Manes

Enlarge picture
On the top of this 3rd-century Christian tombstone, we see the dedication to the Dis Manibus.
Topics in Roman mythology
Important Gods:
JupiterMinerva
MarsMercury
QuirinusVulcan
VestaCeres
JunoVenus
FortunaLares
Topics
Legendary History
Roman religion
The Flamens
Greek/Roman myth compared
Other minor Roman deities:
PenatesLarvae
GeniusManes
LemuresTerminus
In Roman mythology, the Manes were the souls of deceased loved ones. As minor spirits, they were similar to the Lares, Genii and Di Penates. They were honored during the Parentalia and Feralia in February.

The Manes were also called the Di Manes (Di meaning "Gods"), and Roman tombstones often included the letters D.M., which stood for dis manibus, or "dedicated to the Manes-gods". The word was also used as a metaphor to refer to the underworld.

Manes is derived from "an archaic adjective manus-'good'- which was the opposite of immanis".[1].

The Manes were offered blood sacrifices. The gladiatorial games, originally held at funerals, may have been instituted in the honor of the Manes.[1]

According to Cicero, the Manes could be called forth from the caves near Lake Avernus.[1].

Lapis manalis & Lapis manilis

Due to their similar name these two stones are often conflated in commentaries on the Greco-Roman Tradition:
The "flowing stone"..must not be confused with the stone of the same name which, according to Festus, was the gateway to the underworld.[2]

Lapis manilis

When a new town was founded, a round hole would be dug and a stone called a lapis manilis would be placed in the foundations, representing a gate to the underworld.[1].

Lapis manalis, "The Flowing Stone", "The Rain Stone"

Bailey (1907) states:
There is, for instance, what anthropology describes as 'sympathetic magic'—the attempt to influence the powers of nature by an imitation of the process which it is desired that they should perform. Of this we have a characteristic example in the ceremony of the aquaelicium, designed to produce rain after a long drought. In classical times the ceremony consisted in a procession headed by the pontifices, which bore the sacred rain-stone from its resting-place by the Porta Capena to the Capitol, where offerings were made to the sky-deity, Iuppiter, but from the analogy of other primitive cults and the sacred title of the stone (lapis manalis), it is practically certain that the original ritual was the purely imitative process of pouring water over the stone.[4]

References

1. ^ Aldington, Richard; Ames, Delano (1968) New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Yugoslavia: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 213.
2. ^ Burriss, Chapter 4 (accessed: August 21, 2007)
3. ^ Aldington, Richard; Ames, Delano (1968). New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Yugoslavia: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 213.
4. ^ Bailey, chapter two (accessed: August 21, 2007)
Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. One part, largely later and literary, consists of whole-cloth borrowings from Greek mythology.
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Jupiter (Iuppiter in Latin) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. He was called Juppiter Optimus Maximus Soter (Jupiter Best, Greatest, Savior); as the patron deity of the Roman state, he ruled over laws and social order.
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Minerva was a Roman goddess of crafts, poetry and wisdom, and is known as the inventor of music.

This article focuses on Minerva in early Rome and in cultic practice.
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For the fourth planet from the sun, see Mars.


Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. As the word Mars
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Mercury (IPA: /ˈmɜːkjəri/, Latin: Mercurius listen  
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Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus.[1]

History

Quirinus was originally most likely a Sabine god.
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Vulcan is the god of beneficial and hindering fire,[1] including the fire of volcanoes. He is also called Mulciber ("softener") in Roman mythology and Sethlans in Etruscan mythology.
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Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. Though she is often mistaken as analogous to Hestia in Greek mythology; she had a large, albeit mysterious role in Roman religion long before she appeared in Greece.
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Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. Her name derives from the Proto-Indo-European root "ker", meaning "to grow", which is also the root for the words "create" and "increase".
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Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. She was the consort of Vulcan. She was considered the ancestor of the Roman people by way of its legendary founder, Aeneas, and played a key
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Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind, as modern depictions of Justice are seen, and came to represent the capriciousness of life.
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Lares (pl.) (also called Genii loci or, more archaically, Lases) were ancient Roman deities protecting the house and the family - household gods. See also Genius, Larvae, Di Penates, Manes.
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Please [ edit this article], according to the fiction guidelines, to meet Wikipedia's . (talk, )

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Ancient Roman religion combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. The Romans originally followed a rural animistic tradition, in which many spirits were each responsible for specific, limited aspects of the cosmos and human activities,
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flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion. There were fifteen flamines in the Roman Republic. The most important three were the flamines maiores
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Roman mythology was strongly influenced by Greek mythology and Etruscan mythology. The following is a list of most credited cult equivalences between the respective systems. Note however that many mythographers dismiss both the equivalences made in ancient times and those proposed by
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In Roman mythology, the Di Penates or briefly Penates were originally patron gods (really geniuses) of the storeroom, later becoming household gods guarding the entire household. They were related to the Lares, Genii and Larvae. Penates are referred to in Propertius (iv.i).
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larvae or lemures (singular lemur) were the spectres or spirits of the dead; they were the malignant version of the lares. Some Roman writers describe lemures
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In Roman mythology, every man had a genius and every woman a juno (Juno was also the name of the queen of the gods).

Originally, the genii and junones were ancestors who guarded over their descendants.
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larvae or lemures (singular lemur) were the spectres or spirits of the dead; they were the malignant version of the lares. Some Roman writers describe lemures
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In Roman religion, Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers; his name was the Latin word for such a marker. Sacrifices were performed to sanctify each boundary stone, and landowners celebrated a festival called the Terminalia
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Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. One part, largely later and literary, consists of whole-cloth borrowings from Greek mythology.
..... Click the link for more information.
Lares (pl.) (also called Genii loci or, more archaically, Lases) were ancient Roman deities protecting the house and the family - household gods. See also Genius, Larvae, Di Penates, Manes.
..... Click the link for more information.
In Roman mythology, every man had a genius and every woman a juno (Juno was also the name of the queen of the gods).

Originally, the genii and junones were ancestors who guarded over their descendants.
..... Click the link for more information.
In Roman mythology, the Di Penates or briefly Penates were originally patron gods (really geniuses) of the storeroom, later becoming household gods guarding the entire household. They were related to the Lares, Genii and Larvae. Penates are referred to in Propertius (iv.i).
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Parentalia. Roman festival for honoring one's dead parents. Families gathered among the tombs of loved ones and made offerings or sacrifices of grain and wine to their souls.
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Feralia was a Roman feast honoring the "infernal powers". It typically fell on February 22 and was the last day of the Parentalia, a week-long festival that honored the dead. The Feralia was also a religious holiday sacred to Jupiter, whose surname was Feretrius.
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Hades (from Greek Άδης, Hadēs, originally Άιδης, Haidēs or Άΐδης
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Gladiators (Latin: gladiatōrēs, "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword," from gladius, "sword") were professional fighters in ancient Rome who fought against each other, wild animals, and condemned criminals, sometimes to the death, for the entertainment
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Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero around age 60, from an ancient marble bust
Born: January 3, 106 BC
Arpinum, Italy
Died: December 7, 43 BC
Formia, Italy
Occupation: Politician, lawyer, orator and philosopher
Nationality: Ancient Roman
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