Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

Agrippa redirects here. For other uses of the name, see Agrippa (disambiguation).
Roman imperial dynasties
Julio-Claudian dynasty

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Augustus
Children
   Natural - Julia the Elder
   Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
Tiberius
Children
   Natural - Julius Caesar Drusus
   Adoptive - Germanicus
Caligula
Children
   Natural - Julia Drusilla
   Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
Claudius
Children
   Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
   Adoptive - Nero
Nero
Children
   Natural - Claudia Augusta
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. 63 BC12 BC) was a Roman statesman and general. He was a close friend, son-in-law, lieutenant and minister to Octavian, the future emperor Caesar Augustus. He was responsible for most of Octavian’s military triumphs, most notably winning the naval Battle of Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt.

Early life

Agrippa was born in 64–62 BC[1] in an uncertain location.[2] His father was Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa. He had an elder brother whose name was also Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, and a sister named Vipsania Polla. The family were sufficiently wealthy to hold equestrian rank, but had not been prominent in Roman public life.[3] However, Agrippa was about the same age as Octavius (the future emperor Augustus), and the two were educated together and became close friends. Despite Agrippa's association with the family of Julius Caesar, his elder brother chose another side in the civil wars of the 40s BC, fighting under Cato against Caesar in Africa. When Cato's forces were defeated, Agrippa's brother was taken prisoner but freed after Octavius interceded on his behalf.[4]

It is not known whether Agrippa fought against his brother in Africa, but he probably served in Caesar's campaign of 46–45 BC against Gnaeus Pompeius, which culminated in the Battle of Munda.[5] At any rate, Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study in Apollonia with the Macedonian legions, while Caesar consolidated his power in Rome.[6] It was in the fourth month of their stay in Apollonia that the news of Julius Caesar's assassination in March 44 BC reached them. Despite the advice of Agrippa and another friend, Quintus Salvidienus Rufus, that he march on Rome with the troops from Macedonia, Octavius decided to sail to Italy with a small retinue. After his arrival, he learnt that Caesar had adopted him as his legal heir.[7] (Octavius now took over Caesar's name, but is referred to by modern historians as "Octavian" during this period.)

Rise in power

After Octavian's return to Rome, he and his supporters realized they needed the support of legions. Agrippa helped Octavian to levy troops in Campania.[8] Once Octavian had his legions, he made a pact with Mark Antony and Lepidus, legally established in 43 BC as the Second Triumvirate. Octavian and his consular colleague Quintus Pedius arranged for Caesar's assassins to be prosecuted in their absence, and Agrippa was entrusted with the case against Gaius Cassius Longinus.[9] It may have been in the same year that Agrippa began his political career, holding the position of Tribune of the Plebs, which granted him entry to the Senate.[10]

In 42 BC, Agrippa probably fought alongside Octavian and Antony in the Battle of Philippi.[11] After their return to Rome, he played a major role in Octavian's war against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia Antonia, respectively the brother and wife of Mark Antony, which began in 41 BC and ended in the capture of Perusia in 40 BC. However, Salvidienus remained Octavian's main general at this time.[12] After the Perusine war, Octavian departed for Gaul, leaving Agrippa as urban praetor in Rome with instructions to defend Italy against Sextus Pompeius, an opponent of the Triumvirate who was now occupying Sicily. In July 40, while Agrippa was occupied with the Ludi Apollinares that were the praetor's responsibility, Sextus began a raid in southern Italy. Agrippa advanced on him, forcing him to withdraw.[13] However, the Triumvirate proved unstable, and in August 40 Antony sided with Sextus in a joint invasion of Italy. Agrippa's success in retaking Sipontum from Antony helped bring an end to the conflict.[14] Agrippa was among the intermediaries through whom Antony and Octavian agreed once more upon peace. During the discussions Octavian learned that Salvidienus had offered to betray him to Antony, with the result that Salvidienus was executed or committed suicide. Agrippa was now Octavian's leading general.[15]

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Agrippa depicted in a relief of the "Altar of Peace," the Ara Pacis.
In 39 or 38 BC, Octavian appointed Agrippa governor of Transalpine Gaul, where in 38 he put down a rising of the Aquitanians. He also fought the Germanic tribes, becoming the first Roman general to cross the Rhine after Julius Caesar. He was summoned back to Rome by Octavian to assume the consulship for 37 BC. He was well below the usual minimum age of 43, but Octavian had suffered a humiliating naval defeat against Sextus Pompey and needed his friend to oversee the preparations for further warfare. Agrippa refused the offer of a triumph for his exploits in Gaul – on the grounds, says Dio, that he thought it improper to celebrate during a time of trouble for Octavian.[16] Since Sextus Pompeius had command of the sea on the coasts of Italy, Agrippa's first care was to provide a safe harbor for his ships. He accomplished this by cutting through the strips of land which separated the Lacus Lucrinus from the sea, thus forming an outer harbor, while joining the lake Avernus to the Lucrinus to serve as an inner harbor.[17] The new harbor-complex was named Portus Julius in Octavian's honour.[18] Agrippa was also responsible for technological improvements, including larger ships and an improved form of grappling hook.[19] About this time, he married Caecilia Pomponia Attica, daughter of Cicero's friend Titus Pomponius Atticus.[20]

In 36 BC Octavian and Agrippa set sail against Sextus. The fleet was badly damaged by storms and had to withdraw; Agrippa was left in charge of the second attempt. Thanks to superior technology and training, Agrippa and his men won decisive victories at Mylae and Naulochus, destroying all but seventeen of Sextus' ships and compelling most of his forces to surrender. Octavian, with his power increased, forced the triumvir Lepidus into retirement and entered Rome in triumph.[21] Agrippa received the unprecedented honor of a naval crown decorated with the beaks of ships; as Dio remarks, this was "a decoration given to nobody before or since".[22]

Life in public service

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Hadrian's Pantheon was built to Agrippa's design. It bears the legend M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT, which means Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, built during his third consulate


Agrippa participated in smaller military campaigns in 35 and 34 BC, but by the autumn of 34 he had returned to Rome.[23] He rapidly set out on a campaign of public repairs and improvements, including renovation of the aqueduct known as the Aqua Marcia and an extension of its pipes to cover more of the city. Through his actions after being elected in 33 BC as one of the aediles (officials responsible for Rome's buildings and festivals), the streets were repaired and the sewers were cleaned out, while lavish public spectacles were put on.[24] Agrippa signalized his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the Cloaca Maxima, constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens. He also gave a stimulus to the public exhibition of works of art. It was unusual for an ex-consul to hold the lower-ranking position of aedile,[25] but Agrippa's success bore out this break with tradition. As emperor, Augustus would later boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", thanks in part to the great services provided by Agrippa under his reign.

Agrippa's father-in-law Atticus, suffering from a serious illness, committed suicide in 32 BC. According to Atticus' friend and biographer Cornelius Nepos, this decision was a cause of serious grief to Agrippa.[26]

Agrippa was again called away to take command of the fleet when the war with Antony and Cleopatra broke out. He captured the strategically important city of Methone at the southwest of the Peloponnese, then sailed north, raiding the Greek coast and capturing Corcyra (modern Corfu). Octavian then brought his forces to Corcyra, occupying it as a naval base.[27] Antony drew up his ships and troops at Actium, where Octavian moved to meet him. Agrippa meanwhile defeated Antony's supporter Quintus Nasidius in a naval battle at Patrae.[28] Dio relates that as Agrippa moved to join Octavian near Actium, he encountered Gaius Sosius, one of Antony's lieutenants, who was making a surprise attack on the squadron of Lucius Tarius, a supporter of Octavian. Agrippa's unexpected arrival turned the battle around.[29]

As the decisive battle approached, according to Dio, Octavian received intelligence that Antony and Cleopatra planned to break past his naval blockade and escape. At first he wished to allow the flagships past, arguing that he could overtake them with his lighter vessels and that the other opposing ships would surrender when they saw their leaders' cowardice. Agrippa objected that Antony's ships, although larger, could outrun Octavian's if they hoisted sails, and that Octavian ought to fight now because Antony's fleet had just been struck by storms. Octavian followed his friend's advice.[30]

On September 2 31 BC, the Battle of Actium was fought. Octavian's victory, which gave him the mastery of Rome and the empire of the world, was mainly due to Agrippa.[31] As a token of signal regard, Octavian bestowed upon him the hand of his niece Claudia Marcella Major in 28 BC. He also served a second consulship with Octavian the same year. In 27 BC, Agrippa held a third consulship with Octavian, and in that year, the senate also bestowed upon Octavian the imperial title of Augustus.

In commemoration of the Battle of Actium, Agrippa built and dedicated the building that served as the Roman Pantheon before its destruction in 80. Emperor Hadrian used Agrippa's design to build his own Pantheon, which survives in Rome. The inscription of the later building, which was built around 125, preserves the text of the inscription from Agrippa's building during his third consulship. The years following his third consulship, Agrippa spent in Gaul, reforming the provincial administration and taxation system, along with building an effective road system and aqueducts.

Late life

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The theatre at Merida, Spain; it was promoted by Agrippa, built between 16 and 15 BC.
His friendship with Augustus seems to have been clouded by the jealousy of his brother-in-law Marcellus, which was probably fomented by the intrigues of Livia, the third wife of Augustus, who feared his influence over her husband. Traditionally it is said the result of such jealousy was that Agrippa left Rome, ostensibly to take over the governorship of Syria - a sort of honorable exile, but, he only sent his legate to Syria, while he himself remained at Lesbos and governed by proxy. On the death of Marcellus, which took place within a year of his exile, he was recalled to Rome by Augustus, who found he could not dispense with his services. However, if one places the events in the context of the crisis in 23 BC it seems unlikely that, when facing significant opposition and about to make a major political climb down, the emperor Augustus would place a man in exile in charge of the largest body of Roman troops. What is far more likely is that Agrippa's 'exile' was actually the careful political positioning of a loyal lieutenant in command of a significant army as a back up plan in case the settlement plans of 23 BC failed and Augustus needed military support.

It is said that Maecenas advised Augustus to attach Agrippa still more closely to him by making him his son-in-law. He accordingly induced him to divorce Marcella and marry his daughter Julia the Elder by 21 BC, the widow of the late Marcellus, equally celebrated for her beauty, abilities, and her shameless profligacy. In 19 BC, Agrippa was employed in putting down a rising of the Cantabrians in Hispania (Cantabrian Wars). He was appointed governor of Syria a second time in 17 BC, where his just and prudent administration won him the respect and good-will of the provincials, especially from the Jewish population. Agrippa also restored effective Roman control over the Cimmerian Chersonnese (modern-day Crimea) during his governorship.

Agrippa’s last public service was his beginning of the conquest of the upper Danube River region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. He died at Campania in March of 12 BC at the age of 51. His posthumous son, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, was named in his honor. Augustus honored his memory by a magnificent funeral and spent over a month in mourning. Augustus personally oversaw all of Agrippa's children’s educations and even adopted Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar. It is believed that he did not initially adopt his youngest son, Agrippa Postumus, so that his old friend would have a son to carry on the family name; after Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar had died, Augustus adopted Agrippa Postumus as well.

Legacy

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The Maison Carrée at Nîmes, modern France, built in 19 BC; Agrippa was its patron.
Agrippa was also known as a writer, especially on the subject of geography. Under his supervision, Julius Caesar's dream of having a complete survey of the empire made was carried out. He constructed a circular chart, which was later engraved on marble by Augustus, and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla. Amongst his writings, an autobiography, now lost, is referred to.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, along with Gaius Maecenas and Octavian, was a central person in the establishing of the Principate system of emperors, which would govern the Roman Empire up until the Crisis of the Third Century and the birth of Dominate system. His grandson Gaius is known to history as the Emperor Caligula, and his great-grandson Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus would rule as the Emperor Nero.

Marriages and issue

Agrippa left several children;

Agrippa in popular culture

Drama

  • Marcus Agrippa, a highly fictionalised character based on Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa's early life is part of the BBC-HBO-RAI television series Rome. He is played by Allen Leech. The series creates a romantic relationship between Agrippa and Octavian's sister Octavia Minor, for which there is no historical evidence.
  • A fictionalised version of Agrippa in his later life played a prominent role in the celebrated 1976 BBC Television series I, Claudius. Agrippa was portrayed as a much older man, though he would have only been 39 years old at the time of the first episode (24/23 BC). He was played by John Paul.
  • Agrippa is one of the principal characters in the British/Italian joint project featuring flashbacks between Augustus and Julia about Agrippa, which shows him in his youth on serving in Caesar's army up until his victory at Actium and the defeat of Cleopatra. He is portrayed by Ken Duken.
  • Agrippa appears in several of the Cleopatra films. He is normally portrayed as an old man rather than a young one. Among the people to portray him are Philip Locke, Alan Rowe and Andrew Keir.
  • A comical version of Agrippa appears in Carry On Cleo.
  • In Season 3 of Babylon 5 the EAS Omega Class Destroyer leading an assault on B5 is named Agrippa.

Literature

Video Games

  • Agrippa is the co-protagonist of the PlayStation 2 game Shadow of Rome.

See also

Notes

1. ^ Dio 54.28.3 places Agrippa's death in late March of 12 BC, while Pliny the Elder 7.46 states that he died "in his fifty-first year". Depending on whether Pliny meant that Agrippa was aged 50 or 51 at his death, this gives a date of birth between March 64 and March 62. A calendar from Cyprus or Syria includes a month named after Agrippa beginning on November 1, which may reflect the month of his birth. See Reinhold, pp. 2–4; Roddaz, pp. 23–26.
2. ^ Reinhold, p. 9; Roddaz, p. 23.
3. ^ Velleius Paterculus 2.96, 127.
4. ^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 7.
5. ^ Reinhold, pp. 13–14.
6. ^ Suetonius, Life of Augustus 94.12.
7. ^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 16–17; Velleius Paterculus 2.59.5.
8. ^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 31. It has been speculated that Agrippa was among the negotiators who won over Antony's Macedonian legions to Octavian, but there is no direct evidence for this; see Reinhold, p. 16.
9. ^ Velleius Paterculus 2.69.5; Plutarch, Life of Brutus 27.4.
10. ^ Mentioned only by Servius auctus on Virgil, Aeneid 8.682, but a necessary preliminary to his position as urban praetor in 40 BC. Roddaz (p. 41) favours the 43 BC date.
11. ^ Pliny the Elder 7.148 cites him as an authority for Octavian's illness on the occasion.
12. ^ Reinhold, pp. 17–20.
13. ^ Dio 48.20; Reinhold, p. 22.
14. ^ Dio 48.28; Reinhold, p. 23.
15. ^ Reinhold, pp. 23–24.
16. ^ Dio 48.49; Reinhold, pp. 25–29. Agrippa's youth is noted by Lendering, "From Philippi to Actium".
17. ^ Reinhold, pp. 29–32.
18. ^ Suetonius, Life of Augustus 16.1.
19. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 2.106, 118–119; Reinhold, pp. 33–35.
20. ^ Reinhold, pp. 35–37.
21. ^ Reinhold, pp. 37–42.
22. ^ Dio 49.14.3.
23. ^ Reinhold, pp. 45–47.
24. ^ Dio 49.42–43.
25. ^ Lendering, "From Philippi to Actium".
26. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Life of Atticus 21–22.
27. ^ Orosius, History Against the Pagans 6.19.6–7; Dio 50.11.1–12.3; Reinhold, pp. 53–54.
28. ^ Dio 50.13.5.
29. ^ Dio 50.14.1–2; cf. Velleius Paterculus 2.84.2 ("Agrippa ... before the final conflict had twice defeated the fleet of the enemy"). Dio is wrong to say that Sosius was killed, since he in fact fought at and survived the Battle of Actium (Reinhold, p. 54 n. 14; Roddaz, p. 163 n. 140).
30. ^ Dio 50.31.1–3.
31. ^ Reinhold, pp. 57–58; Roddaz, pp. 178–181.

References

  • Lendering, Jona. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Livius. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  • Metello, Manuel Dejante Pinto de Magalhães Arnao; and João Carlos Metello de Nápoles (1998). Metellos de Portugal, Brasil e Roma (in Portuguese). Lisboa: Edição Nova Arrancada. ISBN 9728369182. 
  • Reinhold, Meyer (1933). Marcus Agrippa: A Biography. Geneva: W. F. Humphrey Press. 
  • Roddaz, Jean-Michel (1984). Marcus Agrippa (in French). Rome: École Française de Rome. ISBN 2-7283-0000-0. 

Further reading

Preceded by
Appius Claudius Pulcher and Gaius Norbanus Flaccus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Lucius Caninius Gallus
37 BC
Succeeded by
Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Lucius Gellius Publicola
Preceded by
Augustus and Sextus Appuleius
Consul of the Roman Empire
with Augustus
28 BC - 27 BC
Succeeded by
Augustus and Titus Statilius Taurus
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63–12 BC) was a Roman statesman and general, friend of Caesar Augustus.

Agrippa may also refer to:

His three sons:
  • Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa (20 BC–AD 4; also known Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus).

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The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. They ruled the Roman Empire from 27 BC to AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
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Augustus Caesar
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Reign January 16 27 BC – August 19 AD 14
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
Born September 23, 63 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died August 19, AD 14 (age 76)
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Julia the Elder (October 39 BC - 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or
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See also Gaius Julius Caesar, for others of the same name.
Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder.[1].
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Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was born with the name Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa
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Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus (12 BC-14), also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. His maternal grandparents were Roman Emperor Augustus and his second wife Scribonia.
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Tiberius
Emperor of the Roman Empire

A bust of the Emperor Tiberius
Reign AD 14–AD 37
Full name Tiberius Caesar Augustus
(born Tiberius Claudius Nero)
Born November 16, 42 BC
Rome
Died
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Tiberius
Emperor of the Roman Empire

A bust of the Emperor Tiberius
Reign AD 14–AD 37
Full name Tiberius Caesar Augustus
(born Tiberius Claudius Nero)
Born November 16, 42 BC
Rome
Died
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Tiberius Drusus Claudius Julius Caesar Nero or Julius Caesar Drusus or Drusus Julius Caesar (his adoption name) (13 BC-September 14 23), was the only son of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina.
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Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. He was called either Nero Claudius Drusus or Tiberius Claudius Nero at birth and received the agnomen "Germanicus"
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Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of Emperor Caligula in the Louvre
Reign 37–41
(Consul from 39)
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Born
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Julia Drusilla (Classical Latin: IVLIA•DRVSILLA [1]) (39-41) was the only child and daughter of Roman Emperor Gaius (Caligula) and his fourth and last wife Caesonia.
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Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning "the twin".
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Claudius
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Reign January 24 41–October 13 54
Full name Tiberius Claudius Caesar
Augustus Germanicus (Britannicus AD44)
Born August 1 10 BC
Lugdunum
Died September 13 54 (age 64)

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(Claudia) Antonia (Classical Latin: ANTONIA•CLAUDII•CAESARIS•FILIA [1]) (ca. 30–66) was the daughter of the later Roman Emperor Claudius from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina.
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Claudia Octavia or Octavia Neronis (Classical Latin: CLAVDIA•OCTAVIA [1]) (Late 39 or early 40-9 June 62) was a Roman Empress, step-sister and first wife to Roman Emperor Nero.
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Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (February 12,41 - February 11,55) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. He became the heir-designate of the empire at his birth, less than a month into his father's reign.
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Nero
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Nero at Glyptothek, Munich
Reign October 13, 54 – June 9, 68
(Proconsul from 51)
Full name Nero Claudius Caesar
Augustus Germanicus
Born November 15 37
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Nero
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Nero at Glyptothek, Munich
Reign October 13, 54 – June 9, 68
(Proconsul from 51)
Full name Nero Claudius Caesar
Augustus Germanicus
Born November 15 37
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Claudia Augusta (PIR2 C 1061) was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Roman Empress Poppaea Sabina. She was born in Antium on 21 January 63.

Nero honored Claudia and her mother with the title of Augusta.
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Circa (often abbreviated c., ca., ca or cca. and sometimes italicized to show it is Latin) literally means "about" or "around". It is widely used in genealogy and historical writing, when the dates of events are approximately known.
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1st century BC - 1st century
90s BC  80s BC  70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC  40s BC  30s BC 
66 BC 65 BC 64 BC - 63 BC - 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC

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1st century BC - 1st century
40s BC  30s BC  20s BC - 10s BC - 0s BC  0s  10s 
15 BC 14 BC 13 BC - 12 BC - 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
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Augustus Caesar
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Reign January 16 27 BC – August 19 AD 14
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
Born September 23, 63 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died August 19, AD 14 (age 76)
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Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and those of Mark Antony. It was fought on September 2, 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the Roman colony of Actium in Greece.
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Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N [1]) (c. January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general.
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Cleopatra Selene Philopator
Queen of Egypt

Coin of Cleopatra VII, depicting Cleopatra in profile.
Reign 51 BC–12 August 30 BC
Ptolemy XIII (51 BC–47 BC)
Ptolemy XIV (47 BC–44 BC)
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Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa is the father of another Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, Roman Politician and General Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and distinguished Roman woman Vipsania Polla.
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Vipsania Polla was the daughter of Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, (a man of equestrian rank) and sister to another Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa and Roman General and Politician Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
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