Total population

Regions with significant populations
All over Tamilnadu
Related ethnic groups
Tamil people

Mukkulathor or Mukulathaar (Tamil: முக்குலத்தோர்) is used to refer to the trinity of ancient royal lineages. It can be roughly translated as "people of the three clans", a reference to the three aristocratic clans (Kallar, Maravar and Agamudayar) which have supplied the Tamil country with most of its royal dynasties and warriors. Mukkalathors are reverently addressed to as "Thevars," meaning "Great Lord" by other Tamils.


The Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar communities constitute the Kshatriya or warrior class of TamilNadu, South India. They are all believed to have originated from an ancient people called kalabhrar.


Kallar (Tamil: கள்ளர்) is one of the three communities which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy.European eyewitnesses of the 18th century have made mention of Kallars as "a fearless tribe show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". They were expert soldiers and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.

One of the principal weapons of the Kallars is the boomerang. This has evoked comparisons with the Australian aborigines and vouch for the theory that Kallars were one of the earliest people to inhabit the Indian subcontinent. The principal occupation of Kallars is farming.

Kallars are found largely in Madurai, Sivagangai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu. One of their popular deities is Kallazhagar who is a warrior form of Lord Thirumala or Venkadavan.

There are various sub-castes of Kallars amongst whom the Ambalakkaarar are the most important.They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. They were a warklike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are highly conservative and have preserved their customs and traditions to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century B.C. They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.

It is believed that the Maravar people, the Agamudayars, Thanjai Cholarkula Kalla Nattars, Pandiya Vellalars, Chola Vellalars, Chera Vellalar, Vellala Mudaliyars, Agamudaya Mudaliars and Udayars have all descended from Kallars.

Freedom fighter Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar and thespian Sivaji Ganesan are prominent invidiuals from the Kallar community.


Maravar (Tamil: மரவர்), are one of the earliest social groups to be mentioned by the Sangam Tamil literature, thus indicating an age old association with Tamil lands of at least 2,000 years. They are mentioned by the authors as part of the landscape beyond settled life in cities in the ancient Tamilakam. Maravar means, in Tamil, a warrior. Maravars are the courageous breed and were involved in the major wars that Tamilnadu witnessed.

Other historians postulate that Maravar is derived from Tamil language term Marutham for a kind of place (called as Thinnai). They originally lived in (See Ancient Tamil country). The name of the city Madurai is also postulated to be derived from Maruthai and honorific title of local Pandya kings.

Important members of the Maravar community include Tamil actor Muthuraman


Also known as Agam Padaiyar or defending soldiers (or in pure Tamil, Agam udayar means: Agam - prestige, Udayar - having) indicating a specialization as soldiers/Rulers. Agam can also be compared with heart, (as in "Agathin Azhagu Mugathil Theriyum"), and can be interepreted as, people with a good heart. Although their name is attested later in literature, they and the culture is indigenous to the area and are ancient in origins. Thevars of ramanthapuram district are given the title Servai.

Some believe these castes formed as part of military formation of Kallap-Padai or hustlers, Marap-Padai or soldiers and Agap-Padai or defenders, although no evidence has been put forward towards this theory.

"Kallar, Maravar, Ganathathore Agamudayar.


Legends of the British Era

Maruthu Pandiyar brothers-Chinna maruthu,Periya maruthu are the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They are natives of the Kongulu street of Ramnad. The Marudu brothers with 12,000 armed men surrounded Sivaganga and plundered the Nawab's territories. The Nawab on the 10th of March 1789 appealed to the Madras Council for aid. On 29 April 1789, the British forces attacked Kollangudi. It was defeated by a large body of Marudu's troops. He was in close association with Veera Pandiya Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi. Kattabomman held frequent consultations with the Marudus.

Pooli Thevar is another legend in Thirunelveli district of Southern Tamilnadu who fought the British during the 1755 and is the first king who fought and defeated the British in India. In several wars before, he was defeated by British forces in collaboration with the Travancore forces.

Padal Vellaiya Devan is the important legend in Thirunelveli district of southern tamilnadu who fought the British with Kattabomman. His son Desakaval Senbaga Devar was also a legend.

Queen Velu Nachiyar, Queen of Sivaganga, from Ramanadhapuram district of Southern Tamilnadu is another noted personality who fought with the British during early British Era.

Association with the Very First Humankinds

Dr Spencer Wells and Dr Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Piramalai Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. From this it is clear that the Piramalai Kallar can be said to be the longest living sect in India and one of the oldest in the world. Yet, this is an isolated case found only among the piramalai kallar sub-caste. Thus it is one another example from the Indian community to be a generous (by absorbing in) but disciplined (by keeping out as a sub-sect) society.

The last significant theory

The above theories (of non-native) come under severe blow because of following reason. If any of the Mukkulathor sub-castes had a different origin with different cultural/lingual/physical identity, it would have sure reflected in today’s social formation of Tamil Nadu. Instead, their significant role towards the Tamil as a language and community prove them to be a native sect like others.

So the less known theory that they might be the last (but late) sect moved from the common origin (such like of a civilization) gets more substance here. Later, it might have taken centuries together for recognition and assimilation of them as one another sect.


The surnames being used by the thevar people are ambalakarar, servai, vandaiyar, thalaivar, nattaar (not nadar), etc. Women use the title Nachiyaar and it is a general practice in Southern Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar".


They are Tamils and were traditionally Hindus while some had become Christians. Today they constitute a significant part of Tamil community in India, Sri Lanka, and among the Tamil diaspora around the world.

In Inscriptions

Inscription, from 1655, records an accord between the Sthanathar, the Chetti merchant community, and the Nattar to contribute fifty Kalanju of gold to the Elunattu Mutt at Chidambaram. Link

Current Status

Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, many have also progressed up the social ladder as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are serving the nation as military men. Large number of people serving the tamilnadu police department.

The code of suicide by warriors or maravars in ancient tamilnadu

Avippali, Thannai, Verttal, Vallan pakkam, Pun Kilithu Mudiyum Maram and Marakkanchi: the forms of martial suicide and suicidal battle of the warrior as the ultimate expression of his loyalty to his commander. These six forms of martial suicide are defined as described by the works referred to above.

Pulla Vazhkai Vallan Pakkam – the martial attitude of the warrior who goes forth into suicidal battle is mentioned by Tholkappiyam. The other works refer to it as Thannai Verttal. Duarte Barbosa describes the practice among the Nayar (of the Chera kingdom). It was later noticed by British officials as well. It was also prevalent among the Maravar (of the Pandya kingdom) from whom the suicidal Aapathhuthavi bodyguard was selected. Thannai Verttal also refers to the suicide of a warrior on hearing that his king or commander has died (Purapporul Venpa Malai). Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram is the martial act of a warrior who commits suicide by tearing apart his battle wound.

Another form of martial suicide mentioned by all the works except Veera soliyam, is Avippali. Tamil inscriptions speak of it as Navakandam. Inscriptions found in many parts of Tamilnadu provide greater information on the practice. Navakandam is the act of a warrior who slices his own neck to fulfil the vow made to korravai – the Tamil goddess of war – for his commanders’ victory in battle. The Kalingathu Parani(10) – a work which celebrates the victory of the Chola king Kulotunga and his general Thondaman in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail. “The temple of korravai is decorated with lotus flowers which bloomed when the warriors sliced their own necks”(106); “they slice the base of their necks; the severed heads are given to the goddess”(111); “when the neck is sliced and the head is severed, the headless body jumps with joy for having fulfilled the vow”(113).

The epics of Chilapadikaram (5: 79-86) and Manimekalai (6: 50-51) mention the practice. To ensure the complete severing of the head, the warrior tied his hair to a bamboo bent taut before he cut his neck. Hero stones depicting this practice are found all over Tamil Nadu, and are called Saavan Kallu by locals. The warriors who thus committed suicide were not only deified in hero stones (saavan kallu) and worshipped but their relatives were given lands which were exempted from tax(11).

An area handbook (Tharamangalam) of the Tamilnadu archeology department notes that “the Nava Kandam sculpture which is found widely all over Kongu Nadu (Coimbatore, Salem) is to be seen at the Tharamangalam Kailasanathar kovil also. The people call it Saavan Kallu. “The practice of Nava Kandam existed in Kongu Nadu till the early part of this [i.e., 20th] century.”(12)

A Saavan Kallu at Thenkarai Moolanatha sami Kovil in Madurai, depicting the act of a warrior holding his hair with his left hand and slicing his neck with his right – 14th century – is said to be annually worshipped by the Conjeevaram Mudaliyars.(13) The Conjeevaram Mudaliyars are Kaikolar, a presentday weaving caste which was militarized under the Chola empire and was made into a special military body; there are indications that Kaikolar warriors practiced Nava Kandam(14).

Apart from these codified forms of martial suicide, a method called Vadakkiruththal is mentioned in Tamil heroic poetry. It is the act of a warrior king fasting to death, if some dire dishonour were to come upon him(15). The Tamil teacher, and the Dravidian propagandist, turned the song of the legendary Chera king Irumborai who committed suicide when he was taken captive by his enemies into a compelling theme in Tamil renaissance.

The Avippali form of martial suicide as the ultimate expression of loyalty to one’s commander, is deeply embedded in the Tamil psyche. Senchorru-kadan (the debt of red rice) is a phrase that is widely used today by Tamils as an expression of loyalty. One frequently hears of it in a popular Tamil song. The phrase sands for the ritual of partaking of rice by which Maravar and other Tamil military caste warriors bound themselves to their king or commander to die in suicidal battle for him, or to commit suicide on the day he was slain. Of Avippali, the Puraporul Venba Malai ([verse] 92) says, “thinking of nothing but the red (blood) rice the Maravar give their life as offering in battle.”

The ritual of red or blood rice was described by two Muslim travellers who had visited the Tamil country in the 9th century. “A quantity of cooked rice was spread before the king, and some three or four hundred persons came of their own accord and received each a small quantity of rice from the king’s own hands, after he himself had eaten some. By eating of this rice, they all engage themselvesto burn themselves on the day the king dies or is slain; and they punctually fulfill their promise.”(16) In modern times it has been observed that “when a Maravar takes food in the house of a stranger, he will take a pinch of earth and put it on the food before he commences his meal.”(17) This act freed him from the debt of blood rice.[1]

Some also committed suicide by eating bricks.

Other version

Kallar, Maravar, Agamudaiyar basically are the Pandiya and chola caste who ruled the pandiya nadu and chola nadu.

Kallar mainly lived and are still populas on the northern pandian territory or Thanjavur, Thiruchirappalli, Dindugal, Madurai districts.

Agamudaiyar formed the police force and did security jobs. They bascially stood guard for Temple, Farm lands, Nadan hamlets. They are called servai in Thirunalveli, Thoothukudi districts. Maruthu Sagothararkal are marked for their guard of Kalayar koil against the war with British. They are scaterd all thro Pandiyan Territory mainly to all temple cities.

Maravar are brave warriors who met head-on. They lived and are still populas on the northern Pandian Territory next to Kallar belt in the districts of Ramnad, Madurai, Raja Palayam, Thirunelveli. They shared the ruling titles of Pandiyans for their bravery. Raja of Ramnad is the fact for this.

When the pandian suffered defeat at the hands of Nayaks and Muslims of Vijayanagar Empire, These 3 castes stood guard and gave their life in protecting the assets of Madurai Meenakshi temple and its chain of temples down south. They retained the pandian control and still are dominant in the southern pandiyan districts of Tamilnadu.

List of Prominent Mukkulathors

Enlarge picture
U.(Pasumpon) Muthuramalinga Thevar, one of the icons of the Freedom Movement, is credited with unifying the Kallars,Maravars and Agamudayars and reforming the Mukkulathor social system


  • Most Pandiya kings (e.g., Nedunchezhiyan)
  • Most Chola kings (e.g., Rajaraja Chola)
  • Vaalukku Veli Pandiya King
  • Sethupathis of Ramnad
  • Earlier Chera Kings
  • Thondaimans of Pudhukottai
  • Charubala Thondaiman of Pudukottai
  • Maduranthaki Nachiar of Sivagangai
  • Duraichi of Nerkattum saeval
  • Sivagnana Pandian of Sayalgudi

Writers and Journalists

  • Elangovadigal
  • Arunmozhi thevar
  • Nakkeera thevar
  • Meikanda thevar
  • Thiruthhakka thevar
  • Pandithurai thevar - founder of 4th Tamil sangam
  • Pulavar Na. Mu. Venkadasamy Nattar - Tamil language & History Researcher
  • Devaneya Paavanar - Tamil Scholar & Researcher

Freedom Fighters

Politicians and Administrators

  • Late Ayyanan Ambalam, Leader of Forward Block Party
  • Nallakannu, Communist leader
  • Sasivarna thevar
  • P. Rathinavelu Thevar,Tiruchi Municipality Chairman 1924-46
  • Pon. Muthuramalingam, B.A, B.L, Ex-Minister.
  • T.R.Baalu, Honorable Minister for Shipping and Road transport of India
  • Tha. Pandiyan, Communist leader
  • S. S. Palanimanickam, Minister for finance, India
  • K.C.Mani Minister for Cooperation, TN
  • I.Periyasamy, Minister of Law, TN
  • Thangam Then Arasu, B.E., Minister of school Education, TN
  • Suba. Thangavel, Housing minister, TN
  • Sathyamoorthy, Former Minister for Commercial Taxes, TN
  • Former speaker K.Kalimuthu
  • T.Kiruttinan - Ex-Minister & MLA
  • Thiru S.D.Somasundaram {former revenue minister(1991-1996)}
  • Former Speaker Sedapatti Muthiah
  • Karupasaami pandian M.L.A
  • Natarajan, Sasikala Natarajan
  • O.Panneer Selvam, Former Chief minister of TN
  • L.Ganesan BA, BL, MP, Ex MLA, Senior Leader MDMK
  • MR.Thangapandian Ex-minister
  • N.Nainar Nagendran M.A
  • V.Karupasamy Pandian M.L.A
  • R.Avudaiyappan B.L., M.L.A
  • N.MalaiRaja M.A., M.L.A
  • Rama. Subhuramaniyam B.Sc, M.L.A
  • Thiruvadanai KR.Ramaswamy M.L.A
  • T.T.V. Dinkaran, M.P.,
  • Dr. N. Sethuraman, MMK, Founder of Meenakshi mission hospital, Madurai
  • Sridhar Vandaiyar, Mooventhar Munnettra Kazhagam
  • M. Anbalagan B.A., Deputy Mayor, Trichy, Senior Party Leader DMK
  • Smt. Charubala thondaiman, Mayor, Trichy
  • P.M.Mannan, Deputy Mayor, Madurai
  • K.Muthu RamaLingam, Deputy mayor, Nellai
  • A.Tharmalingam Ex-M.L.A
  • S.Thirunavukkarasan M.P
  • Atthani S.Kalaimugan
  • M.S.K. Satyendran (Ex-MLA, Ramnad )
  • Late M.S.K Rajenthiran (Ex-MLA, Ramnad)
  • M. S. K. Bhavani Rajenthiran, (M.P, Ramnad)
  • N. Sivanesan, I.A.S
  • U.Subramanian, I.A.S
  • Sivasubramanian, I.A.S
  • N Balachandran, I.A.S
  • Justice RathnaVel Pandian, Supreme court Judge and Chairman of V pay commission
  • Pon Paramaguru, I.P.S
  • Aiyyar, I.A.S
  • Periyaiya, I.P.S
  • Arumugam, I.A.S
  • Justice R.Gurusamy, Former TNPSC member
  • S.N.Karupanan, I.A.S
  • A.N.Dhyaneswaran, I.A.S
  • Velladurai, Encounter specialist
  • Malaichamy, I.A.S, also served as State Election commission officer in India.
  • Palanichamy, Tamil Nadu State Election Commissioner
  • Rajendran, I.A.S, Tamil Development, Hindu Religious and culture & Information public relation
  • SenthamaraiKanan, IPS
  • E.Masanamuthu, S.P
  • K.Palanichamy, ADSP, Tiruvallur
  • Sankara Vadivelu, IRS, Customs & C.Excise
  • Chandra Bose, DC
  • Pon Manickavel, S.P
  • Late, Anbil Dharmalingam, Senior Minister (DMK), TN
  • Late, Anbil Poyyamozhi, M.L.A, TN

Scientists and Academicians

  • Dr. (Major) D.Raja, Former Vice-chancellor of the TN Dr.MGR Medical University
  • Dr. Ramasubramaniyam, Psychiatrist, Madurai
  • Dr. Kanagaraj, Chennai
  • Dr. Shanmuga bhaskar, Transplant surgeon, Chennai
  • Dr. N Mohandoss IMA President Thanjavur
  • Dr. V.VaradhaRajan Past IMA President Thanjavur
  • Dr. M Sundaramoorthy Dharmapuri
  • M.V.Muthuramalingam, Chairperson, Velammal groups
  • Solaimalai thevar, Ambiga groups
  • C.Shanmugarajan
  • Pundi Krishnasamy Vandaiyar, B.Tech


  • PRP groups
  • Paul Pandian, Founder of Axes Technologies
  • Avudayanikottai P.Karuppaiya


Enlarge picture
Sivaji Ganesan is universally regarded as the best character actor in Tamil cinema and grouped with amongst the best in India.
  • Late actor Sivaji Ganesan
  • Late actor P.U.Chinnappa
  • Chinnappa Thevar, Producer, Founder of Thevar films
  • Late actor R. Muthuraman
  • Actor S.S.Rajendran
  • Actress Manorama - Guinness record Holder
  • Late actor O.A.K. Thevar
  • Director Bharathiraja
  • Vairamuthu - Popular Lyricist
  • Thiru. A. Ramiah Thevar, President - Indian Film Chamber of Commerce
  • Music director Chandrabose
  • Actor Prabhu Ganesan
  • Actor and politician Karthik Muthuraman
  • Actor Vivek
  • Actor Arunpandian
  • Actor S.S. Chandran
  • Actor Vinuchakravarthy
  • Actor Rajesh
  • Actor Senthil
  • Actor Sangili murugan
  • Actor Chandrasekar
  • Actor Manoj bharathiraja
  • Actor Periyakaruppu thevar
  • Director Manivannan
  • Director Bala
  • Director Seeman
  • Director, actor S.J. Suryah
  • Director Perarasu
  • Director Kathir
  • Director Simbu thevan
  • Director T.P. Singampuli
  • Director T.P.Gajendran
  • Director Krishna
  • SFX Director Trotsky Marudu
  • Painter Pugalendi
  • Director Viji


See also

External links

Bold text
Coordinates: city

Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு pronunciation  
..... Click the link for more information.
Writing system: Vatteluttu 
Official status
Official language of:  India,[4][5]

The template is . Please use instead.
This usage is deprecated. Please replace it with .

..... Click the link for more information.
Hinduism (known as Hindū Dharma in modern Indian languages[1]
..... Click the link for more information.
Tamils  • Telugus  • Tuluvas  • Gonds

Tamil people
..... Click the link for more information.

Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Old Testament New Testament
Books Canon Apocrypha
..... Click the link for more information.
Mukkulathor or Mukulathaar (Tamil: முக்குலத்தோர்) is used to refer to the trinity of ancient royal lineages.
..... Click the link for more information.
Mukkulathor or Mukulathaar (Tamil: முக்குலத்தோர்) is used to refer to the trinity of ancient royal lineages.
..... Click the link for more information.
Maravar may refer to:
  • Maravar (meaning "veerar",upper caste), one of the earliest social groups to be mentioned by the Sangam Tamil literature
  • The Battle of Maravar Pass, an operation during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.

..... Click the link for more information.
Mukkulathor or Mukulathaar (Tamil: முக்குலத்தோர்) is used to refer to the trinity of ancient royal lineages.
..... Click the link for more information.

..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: city

Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு pronunciation  
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
Kalabhras were a South Indian dynasty that ruled over the entire Tamil country between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E., displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. Information about their origin and details about their reign is scarce.
..... Click the link for more information.
Occupation usually refers to:
  • Employment, a person's job or work in service of an employer
  • Profession, an occupation requiring specialized knowledge
  • Vocation, an occupation pursued more for altruistic benefit than for income

..... Click the link for more information.
Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager ("a field"), and culture, from the Latin cultura "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil". A literal reading of the English word yields "tillage of the soil of a field".
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: Madurai pronunciation   (Tamil: மதுரை
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: Sivaganga, also known as Sivagangai, is a city and a municipality in Sivaganga district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Sivaganga district.
..... Click the link for more information.
Thanjavur (Tamil : தஞ்சாவூர்), also known by its anglicised name Tanjore, is a city and a municipality in Thanjavur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is also the capital of the Thanjavur District.
..... Click the link for more information.

Tiruchirappalli (Tamil : திருச்சிராப்பள்ளி) pronunciation
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: city Theni is a Business Center in Western Tamil Nadu of southern India. It is the headquarters of Theni District. It is known for the large scale trading of Cardamom, cotton, chilli and textiles.
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: Ramanathapuram pronunciation  , also known as Ramnad
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: city

Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு pronunciation  
..... Click the link for more information.
U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, also known as Pasumpon Muthuramalingam Thevar (October 30, 1908 – October 30, 1963) was an Indian politician. He hailed from the Maravar community, the dominant warrior caste group in his home district in southern Tamil Nadu.
..... Click the link for more information.
Thespian may refer to:
  • A citizen of the ancient Greek city of Thespiae
  • An actor; this usage is derived from Thespis of Icaria, the legendary first actor.
  • A member of the International Thespian Society, an honor society that promotes excellence in high school theatre.

..... Click the link for more information.
Sivaji Ganesan

Birth name Villupuram Chinnaiahpillai Ganesan
Born July 1 1927(1927--)
Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India
Died July 21 2001 (aged 74)

Sivaji Ganesan
..... Click the link for more information.

Sangams were Tamil academies, which according to Tamil legends, enabled poets and authors to gather periodically to publish their work.[1].
..... Click the link for more information.
Tamiḻakam (Tamil தமிழகம்) is a Tamil word meaning the Tamil country or the Tamil home. The term was first used in the Purananuru 168.18 as "Thamizhakam".
..... Click the link for more information.
The ancient Tamil country, also known as Tamilakam, refers to the ancient region in South India,[1] corresponding roughly to present-day Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: Madurai pronunciation   (Tamil: மதுரை
..... Click the link for more information.
The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu & Chinna Maruthu) ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu during the last part of the 18th century and they were the first to issue a proclamation of independence from the British rule from Trichy Thiruvarangam Temple, Tamil Nadu on June
..... Click the link for more information.

This article is copied from an article on - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.