Maliki

Part of a series on
Sunni Islam
Schools of Fiqh
HanafiShafi`i • Maliki • Hanbali
Beliefs
TawhidNabi and Rusul
KutubMalā'ikah
QiyamaQadr
Caliphs
Abu BakrUmar ibn al-Khattab
UthmanAli ibn Abu Talib
Texts
Qur'an
Sahih BukhariSahih Muslim
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan Abi Dawood
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Sunan ibn MajaAl-Muwatta
Sunan al-Darami
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''This page deals with Islamic thought. For the Prime Minister of Iraq, see Nouri al-Maliki. For the Saudi Islamic scholar, see Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki. For the Middle East Christians, see Melkite.


The Maliki madhab (Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It is the third-largest of the four schools, followed by approximately 15% of Muslims, mostly in North Africa and West Africa.

Madhabs are not sects, but rather schools of jurisprudence.The other three schools of thought are Shafi, Hanafi, and Hanbali.

Less reliance on hadith

The Maliki school derives from the work of Imam Malik. It differs from the three other schools of law most notably in the sources it uses for derivation of rulings. All four schools use the Qur'an as primary source, followed by the sunnah of Muhammad transmitted as hadith (sayings), ijma (consensus of the scholars) and Qiyas (analogy); the Maliki school, in addition, uses the practice of the people of Medina as a source.

This source, according to Malik, sometimes supersedes hadith, because the practice of the people of Medina was considered "living sunnah," in as much as Muhammad migrated there, lived there and died there, and most of his companions lived there during his life and after his death. The result is a much more limited reliance upon hadith than is found in other schools.

Imam Malik was particularly scrupulous about authenticating his sources when he did appeal to them, however, and his comparatively small collection of ahadith, known as Al-Muwatta ("The Approved"), is highly regarded. Malik is said to have explained the title as follows: "I showed my book to seventy jurists of Medina, and every single one of them approved me for it, so I named it ‘The Approved’."

Imam Malik

Malik was once sentenced to a lashing by the caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansur for narrating a hadith to the effect that a divorce obtained under coercion was invalid. The hadith in question had momentous political implications, because it supported those who argued that the caliph's authority was similarly invalid -- because it, too, had been secured by means of coercion.

Eventually, Malik was paraded through the streets in disgrace and ordered to insult himself publicly. He is reported to have said: "Whoever knows me, knows me; whoever does not know me, my name is Malik ibn Anas, and I say: The divorce of the coerced is null and void!" When the incident was reported to the governor of Medina (who was also the cousin of al-Mansur), Malik was ordered released.

Differences in prayer from other madhabs

There are slight differences in the preferred methods of salaat, or prayer, in the Maliki school.
  • Leaving the hands to dangle at one's sides during prayer; however, the common Sunni practice of joining the hands beneath the chest, right hand over left, does not invalidate the prayer, since leaving the hands down is just a recommended act (in fact, several famous Maliki scholars, including Qadi Iyad, were of the opinion that the hands should in fact be folded across the chest like everyone else does).
  • Looking straight ahead at eye-level (i.e. literally "facing" the Ka'aba) during the standing and sitting parts of the prayer, rather than looking down towards the place of prostration
  • Not reciting any supplications before the Fatihah in obligatory prayers (the Bismillah, reciting "in the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful" before the Fatihah, is frowned upon in obligatory prayers).
  • Turning the right-handed fist is on its side (such that smallest finger is touching the thigh) and moving the right index finger back and forth horizontally during the sitting parts of the prayers
  • Saying the ending tasleem only once ("As-salaamu 'alaykum" while turning the head to the right); anything more is frowned upon (except for followers behind an imam, who are recommended to face the front again and say "wa 'alaykum as-salaam" to the imam and, if anyone is to their left, turn their head to the left and say "wa 'alaykum as-salaam" to the person on their left).

Notable Malikis

See also

External links

Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Sunnism or as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic:
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Arabic
فقه
Transliteration
Fiqh
Translation
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Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after its founder, Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (Arabic:
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Shāfi‘ī madhab (شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam.
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Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being Hanafi, Maliki and Shafii).
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Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an examples of aqidah.
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Tawīd (Arabic: توحيد; also transliterated Tawheed and Tauheed; Turkish: Tevhid) is the Islamic idea of monotheism.
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Nabi can refer to
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Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. The term for prophet in Islam is nabi (pl. anbiyaa).
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The Islamic holy books are the records believed from Muslims that were dictated by God to prophets. They are the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (commonly the Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (commonly the Psalms), the Injil (commonly the Gospel), and the Qur'an.
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angel (Lat. angelus, pl. angeli) is a supernatural being found in many religions. In Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism, angels, as attendants or guardians to man, typically act as messengers from God.
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Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة literally: "Day of the Resurrection") is the Last Judgment in Islam.
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Arabic
قدر
Transliteration
Qadr
Translation
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A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world.
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Abū Bakr (Arabic: ابو بكر الصديق) (c. 573–August 23 634/13 AH)[1]
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Umar
Caliph of the Muslim Ummah
Reign 634 – 644
Full name `Umar ibn al-Khattāb
Titles Amir al-Mu'minin
Al-Farooq (The Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood)
Born 584
Mecca
Died 7 November 644
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For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name).


‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān (عثمان بن عفان) (c.
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The Six major Hadith collections (Arabic: Al-Sihah al-Sittah) are the works of some individuals from Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death.
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The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: القرآن
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The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukhari's authentic
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Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim.
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as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasa'i
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Sunan Abu Da'ud (Arabic: سُنن أبو داوود) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Da'ud.
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  • Jami al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: جامع الترمذي), popularly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic:

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Sunan Ibn Maja (Arabic: سُنان ابن مجا) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Ibn Maja.
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Al-Muwatta (الموطأ) is an early collection of hadith of Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of Islam. It was compiled and edited by Imam Malik. The Maliki school is popular in North Africa.
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Sunan al-Darami by al-Darami (181H-255H) is a Hadith collection considered by Sunnis to be among the nine: the Six major Hadith collections, Al-Muwatta, Musnad of Imam Ahmed, and Sunan al-Darami.

See also

List of Sunni books
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The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraq's head of government. Prime Minister was originally an appointed office, subsidiary to the head of state, and the nominal leader of the Iraqi parliament.
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Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated Nūrī Kāmil al-Mālikī; born c.
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