Madurese language

Madurese
Madhura, Basa Mathura
Spoken in:Island of Madura, Sapudi Islands, northern coastal area of eastern Java, Singapore
Total speakers:13,694,000 in Indonesia (1995)
Language family:}}}
 Malayo-Polynesian
  Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian
   Sunda-Sulawesi
    Madurese}}}
Language codes
ISO 639-1:none
ISO 639-2:mad
ISO 639-3:mad


Madurese is the spoken language of people from Madura Island in Indonesia; it is also spoken on Kangean Islands, Sapudi Islands, and in eastern part of province of East Java. It is classified in the Sundic subgroup of the West Malayo-Polynesian group of the Austronesian languages family. It was traditionally written in the Javanese script, but the Roman script is now more commonly used. Number of speakers though shrinking are estimated to be 8-10 million.

It is closely related to the Madurese people ethnicity.

Phonology and Morphology

Madurese has more consonants than its neighboring languages due to it having a voiceless unaspirated, voiceless aspirated, and voiced sounds. Similar to Javanese it has a contrast between dental and alveolar (even retroflex) stops. Nouns are not inflected in gender and are made plural via reduplication. Its basic word order is subject, verb, object. Negation is expressed by saying a negative word before the verb/adjective or before a noun phrase. As with other similar languages there are different negative words for different kinds of negation. The language is unusual that it does not have any phonemically high vowels.

Common Words
  • Man: Lalake
  • Woman: Babine
  • Yes: iya
  • No: enja
  • Water: aeng
  • Sun: are
  • Good: tello'
Madura<nowiki />

Bull racing in Sumenep, Madura.

Geography
<nowiki/>
Location South East Asia
Coordinates <nowiki />
Archipelago
..... Click the link for more information.

..... Click the link for more information.
A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. As with biological families, the evidence of relationship is observable shared characteristics.
..... Click the link for more information.
Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 351 million speakers. These are widely dispersed throughout the island nations of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia.
..... Click the link for more information.
Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a branch of the Austronesian family that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi.

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian is considered to have two branches:
  • The Sunda-Sulawesi languages or

..... Click the link for more information.
Sunda-Sulawesi languages (or Inner Hesperonesian or Inner Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of Sulawesi and the Greater Sunda Islands, as well as a few outliers such as Chamorro and Palauan, as
..... Click the link for more information.
ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. It consists of 136 two-letter codes used to identify the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international shorthand for indicating languages.
..... Click the link for more information.
ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 language codes in the list.
..... Click the link for more information.
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. It extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages. The standard was published by ISO on 5 February 2007[1].
..... Click the link for more information.
Madura<nowiki />

Bull racing in Sumenep, Madura.

Geography
<nowiki/>
Location South East Asia
Coordinates <nowiki />
Archipelago
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Bhinneka Tunggal Ika"   (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"
National ideology: Pancasila[1]
Anthem
Indonesia Raya
..... Click the link for more information.
The Kangean Islands (Indonesian: Kepulauan Kangean) are an archipelago part of Indonesia, are located in the Java Sea approximately 120 km (75 miles) north of Bali and 120 km east of Madura Island. The islands are a part of East Java province.
..... Click the link for more information.
East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and Bawean islands.
..... Click the link for more information.
Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. It is on par with Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic and Uralic as one of the best-established ancient language families.
..... Click the link for more information.
Java

Sister systems Balinese
Batak
Baybayin
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Rejang
Tagbanwa

ISO 15924 Java

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
..... Click the link for more information.
Latin alphabet
Child systems Numerous: see Alphabets derived from the Latin
Sister systems Cyrillic
Coptic
Armenian
Runic/Futhark
Unicode range See Latin characters in Unicode
ISO 15924 Latn

Note
..... Click the link for more information.
Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. Common features of most Madurese throughout the archipelago include Islamic religion and the use of the Madurese
..... Click the link for more information.
Phonology (Greek φωνή (phōnē), voice, sound + λόγος (lógos), word, speech, subject of discussion), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a
..... Click the link for more information.
Morphology is the field within linguistics that studies the internal structure of words. (Words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology.
..... Click the link for more information.
consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. The word consonant
..... Click the link for more information.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of his or
..... Click the link for more information.
The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. It is the native language of more than 75,500,000 people.
..... Click the link for more information.
In linguistics, a dental consonant or dental is a consonant that is articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/
..... Click the link for more information.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
..... Click the link for more information.
In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. (They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in indology.
..... Click the link for more information.
Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world.

In the English language, singular and plural are the only grammatical numbers.

In English, nouns, pronouns, and demonstratives inflect for plurality.
..... Click the link for more information.
Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process by which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated.

Reduplication is used both in inflections to convey a grammatical function, such as plurality, intensification, etc.
..... Click the link for more information.
subject of the sentence and the other being its predicate. In English, subjects govern agreement on the verb or auxiliary verb that carries the main tense of the sentence, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between he eats and they eat.
..... Click the link for more information.
verb is a word belonging to the part of speech that usually denotes an action (bring, read), an occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand).
..... Click the link for more information.
An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. It denotes somebody or something involved in the subject's "performance" of the verb. As an example, the following sentence is given:

In the sentence "Bobby kicked the ball
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.