lactuca sativa - Daisy family". Hamilton, Dave (2005).

References

Lettuce Midorikawa (碧川 れたす Midorikawa Retasu
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Santa Barbara County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the southern portion of the U.S. state of California, just west of Ventura County. As of 2000 the county had a population of 399,347.
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]

Divisions

Green algae
  • Chlorophyta
  • Charophyta
Land plants (embryophytes)
  • Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes)

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Magnoliophyta

Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots

The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants.
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Magnoliopsida

Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its can otherwise vary, being more inclusive or less inclusive depending upon the classification system being
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Asterales Lindl. (1833)

Families
  • Alseuosmiaceae
  • Argophyllaceae
  • Asteraceae - Daisies
  • Calyceraceae
  • Campanulaceae (incl. Lobeliaceae) - Bellflowers
  • Goodeniaceae (incl.

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Lactuca
L., 1753

Genera

See text.

Lactuca, commonly known as lettuce, is a genus of flowering plants in the Sunflower family Asteraceae. The genus includes about 100 species, distributed worldwide, but mainly in temperate Eurasia.
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binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The system is also called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system.
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Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

Carl von Linné, Alexander Roslin, 1775. Currently owned by and hanging at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and many other plant components such as dextrins, inulin,
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Types of Fats in Food
  • Unsaturated fat
  • Monounsaturated fat
  • Polyunsaturated fat
  • Trans fat
  • Omega: 3, 6, 9

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Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life.[1] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor.
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Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. It exists not as a single compound, but in several forms. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an alcohol (retinol), but can also exist as an aldehyde (retinal), or as an acid (retinoic acid).
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Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. These occur naturally in food and can also be taken as supplements. Folate gets its name from the Latin word folium ("leaf").
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Vitamin C or L -ascorbate is an essential nutrient for higher primates, and a small number of other species. The presence of ascorbate is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and in plants and is made internally by almost all organisms,
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The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada. It is intended for the general public and health professionals.
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temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally mild, rather than extreme hot or cold. However, a temperate climate can have very unpredictable weather.
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annual plant is a plant that usually germinates, flowers and dies in one year. True annuals will only live longer than a year if they are prevented from setting seed. Some seedless plants can also be considered annuals even though they do not flower.
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biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its lifecycle. In the first year the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a period of dormancy over the colder months.
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Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.
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Salad is a light meal — or, more commonly a part of a larger meal, such as an appetizer — consisting of mixed vegetables (usually including at least one leaf vegetable) or fruit, often with a dressing or sauce, occasionally nuts and sometimes with the addition of meat,
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taco is a traditional Mexican dish comprised of a rolled, folded, pliable maize tortilla filled with an edible substance. According to the Real Academia Española, the word taco
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Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). Mammary glands are highly specialized sweat glands. The female ability to produce milk is one of the defining characteristics of mammals.
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rosette is a circular arrangement of the leaves, with all the leaves at a single height. Often, perennial plants whose foliage dies and the remaining vegetation protects the plant. Internodes are often shortened getting the leaves closer together, as in lettuce and dandelion.
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