Lingua Franca Nova

Lingua Franca Nova  
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Created by:C. George Boeree 
Setting and usage:International auxiliary language
Total speakers:between 30 (estimate based on use of lfn in yahoo group and wiki edits) and 180 (members of lfn yahoo group)
Category (purpose):}}}
 International auxiliary language
  Lingua Franca Nova}}} 
Category (sources):based on Romance and Creole languages
Language codes
ISO 639-1:none
ISO 639-2:art
ISO 639-3:


Lingua Franca Nova is an auxiliary constructed language created by Dr. C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania. Its vocabulary is based on French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Catalan. The grammar is highly reduced and similar to the Romance creoles. The language is phonetically spelled, using 21 letters of either the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. Lingua Franca Nova is usually abbreviated to LFN.

History and community [1]

Dr. C. George Boeree began working on LFN in 1965, with the goal to create a simple, creole-like international auxiliary language. He was inspired to do this by the Mediterranean Lingua Franca [2], a pidgin used in the Mediterranean in centuries past. He used French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Catalan as the basis for his new language.

LFN was first presented on the Internet in 1998. A Yahoo! Group was formed in 2002 by Bjorn Madsen and today has over 180 members. Group members have contributed to the further evolution of the language. Stefan Fisahn created a wiki for the language in 2005 (see below) with over 1000 pages and 10,000 edits as of July 2007. A few issues of a journal called Orizones Nova (New Horizons) were published in late 2006 and early 2007.

Introductions and other materials are available in 12 languages. The "master" dictionary (LFN - English) has over 7500 entries. There are smaller dictionaries available in eight languages and a wikibooks tutorial (see below) in five languages.

Pronunciation and orthography [3] [4]

LFN vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) are pronounced as in Spanish (approximately as ah, eh, ee, oh, and oo.) The vowels i and u are also used to represent the sounds of y and w, respectively. Diphthongs are ai, au, eu, and oi (as in my, cow, "eh-w," and boy).

Most of the consonants are pronounced as in English, except that c is always pronounced as in cat, g is always as in go, j is pronounced as in French (like the z in azure), the r is pronounced as in Spanish, and x is pronounced like sh.

The letters h, k, q, w, and y may be used in proper names and words from other languages that have not been completely assimilated into LFN. If preferred, k may be substituted for c.

Stress is on the vowel before the last consonant or, if that is not possible, on the first vowel. For example la casa de me tio ("my uncle's house") is pronounced "la CA-sa de me TI-o."

Below is the LFN alphabet in its Latin form, its Cyrillic form, and with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) values.

Latinabcdefgijlmnoprstuvxz
Cyrillicабкдефгижлмнопрстувш?
IPA[a][b][k][d][e][f][ɡ][i][ʒ][l][m][n][o][p][r][s][t][u][v][ʃ][z] |Names|| a || be || ce || de || e || ef || ge || i || je || el || em || en || o || pe || er || es || te || u || ve || ex || ze

Grammar [5]

Word order

LFN has a strict word order. The general word order is:

subject noun phrase - verb phrase (- object noun phrase)
Maria come pex - "Maria eats fish"


A noun phrase has this order:

(article -) (quantity -) noun (- adjective)
La tre omes grande... - "The three large men..."


A verb phrase has this order:

(tense -) (auxiliary -) verb (- adverb)
...ia debe come bon - "...must have eaten well"

Nouns

To make a noun plural, add -s if the noun ends in a vowel, or -es if the noun ends in a consonant. It never alters the original stress of the word.

There are no cases, not even for pronouns. Such things are indicated with prepositions and word order.

Articles

There are two articles: la (the) and un (a). As in English, there is no indefinite article for the plural.

Other words function similarly:
  • esta - this, these
  • acel - that, those
  • no - no, zero
  • tota - all
  • cada - every, each
  • multe - many
  • alga - some
  • poca - few
  • otra - other
  • mesma - same

Pronouns

  • me - I, me, my
  • tu - you (singular), your
  • el - she, her, he, him, it
  • nos - we, us, our
  • vos - you (plural), your
  • los - they, them, their
The third person reflexive pronoun (himself, herself, itself, themselves) and possessive (his, her, its, their) is se.

There are no cases and the pronouns become possessive by putting them in front of the noun possessed. "My cat" can be expressed as me gato or la gato de me.

There are also no gender distinctions between he, she, and it. If necessary, one can use words like la fema, la om, la fia, and la fio (the woman, the man, the girl, the boy). For things, one can also use esa and esas, which mean "it" and "these things" or "those things."

Also useful are algun (someone) and cadun (everyone, anyone), which are used as indeterminate pronouns.

Verbs

There are no conjugations of verbs in LFN. The basic form remains the same regardless of person, number, or tense.

The present tense is represented by the basic verb: El come - "He/she eats, he/she is eating."

The past tense is indicated by the particle ia: El ia come - "He/she ate."

The future tense is indicated by the particle va: El va come - "He/she will eat."

There is an optional particle ta, which indicates unreality and can be used where other languages might use a conditional or subjunctive mood.

Negation is indicated by putting no before the tense particle or (in the present tense) the verb.

There are also adverbs and auxiliary verbs to expand verb usage. For example, the adverb ja, meaning "already," can be used to express what in other languages is the perfect: me ia come ja means "I had (already) eaten."

Verbs can be used as nouns without change. For example, dansa, as a verb, means "dance/dances", but it can also mean "a dance" when used as a noun.

A verb can be made into an abstract noun (infinitive) by adding -r. Dansar, for example, means "to dance."

Verbs can also be made into adjectives: The active participle is formed by adding -nte to the verb. For example, come becomes comente, meaning "eating". This should never be used as an abstract noun, as it is in English.

The passive participle is formed by adding -da to the verb. For example, come becomes comeda, meaning "eaten".

Participles, like any adjectives, can follow the verb "to be," and can be used to express the continuous or the passive: Aora, nos es comente selaco - "Now, we are (in the process of) eating shark"; Doman, nos va es comeda par selacos - "Tomorrow, we will be eaten by sharks". Note that there are other ways to indicate the continuous and the passive: Nos continua come selaco - we continue to eat shark; Algun va come nos - Someone will eat us.

Verb transitivity is contextual. Me va boli la acua "I will boil the water" and La acua boli "The water boils" are both correct. In case of ambiguity, one can say Me va fa boli la acua - I will make the water boil - and La acua boli se. - The water boils itself.

Auxiliary verbs

Common auxiliary verbs include the following:
  • vole - want to
  • nesesa - need to, must
  • sabe - know how to
  • espeta - expect to
  • espera - hope to
  • teme - fear to
  • preferi - prefer to
  • vade - am going to
  • debe - should, must
  • pote - can
  • esita - hesitate to
  • osa - dare to
  • menasa threaten to
  • finge pretend to
  • aperi appear to
  • atenta try to
There is no equivalent to the word "to," and the following verb is normally left in the simple present form.

Adjectives

Unlike the natural Romance languages, adjectives in LFN do not have gender or plural forms, i.e. they don't "agree" with the nouns they describe.

The comparative is made with plu (more) or min (less). "The most" is la plu and "the least" is la min. For example, "John is better than Joe" is Jan es plu bon ce Jo. "Jill is the best" is Jil es la plu bon. Equivalence is indicated with tan... ce: Marco es tan grande ce Mona.

Like verbs, adjectives can be used as nouns. For example, bela means "beautiful", but un bela means "a beautiful one" or "a beauty." This works with participles, too: la studiante and la studiada mean "the student" and "the studied," respectively, from the verb studia, "study."

An adjective can be made into an abstract noun by adding -ia. In this way bela becomes belia, meaning beauty. This can also be used with nouns: madre (mother) becomes madria (maternity or motherhood).

Adverbs

LFN doesn't have explicit adverbs. Instead, any adjective can be used as an adverb by placing it after a verb or at the very beginning of the sentence. Un om felis for example means "a happy man", whereas el dansa felis means "he/she dances happily". Adverbs used to modify adjectives precede the adjective. Here are examples of common adverbs:
  • bon - well
  • mal - badly
  • rapide - quickly
  • lente - slowly
  • pronto - soon
  • tarda - late
  • ja - already
  • aora - now
  • alora - then
  • ancora - again
  • ier - yesterday
  • oji - today
  • doman - tomorrow
  • vera - truly, very

Prepositions

Here are the basic prepositions of LFN:
  • a - at, to
  • ante - before
  • asta - near, until
  • con - with
  • contra - against
  • de - of, from, since
  • en - in, into, during
  • entre - between, among
  • estra - out of
  • longo - along
  • par - by
  • per - for, in order to
  • pos - after, behind, according to
  • sin - without, except
  • sirca - around, approximately
  • su - below, under
  • supra - above, over, on
  • tra - through
  • versa - toward
Prepositional phrases follow the noun phrase they modify. When used as adverbs, they can follow the verb, or start the sentence.

Conjunctions

  • e - and
  • o - or
  • ma - but
  • si - if, whether
  • donce - then, consequently, therefore
  • per ce - because, in order that, so that
  • contra ce - although
  • pos ce - after
  • ante ce - before
  • de ce - since
  • a ce - till, until
  • en ce - while

Relatives and interrogatives

Relatives and interrogatives are identical in LFN:
  • ce - what/that
  • ci - who
  • cual - which (of several)
  • de ci - whose
  • como - how
  • cuanto - how much/how many
  • cuando - when
  • do - where
  • per ce - why
Dependent clauses follow what they modify: La fia ci ia come la pan ia veni asi per ce el ia es fama - "The girl who ate the bread came here because she was hungry."

A question may include an interrogative or may be indicated by rising intonation alone. One may also express questions by beginning the sentence with the phrase Es ce...? or by adding no? (no) or si? (yes) to the end of the sentence, after a comma: Es ce tu parla Deutx? Tu parla Italian, si?

Numbers

  • 1 - un
  • 2 - du
  • 3 - tre
  • 4 - cuatro
  • 5 - sinco
  • 6 - ses
  • 7 - sete
  • 8 - oto
  • 9 - nove
  • 10 - des
Higher numbers are constructed as follows:
  • 11 - des-un
  • 20 - dudes
  • 100 - (un) sento
  • 101 - sento-un
  • 321 - tresento-dudes-un
  • 1000 - (un) mil
  • 45 678 - cuatrodes-sinco mil sessento-setedes-oto
  • 1 000 000 - (un) milion
Numbers that express the order of things are the same, except that they follow the noun, e.g. la om tre, "the third man," instead of la tre omes, "the three men."

Fractions are constructed with -i, e.g. di, tri, cuatri,... desi, senti, mili, etc.

Affixes [6]

LFN has a small number of regular suffixes that help to create new words. The most common are -or, -ador, and -eria, which refer to a person, a device, and a place respectively. They can be added to any noun, adjective, or verb. For example, from the word carne, meaning meat, we can make carnor (butcher) and carneria (butcher's shop). Similarly, from the word lava, meaning wash, we can make laveria (laundry) and lavador (washing machine).

One useful suffix is -a which can be added to nouns to mean "to use," so telefona means to use the telefon. Another useful suffix is -i which, added to a noun or adjective, means "to become" or "to cause to become." For example, calda is hot, so caldi means to heat. It is also used to make fractions, so cuatri means a fourth or quarter, as well as to divide into fourths.

Other common suffixes include -eta, which means a small version of something (boveta is a calf, from bove, cow), and -on, which means a large version of something (telon means a sheet or tablecloth, from tela, cloth).

There are a few suffixes that turn nouns into adjectives: -al means pertaining to..., e.g. nasional; -in means similar to..., e.g. serpentin; -os means full of..., e.g. mofos (moldy).

There are also three prefixes. Non- means not or un-, so nonfelis means unhappy. Re- means again or in the opposite direction, so repone means replace. And des- means to undo, so desinfeta means disinfect.

Words may also be created by joining two existing words (compounds). For example, you can use a verb and its object: portacandela means candlestick, pasatempo means pastime. Bon and mal can be joined to other words, as in bonom (pleasant fellow, regular guy) and maldise (curse or badmouth). Two nouns are rarely joined (as they often are in English), but are linked with de instead: casa de avias means birdhouse.

Examples

Useful phrases

Lingua Franca Nova English
Bon diaGood day
AloHello
Como es tu?How are you?
Bon, e tu?Good, and you?
No malNot bad
Ce es tu nom?What is your name?
Me nom es MariaMy name is Maria
Tu gusta un tas de cafe?Would you like a cup of coffee?
Si, per favoreYes, please
Grasias!Thank you!
Per no cosaYou're welcome
Joia!Cheers!
Tu es vera belaYou are very beautiful
Pardona?Excuse me?
Me ama tuI love you
Me debe vade aoraI must go now
Asta la ora?See you later?
AdioGoodbye
Bon seraGoodnight
Bon fortunaGood luck

Other examples

Lingua Franca Nova [7]

Lingua Franca Nova es desiniada per es un lingua vera simple, coerente, e fasil aprendeda, per comunica internasional. El ave varios cualia bon:
  • LFN ave un numero limitada de fonemes. El sona simila a italian o espaniol.
  • LFN es scriveda como el sona. No enfante debe pasa multe anios studia nonregulas!
  • LFN ave un gramatica vera simple e regula. El es min complicada en esta caso como engles o indonesian.
  • LFN ave un grupo limitada e tota regula de afises produinte per crea parolas nova.
  • LFN ave regulas de la ordina de parolas bon definada, como multe linguas major.
  • LFN ave un lista de parolas fundada en la linguas roman moderne. Esta linguas es comun e influensente, e ia contribui la parte major de parolas engles.
  • LFN es desiniada per es asetante natural de parolas tecnical de latina e elenica, la "norma de mundo" per fato.
  • LFN es desiniada per aperi plu parte "natural" per los ci comprende la linguas roman, ma no min fasil per otras.
Nos espera ce tu va trova ce esta lingua es interesante!

O Carita [8]

Cat Stevens

Me no vole perde La decora de mundo; Me vide arde Tota cosas; Me oi la crias De umania; La lus de mundo e stelas Es aora estinguida; La culpas de umania Es aora esposeda; Con larmas e con tristia, La dole es profunda; De tera e de mares, Ruido asustante; Carita! O Carita! Nos ta ave eterna amar; Nos ci va mori Salute moria; Continua sola vita. Esta mundo arde rapida; Esta mundo no va dura; Me no vole perde el Asi en me ora; Dona me eternia Asi en me ora.

See also

References

1. ^ [1] LFN FAQ
2. ^ [2] Lingua Franca
3. ^ [3] LFN spelling and pronunciatiion
4. ^ [4] Omniglot
5. ^ [5] Complete Grammar of LFN
6. ^ [6] Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots in LFN
7. ^ [7] LFN Homepage
8. ^ [8] Translation of Cat Stevens' Caritas


External links

An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language.
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An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language.
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Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
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ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. It extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages. The standard was published by ISO on 5 February 2007[1].
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French (français, pronounced [fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a Romance language originally spoken in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, and today by about 300 million people around the world as either
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Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
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ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: —

Spanish (
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In Spain: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands, Aragon (in La Franja), Murcia (in El Carxe). In France: Northern Catalonia. In Italy: The city of L'Alguer. In Andorra.
Total speakers: 9.
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A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a "new" language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language.
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Latin alphabet
Child systems Numerous: see Alphabets derived from the Latin
Sister systems Cyrillic
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Cyrillic alphabet

Sister systems Latin alphabet
Coptic alphabet
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Unicode range U+0400 to U+052F
ISO 15924 Cyrl

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Portuguese}}} 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Portuguese variant) 
Official status
Official language of: Angola
Brazil
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Macau (PRC)
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 Spanish, Castilian
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Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
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Spanish (
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In Spain: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands, Aragon (in La Franja), Murcia (in El Carxe). In France: Northern Catalonia. In Italy: The city of L'Alguer. In Andorra.
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