Maryland Constitution of 1864



The Maryland Constitution of 1864 was the third of the four constitutions which have governed the U.S. state of Maryland. A controversial product of the Civil War and in effect only until 1867, when the state's present constitution was adopted, the 1864 document was short-lived.

Drafting

The 1864 constitution was largely the product of strong Unionists, who had control of the state at the time. The document outlawed slavery, disenfranchised southern sympathizers, and reapportioned the General Assembly based upon white inhabitants. This provision further diminished the power of the small counties where the majority of the state's large former slave population lived. One of the framers' goals was to reduce the influence of Southern sympathizers, who had almost caused the state to secede in 1861.

Ratification

The convention which drafted the document convened on April 27, 1864 and completed their work by September 6. The constitution was then submitted to the people for ratification on October 13, 1864. It was and was approved by a vote of 30,174 to 29,799 (50.31% to 49.69%). This was a very controversial result, since the state, though part of the Union, still had many Confederate ties and sympathies. The tally of those voting at their usual polling places was opposed to this Constitution by 29,536 to 27,541. However, the constitution secured ratification after the soldiers' votes were tallied. Soldiers from Maryland serving in the Union Army were overwhelmingly in favor (2,633 to 263).

Notable features

By design, the constitution disenfranchised those Marylanders who had left the state to fight for or live in the Confederacy or who had given it "any aid, comfort, countenace, or support." It also made it difficult for them to regain the full rights of citizenship and required office-holders to take a new oath of allegiance to support the state and union and to repudiate the rebellion.

Furthermore, the influence of the small counties which had large slave populations, and tended to have supported secession and to have opposed union efforts during the war, was reduced by basing representation solely on white population. The constitution did emancipate the slaves, but this did not mean equality. The franchise was restricted to "white" males. Additionally, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans.

Maryland's 1864 constitution created for the first time the position of Lieutenant Governor. The office was held by only one person, Christopher C. Cox, until a 1971 amendment to the 1867 constitution re-created the position.

See also

References

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A constitution is a system for governance, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity. In the case of countries, this term refers specifically to a national constitution defining the fundamental political
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State of Maryland

Flag of Maryland Seal
Nickname(s): Old Line State; Free State
Motto(s): Fatti maschii, parole femine
(Manly deeds, womanly words)


Official language(s) None (English, de facto
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American Civil War (1861–1865) was a major war between the United States (the "Union") and eleven Southern slave states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis.
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1830s  1840s  1850s  - 1860s -  1870s  1880s  1890s
1864 1865 1866 - 1867 - 1868 1869 1870

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Constitution of Maryland, which was ratified by the people of the state on September 18, 1867, forms the basic law for the U.S. state of Maryland. It replaced the short-lived Maryland Constitution of 1864 and is the fourth constitution under which the state has been governed.
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Union was a name used to refer to the United States, the twenty-three Northern states that were not part of the seceding Confederacy.

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Because the term had been used prior to the war to refer to the entire United States (a "union of states"), using it to apply to
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The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland. It is a bicameral body. The upper chamber, the Maryland State Senate, has 47 representatives and the lower chamber, the Maryland House of Delegates, has 141 representatives.
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
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1858 1859 1860 - 1861 - 1862 1863 1864

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April 27 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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September 6 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.
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October 13 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
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1861 1862 1863 - 1864 - 1865 1866 1867

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The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) was the government formed by eleven southern states of the United States of America between 1861 and 1865.
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The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) was the government formed by eleven southern states of the United States of America between 1861 and 1865.
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counties and county-equivalents in the U.S. state of Maryland. Though an independent city rather than a county, the City of Baltimore is considered the equal of a county for most purposes and is a county-equivalent.
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United States of America

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United States of America

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United States Constitution

Original text of the Constitution
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Articles of the Constitution
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The Lieutenant Governor of Maryland is the second highest ranking official in the executive branch of the state government of Maryland in the United States. He or she is elected on the same ticket as the Governor of Maryland and must meet the same qualifications.
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Christopher C. Cox (August 26, 1816 - November 25, 1882) was a United States politician from Maryland.

Born in Baltimore, Cox was a member of the National Union Party, a coalition of the Democrat loyal to the Union and Republicans during the Civil War.
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Government of Maryland is conducted according to the Maryland Constitution. The United States is a federation; consequently, the Government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as
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history of Maryland included only Native Americans until Europeans, starting with John Cabot in 1498, began exploring the area. The first settlements came in 1645 when the English arrived in numbers of gaylord groups and created a permanent colony.
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Constitution of Maryland, which was ratified by the people of the state on September 18, 1867, forms the basic law for the U.S. state of Maryland. It replaced the short-lived Maryland Constitution of 1864 and is the fourth constitution under which the state has been governed.
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The Maryland Constitution of 1851 was the second constitution of the U.S. state of Maryland following the revolution, replacing the Constitution of 1776. The primary reason for the new constitution was a need to re-apportion Maryland's legislature, the Maryland General Assembly.
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Maryland Constitution of 1776 was the first of four constitutions under which the U.S. state of Maryland has been governed. It was that state's basic law from its adoption in 1776 until the Maryland Constitution of 1851 took effect on July 4th of that year.
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In the context of the United States of America, a state constitution is the governing document of a U.S. state, comparable to the U.S. Constitution which is the governing document of the United States.
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